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Alexandria

Egypt

Coordinates: 31° 11' 5" N, 29° 55' 9" E

 
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Belgrade (Sigindunum) [Belgradum]

Serbia

Capital of Serbia

Coordinates: 44° 48' 58.32" N, 20° 28' 53.76" E

 
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Damascus

Syria

Coordinates: 33° 30' 49" N, 36° 17' 31" E

Capital of Syria

 
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Memphis

Egypt

Coordinates: 29° 50' 40.8" N, 31° 15' 3.3" E

771 [747]

K. Hen. 7. Caierbeius. Tomoumbeius. Zelymus. Solymannus. Rhodes, Belgradum besieged.

degenerat into a turkish barbarity, or rather became wors then Turkes. This Campson vnto the messengers of the Turke gaue this aunswere againe, that vnlesse he woulde leaue of his warre against Ismael, and restore the sonne of Aladulus, otherwise he woulde not lay downe his armor.

Zelymus being incensed not a little wyth this insolent aunswere of the Sultane, leauing all other warres aside, with great celeritie aduanced hys power against the Sultane. Which Sultan partly through the falshode of his captaine Caierbeius, MarginaliaCaierbeius false to his maister. partly by the sodeinnesse of the Turkes comming, nor farre from the citie of Damascus encoūtred with the turke, and there ouerthrowne from his horse, being a fatte and grose body, and falling vnder his horse, and his horse also falling vpon him, was quashed in peces and so died, MarginaliaCampson slaine. which was the yere of our Lord. 1516.

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Mamalucie, of whome more then a M. in thys battaile were slaine, flyeng from thence to Memphis, set vp Tomoumbeius MarginaliaTomoūbeius made Sultane of Egipt. in stede of Campson: whose captaine Gazelles was ouercome at the City of Gaza, & he afterward himselfe driuen out of Memphis, where a great part of the Mamaluci were destroyed. Then Tomoumbeius flying ouer the floud Nilus, renued his army agayne: but in the ende was discomfited and chased into a marish, where hee was found standing in the water vp to the chinne, and so being brought to Zelymus, was put to the rack and great tormentes, to make him confesse where Campsons treasures were. But when he would not declare, he was caryed about the Towne with a halter about his necke, & hanged vp vpõ a hie gibbet for a spectacle to all Egypt: MarginaliaTomoūbeius executed. which was the yeare of our Lorde. 1517. And thus were the two Sultanes in Egypt destroied with the Mamaluci, whych there had borne the rule in Egypt the space of 243. yeares. MarginaliaA worthy destruction of the Mamaluci forsaking their faith and religion.The progenie of the whych Mamaluci remaining of the warres, the Turke commaunded in pryson gates of Alexandria to be cut in peces. Zelymus frõ thence, triumphing departed to Constantinople, entending to spend the rest of his time in persecuting the Christians: MarginaliaNote againe the prouidence of God.But in that meane space he was stroken with a cankerd sore rotting inward, MarginaliaThe death of Zelymus.and died after hee had raigned 7. yeares like a beast, in the yeare of our Lord. 1520.

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The raigne of this Turke was but short in number of yeres: but in number of his murthers and cruel bloudshed it might seme exceeding long: which liued more like a beast then a mã, for he neuer spared any of hys frends or kinred. MarginaliaThe beastly crueltie of Zelymus against his kinred.His father first he poysoned, his brethren and al his cosins he quelled, leauing none of all his kinred aliue. Moreouer his chief and principal captaines for smal occasions he put to death, as Mustapha, Calogere, Chendeme, Bostãg hys sonne in law, and Iunobassa.

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MarginaliaThe cruelty of Zelymus against his sonne Solyman.It is said moreouer that he entended the poysoning of his owne sonne Solyman, sending vnto him a shirt infected wt poison, because he seemed something freely to speake against þe cruel demeanor of his father: But by the meanes of hys mother, the gifte being suspected, was geuen to an other which was his Chamberlaine, who putting on the shirt, was strucken with the poyson therof, and therewith all died.

