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Cetatea Neamţului

Moldavia [Moldavio]

Coordinates: 47° 12' 9" N, 26° 21' 31" E

 
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Chalcis

Euboea, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 28' 0" N, 23° 36' 0" E

 
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Dinakas [Dinastrum]

Berat, Albania

Coordinates: 40° 47' 15" N, 19° 50' 54" E

 
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Esztergom (Gran: German; Strigonium: Latin)

Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary

Cathedral city

Coordinates: 47° 48' 0" N, 18° 45' 0" E

 
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Herceg Novi (Castelnuovo; Nouum Castellum) [Newcastle]

Dalmatia, Montenegro

Coordinates: 42° 28' 12" N, 18° 19' 12" E

 
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Kőszeg (Ger: Güns) [Gunza]

Vas, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 22' 54.88" N, 16° 33' 7.96" E

 
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Lezhë (Alessio; Lyssus) [Lysson]

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 47' 60" N, 19° 40' 0" E

 
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Methoni

Mothone Modon; Methone), Messinia, Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 49' 0" N, 21° 42' 0" E

 
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Mitylini [Mitylene; Mitilene]

Lesbos, Greece

Capitol of Lesbos

Coordinates: 39° 6' 0" N, 26° 33' 0" E

 
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Oradea (Varadinum)

Romania

Coordinates: 47° 4' 20" N, 21° 55' 16" E

 
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Pécs (Fuenfkirchen; Quinque Ecclesiae) [Quinque Ecclesias]

Baranya, Hungary

Coordinates: 46° 4' 16.5" N, 18° 13' 59.2" E

 
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Pest [Pesta]

eastern part of Budapest, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 28' 19" N, 19° 3' 1" E

 
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Rastrum (Dinaj) [Dynastrum]

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 57' 21" N, 19° 42' 37" E

 
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Siklós [Soclosia]

Baranya, Hungary

Coordinates: 45° 51' 19" N, 18° 17' 55" E

 
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Skuraj (Skorovot) [Scorad]

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 41' 19" N, 19° 47' 47" E

 
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Székesfehérvár (Stuhlweissenburg: German; Alba Regia) [Alba Regalis]

Fejér, Hungary

Coordinates: 47°28'18"N 19°2'45"E"

 
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Tata [Tath; Tatha]

Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 22' 48" N, 18° 10' 48" E

 
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Trabzon [Trapezunda; Trapesus]

northeastern Turkey

Capital of the Empire of Trebizond (1204 - 1461)

Coordinates: 41° 0' 0" N, 39° 44' 0" E

 
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Valpovo (Valpó) [Walpo]

Slavonia, Croatia

Coordinates: 45° 40' 0" N, 18° 25' 0" E

 
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Varna [Verna]

Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 13' 0" N, 27° 55' 0" E

 
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Visegrád [Wizigradum]

Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 47' 5.39" N, 18° 58' 25.21" E

 
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Xibrake (Xiberracke) [Xabiacchus]

Albania

Coordinates: 41° 1' 28" N, 19° 55' 19" E

782 [758]

K. Henry. 7. The history of the Turkes. The misery of poore captiues vnder the Turkes.

to enter? MarginaliaA briefe recitall of Christen townes & forts wonne of the turke in Europe.In Thracia, & through all the coastes of Danubius, in Bulgaria, Dalmatia, in Seruia, Transiluania, Bosna, in Hungaria, also in Austria, what hauocke hath bene made by them, of Christen mens bodies, it will rue any Christen hart to remember. At the siege of Moldauio, at the winning of Buda, of Pesta, of Alba, of Walpo, Strigonium, Soclosia, Tathe, Wizigradum, Nouum, Castellum in Dalmatia, Belgradum, Varadinum, Quinque ecclesie: also at the battel of Verna, where Ladislaus king of Polonie with all his army almost, through the rashnes of the Popes Cardinall were slayne: at the winning moreouer of Xabiacchus, Lyssus, Dinastrum: at the siege of Guntza, and of the faythfull towne Scorad, where the nūber of the shotte agaynst theyr walles, at the siege thereof, were reckoned to 2539. likewise at the siege of Vienna where all the Christian captiues were brought before the whole army and slayne, and diuers drawne in pieces with horses: but especially at the winning of Constantinople aboue mentioned, MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turk against the Citizens of Constantinople Vide supra. pag. 706. pag. 706. also at Croia & Methone, 

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This story, and the following story, both illustrating the ferocity ofMehmed II, are taken from Laonicus Chalkokondylas's Turco-Byzantine historyas excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), pp. 179-80.

what beastly cruelty was shewed, it is vnspeakeable. For as in Constantinople, Mahumet the dronken Turk neuer rose from diner, but he caused euery daye, for his disport. 300. Christiā captiues of the nobles of that City to be slayn before his face: So in Methone, MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turk against the prisoners of Methone. after that his captayn Omares had sent vnto him at Constantinople 500. prisoners of the Christians, the cruell tyraunt commaunded them all to be cut and deuided in sonder by the middle, & so being slain to be throwne out into the fieldes.

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Leonicus Chalcondyla, MarginaliaEx Leonico Chalcondyla de rebus Turcicis. lib. 10. writing of the same story, addeth moreouer a prodigious narratiō (if it be true) of a brute Oxe, whiche being in the fieldes, and seing the carcases of the dead bodies so cut in two, made there a loud noise after the lowing of his kind and nature: & afterward comming to the quarters of one of the dead bodyes lying in the field, first tooke vp the one halfe, & then comming agayne, tooke vp likewise the other halfe, and so (as he could) ioyned thē both together. MarginaliaA straunge and a prodigious wonder of a brute beast towarde a dead Christian body. Which being espyed of them which saw the doing of the brute Oxe, and maruelling thereat, and word being brought thereof to Mahumet, he commaunded the quarters agayne to be brought, where they were before, to proue whether the beast would come agayne: Who fayled not (as the author recordeth) but in like sort as before, taking the fragmentes of the dead corps, layde them agayne together. It foloweth more in the author, howe that Mahumet being astonied at the straunge wonder of the Oxe, commaunded the quarters of the christiā mans body to be interred, and the Oxe to be brought to his house, and was much made of. Some sayd it to be the body of a Venetian: some affirmed, that he was an Illyrian: but whatsoeuer he was certayne it is, that the Turk himselfe was much more beastiall then was the very brute Oxe: MarginaliaMore humanitie seene in a brute beast then in the turke.which being a beast shewed more sence of humanity to a dead man, thē one mā did to an other Ex Leonic. Chalcondyla.

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MarginaliaThe Byshop with the Citizens of Methone slayne of the turke.To this crueltye adde 

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This story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history as excerptedin Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum (Basel, 1556),p. 232. The slaughter of 500 inhabitants in Methoni (but not the death of thebishop) is also given in Andrea de Lacuno's history as excerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine, p. 219.

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moreouer, that beside these 500. Methonians thus destroyed at Constantinople, in the said City of Methone, all the townes men also were slayne by the forsayd Captayn Omares, and among them theyr Bishop likewise was put to death. MarginaliaEx Andrea de Lacuna, & alijs.Ex Andrea de Lacuna. & ex Wolfgango & alijs.

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MarginaliaEx Ioanne Fabro, in oratione ad Regem. Henr. 8.Iohn Faber in his Oration 

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The examples of Turkish depredations in Serbia, are taken from an oration by Johannes Faber, urging Christian unity against the Turk, printedin Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne,1535), fo. 237r.

made before king Henrye the 8. at the appointment of king Ferdinandus, and declaring therin the miserable cruelty of the Turkes toward al christians, as also toward the bishops and ministers of the church, testifieth how that in Mitilene, in Constantinople, and Trapezunda, what Byshops & Archbishops, or other ecclesiasticall and religious persons the Turks could find they brought them out of the cityes into the fieldes, there to be slaine like Oxen and Calues. The same Faber also writing of the battell of Solyman in Hungary, where Ludouicus the king of Hūgary was ouerthrown, declareth that 8. Byshops in the same field were slayne. And moreouer, when the Archbishop of Strigon, and Paulus the Archbishop Colossensis were found dead, Solyman caused thē to be taken vp, & to be beheaded and chopt in small pieces. an. 1526.

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MarginaliaThe crueltie of the turke in Euboia.What christian hart will not pity the incredible slaughter done by the Turkes in Euboia, where as the sayd Faber testifieth that innumerable people were sticked & gored vpon stakes, diuers were thrust through with a hoat iron, childrē and infants not yet wayned from the mother were dashed agaynst the stones, & many cut a sūder in the midst. Ex Iohan Fabro & alijs.

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MarginaliaThe prince of Seruia slayne & flayne of the turke.But neuer did country taste 

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Most of this story comes from Wolfgang Dreschler's history, asexcerpted in Laonicus Chalkokondylas, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum(Basel, 1556), p. 230. The details, however, of the Serbian prince being killedand then flayed, come from Johann Faber's oration, excerpted in Ortwin Gratius,Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535).

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and feele more the bitter & deadly tyranny of the Turkes, then did Rasia, called Mylia inferior, & now Seruia. Where (as writeth Wolfgangus Dreschlerus) the prince of the sayde countrey being sent for, vnder fayre pretence of words & promises, to come & speakwith the Turke, MarginaliaLet neuer Christen prince trust the turke.after he was come of his own gentlenes, thinking no harme, was apprehended & wretchedly & falsly put to death, & his skin flain of, his brother & sister brought to Constantinople for a triumph, and all the nobles of his country (as Faber addeth) had theyr eyes put out. &c.