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MarginaliaA note of Gods prouidence for the reformation of religyon.As touching thys Turke Zelymus, by the way heere may be noted how þe secret prouidēce of the Lord kept hym occupied wt hys Turkish warres at home, while that the reformation of christian religion here in Europe the same time begõ by Martin Luther, might the more quietly take some roting without disturbance or interruption. For so it appeareth by the computation of time, that in the dayes of this Zelymus, Martin Luther first began to write against the Popes indulgences, which was in the yeare of oure Lord. 1516.

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Solymannus the 12. after Ottomannus. 
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Sulieman I

While Foxe's account of the reign of Süleyman I emphasizes the same themes as his history of the reigns of previous sultans, there are two significant differences. The first is in the detail which Foxe gives to the reign (it is roughly equalto that given to all eleven of Süleyman's predecessors combined). There are a number of reasons for this extended coverage. Süleyman had a long reign (46 years) and a great deal happened within it. Although the conquests of Selim were arguably more notable, they took place in the Islamic world. Süleyman's major triumphs, the capture of Rhodes and the conquest of Hungary, were, on the other hand, directed against Europeans. Consequently, European writers devoted a good deal of attention to Süleyman's reign. Because of this attention and because Süleyman was a contemporary, Foxe was able to draw on more numerous and detailed sources for his reign. As a result, Foxe no longer relied on the necessarily brief accounts in the world chronicle of Johann Carion. Instead, apart from the occasional use of Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis, Foxe relied on the histories collected in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De orgine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556). Although Foxe pays far more attention to the military and politics in his history of theOttomans than he does elsewhere in his work, it is important to look for the ways inwhich he was able to use such 'secular' topics in relation to other incidents, to paint the Ottomans as a diabolical enemy, if not the actual Antichrist.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaSolymãnus the 12 after Ottomãnus Read in the pag. 738.SOlymannus the onely sonne of Zelymus succeded 

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The material on the failed conspiracy against Süleyman and on his capture of Belgrade is taken from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis(Basel, 1559), p. 968.

after hys fathers death, who in the first beginning seemed to some to be simple and shepish, and not mete for the turkish gouernmēt. Wherfore certain of his nobles cõsulting how to depose him, entended to set vp an other Emperour. In which conspiracy, especially are named Caierbeius & Gazelles. This Caierbeius was he þt betraied before Campson the Sultane of Egypt to Zelymus, as is aforesayde: who nowe also being in consultation wt Gazelles & other about this matter, detected thē also vnto Solyman. Wherfore the sayd Gazelles and his fellowes being thus detected, were put to death by Solyman, declaring thereby that he was not so shepish as he was thought of them to be, & as also by his acts afterward did more appeare.

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Solymannus after thys execution done vpon the conspiratours, taking his voiage into Europe, first besieged Belgradum: MarginaliaBelgradum againe besieged of the turke. which being a Citye in Hungarie, was the strongest forte of all the Romaine Empire, and the chiefedefence at that time, of al christendom, whith also being assaulted before time by Amurathes the 2. was valiantly defended by Ioannes Huniades as is aboue specified. MarginaliaRead before pag 743. But here nowe lacked suche a one as Huniades was: For the kingdome of Hungary at that time, was vnder þe gouernment of Ludouicus a yong king, vnexpert and of a simple wit. Whom other Princes, & specially the couetous church men 

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The passage on Lajos II being dominated by his nobles and prelates is from Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel, 1559), p. 968, but Foxe adds strictures on the greed of the clergy.

did so pil and pol, that they left hym nothing but only the bare name and title of his kingdom: Wherby he being vnfurnished both of men and mony, was vnable to match with such an enemie.

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MarginaliaDiscorde amongest Christian princes what mischiefe it bringerh.An other vauntage 

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The passages blaming the fall of Belgrade on the wars among Christians and on the Papacy are Foxe's additions to the text.

also the Turkes had in besieging of Belgrade: For the Christian princes at that time were in ciuill dissention and variance amongst themselues: and the Pope with his Churchmen also were so busye in suppressing of Luther, and of the Gospell then newly springing, that they minded nothing els, except it were to maintaine the welth of their own bellies. Which pope if he had set his care (as his duety was) so muche in stirring vp Princes against the common enemy, as he was bent to deface þe gospel, & to persecute the true professors therof: soone might he haue brought to passe, not only that Belgrade might haue bene defended against the Turk, but also þt to be recouered againe which was lost before: and moreouer myght haue stopped the great dangers and perils which nowe are like to fall vpon the religion and church of Christ: whyche the Lord of his great mercy auert and turne away.