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MarginaliaThe turkes stirred vp of the deuil to fight against Christ.Briefly to conclude, 

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These concluding remarks on Turkish 'butchery' and the introductory remarks on Ottoman enslavement of Christian captives are Foxe's own.

by the vehement and furious rage of these cursed caytifes, it may seme that Satan the old dragon, for the great hatred he beareth to Christ, hath styrred them vp to be the butchers of all christen people, inflaming theyr beastly hartes with suche malice & cruelty against the name and religion of Christ, that they degenerating frō the nature of men to deuils, neither by reason wil be ruled, nor by any bloud or slaughter satisfied. MarginaliaThe turkes are butchers of the Christians. Like as in the primitiue age of the Church, and in the time of Dioclesian and Maximiliā, whē the deuil saw that he could not preuaile against the person of Christ which was risen agayne, he turned all his fury vpon his sely seruants, thinking by the Romayn Emperours, vtterly to extinct the name and profession of Christ, out from the earth: So in this latter age of þe world Satan being let lose agayne rageth by the Turkes, thinking to make no end of murdering and killing, till he haue brought (as he entendeth) the whole church of Christ, with all the professors therof, vnder foot. But the Lord (I trust) will once send a Constantinus to vanquish proud Maxētius: Moyses to drowne indurate Pharao: Cyrus to subdue the stout Babilonian.

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MarginaliaThe miserable state of the Christian captiues vnder the turke.And thus much hitherto touching our christian brethrē, which were slain & destroied by these blasphemous turks. Now forsomuche as besides these aforesayde, many other were pluckt away violently from theyr country, from their wiues & children from liberty, & from all their possessions, into wretched captiuity and extreme pouerty, it remaineth likewise to entreat somewhat also cōcerning the cruel maner of the Turkes handling of the sayd christian captiues. And first here 

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The entire description which follows, of Ottoman treatment of theircaptives, comes from Bartolomaeus Georgevits, De origine imperiiTurcorum, asexcerpted in Theodore Bibliander, Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran(Basel, 1550), III, pp. 175-9. Foxe abridges this account but otherwise follows itfaithfully.

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is to be noted that þe turke neuer cōmeth into Europe to war against the christiās, but there foloweth after his army, a great number of brokers & marchaunts, MarginaliaThe buying and sellyng of Christen captiues vnder the turks such as buy men & children to sell again, bringing with thē long cheines in hope of great cheates: In þe which cheynes they linke thē by 50. & 60. together, such as remayne vndestroyd with the sword, whō they buy of the spoiles of thē þt rob & spoyle the Christian countryes: Which is lawfull for any of the Turkes armye to doe, so that the tenth of their spoyle or pray (whatsoeuer it be) be reserued to the head Turke, that is, to the great mayster theefe. 
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This description of the Ottoman sultan as a master thief is one ofonly two interpolations Foxe made into Georgevits's description of Ottomantreatment of their captives. The addition of this adjective, 'blasphemous', is one of only two interpolations that Foxe made to Georgevits's description of Ottoman treatment of their captives.

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MarginaliaChristen capriues tythed of the turke.Of such as remayne for tithe, if they be aged (of whom very fewe he reserued aliue, because little profite commeth of that age) they be solde to the vse of husbandry or keeping of beastes. If they be young men or women, they be sent to certein places, there to be instructed in theyr language and Artes, as shall be most profitable for theyr aduauntage, & such are called in theyr tongue Sarai: and the first care of the Turkes is this, to make them deny the Christian religion, and to be circumcised: and after that they are appointed euery one as he semeth most apte, either to the learning of their lawes, or els to learn the feates of war. Their first rudimēt of war is to handle the bow, first beginning with a weake bow, and so as they growe in strength, comming to a stronger bow, & if they misse the marke, they are sharply beaten: & theyr allowance is two pence or three pence a day till they come & take wages to serue in war. MarginaliaO wickednes passing all miserie.Some are brought vp for the purpose to be placed in the number of þe wicked Ianizarites, that is, the order of the Turks champions, which is the most abhominable cōdition of al other. Of these Ianizaraites, see before pag. 736. MarginaliaO miserie aboue all miseries.And if any of the foresayd yong men or children shal appeare to excell in any beuty, him they so cutte, that no part of that whiche nature geueth to man, remayneth to be seene in all his body, wher by while the freshnes of age continueth, he is compelled to serue theyr abhominable abhomination: and when age cōmeth then they serue in stead of Eunuches to wayte vpon Matrones, or to keepe horses and Mules, or els to be scullians and drudges in theyr kitchins.

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MarginaliaThe seruitude of yong women captiues.Such as be young maydens & beautifull, are deputed for concubines. The which be of meane beautye serue for matrones to theyr drudgery worke in theyr houses & chābers, or els are put to spinning and such other labors, but so that it is not lawful for them either to professe their christian religiō, or euer to hope for any liberty. And thus much of them which fall to the Turke by tithe.

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The other which are bought and sold amongst priuate subiects, first are allured with faire words and promises to take circumcision. Which if they will doe, they are more fauourably entreated, but all hope is taken from them of returning agayne into theyr country, which if they attempt the payne therof is burning. And if such comming at lēgth to liberty, will mary, they may: but then theyr children re-

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mayne
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