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MarginaliaThe pope so busie against Luther, that he neglecteth the ruine of Christēdome.Certesse what so euer the Pope then did, this had bene his duty, setting al other things apart, to haue had an earnest compassiõ of so many miserable & lost captiues, which were fallen from their faith & religion, vnto the misery and slauery of the Turke, & thraldome of the deuil, and to haue sought all means possible to haue reduced thē, as lost shepe into the fold againe: MarginaliaTrue compassiõ lacking in the Pope.Which then might sone haue ben done if prelates & princes ioyning together in christian concord, had loued so well the publike glory of Christ and soules of Christians, as they tendered their owne priuate, worldly, & friuolous quarels. And admit that the Pope had conceiued neuer so much malice against Luther, hys quarell also being good: yet the publike church standing in such danger, as it then did by the inuasion of the Turke, reason woulde nature led, religion taught, time required that a good Prelate forgetting lighter matters, shuld rather haue laid hys shoulder to the excluding of so great a dãger, as then was imminent both to himselfe, and the vniuersall Churche of Christ: But nowe his quarel being vniust, and the cause of Luther being moste iust and godly, what is to be sayde or thought of suche a Prelate, who for bearyng the Turke, whome in a time so daungerous, hee ought chiefly to haue resisted, persecuted the trueth, whych hee shoulde specially haue mainteined? But Christ for his mercy stande for hys Churche, and stirre vp zealous Princes and Prelates, if not to recouer that is lost, yet at least to retaine that little which is left.

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Solyman therefore 

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Foxe's use of Sebastian Münster, Cosmographiae universalis (Basel,1559), pp. 968-9 resumes here and continues through the fall of Belgrade, the fall ofRhodes and the battle of Mohács.

taking hys occasion, and vising the commoditie of time, while our princes were thus at variance betwixt themselues, wythout any resistance or interruption, brought his army vnto Belgrade, in þe yere of our Lorde. 1521. MarginaliaThe city of Belgrade wonne of the turke.Which Citye being but slenderly defenced, the Turke though his vnderminers, guns and other engins of warre, without great difficultie, & with little losse of hys souldiours, soone subdued and ouercame.

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After thys victorye, Solyman resting himselfe a whole yeare, and casting in his mynde howe to make all sure behinde him, for feare of ennemies to come vppon his backe, thought it expedient for his purpose if he might obtain the Ilande of Rhodes: for that onely remained yet Christian betwixt him and Asia: 

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In the 1563 edition (TV 178/2) printed a letter purportedly from Süleyman to Phillipe Villiers de l'Isle Adam, Grand Master of the Knights of St.John. The letter is not genuine (it has Süleyman referring to Mohammad as God),and it is apparently Foxe's composition, based on details he obtained from EdwardHall, The unyon of the twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York (London, 1550), STC 12723a, fos. CVIv-CVIIr.

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wherfore the next yeare following, he brought hys army of 450. ships, and 300. M. men to the besieging thereof. MarginaliaRhodes besieged. This Rhodes was a mighty and strong Iland, wtin the sea called Mare mediterraneum. The inhabitants wherof at þe first did manfully resist þe turke, sparyng no labor nor paines for the defence of thēselues & of al christendome: But afterward being brought to extremity, and pinched wt penury, seing also no aid to come from þe christians: somwhat began to languish in thēselues. The turkes in the meane time casting vp two great mountaines wyth strength of hand, 2. miles of frõ the citye, like rolling trenches caried them defore thē neare vnto the city, in the tops wherof they plãted their ordinance & artillery, to batter the city. The maister of the knightes of the Rhodes was then one Philippus Villadamus a Frenchman, in whome no diligence was lacking þt appertained to the defence of the city. The Rhodians likewise so valiantly behaued themselues vpon the walles, that wt their shot all the ditches about the city, were filled wt the carcases of dead Turkes.

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Besides thys, suche a disease of the bloudy flixe raigned

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