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CerinthusÆgina [Æegira; Aegira]Šibenik (Sebenica)Štrigova (Stridon)Acherontas [Acarnanon]Actium (Punta)Alba Julia (Gyulafehérvár: Hungarian; Weissenburg)Aleppo (Beroia)Ambracia (Arta)Amfilochiko [Amphilochia] ArgosAmphipolisApollonia in Mygdonia [Mygdoniæ]ArgosAstacusAthensAzeliaBelgrade (Sigindunum) [Belgradum]Braşov (Kronstadt: German; Brassó: Hungarian; Corona)Buda [Ofen: German]CalydonCarystus [Charistus]CerinthusChalcisChilia Veche (Achillea)CorinthDelphi [Delphos]Demetrias (Volos)Egitio [Egris]Enona (Nin)EpidaurusEpidaurus (Ragusavecchia; Cavtat) Esztergom (Gran: German; Strigonium: Latin)GerestusGolubac (Golubački grad: Serbian; Galambóc vára: Hungarian; Columbarium: Latin) [Columbatium; Columbetz]Gyula (Guila: Romanian; Julau: German) [Iula]Halieis [Helice]Hunedoara (Eisenmarkt: German; Vajdahunyad: Hungarian) [Huniad]Island of Delos [Delus]Jaitza (Jajce) [Iaitza]LabacusLasæa [Lasaea]LernaLeuctrum (Lefktron)LocrisMegalopolis [Megalipolia]Megara [Megaris]Meleda (Mljet)Messene [Mesena]Methoni (Mothone)MycenaeNaissus (Niš) [Nessus]NaupactusNauplia (Návplion) [Nauplea]Neapolis,VaticaNemeaNikopol (Nicopolis ad Istrum)Novigrad [Nouigradum]Ocna Sibiului (Salzburg: German; Vizakna: Hungarian) [Saltzburg]Oescus (Colonia Ulpia; Gigen)OlympiaOmphaliumOradea (Varadinum)Pécs (Fuenfkirchen; Quinque Ecclesiae) [Quinque Ecclesias]Pest [Pesta]Phœnice [Phoenice]PhilippiPulchri PortusRhætiaria (Archar) [Rhaetiaria]Salamis [Salus]SamandriaScupi (Skopje)Senj (Senia)Sibiu (Hermannstadt: German; Nagyszeben: Hungarian) [Hermenstat]Sicyon (Sikyon) [Sycione]SpartaSzékesfehérvár (Stuhlweissenburg: German; Alba Regia) [Alba Regalis]Târgovişte [Tergouistus]TegeaThebes [Thebæ; Thebae]Thessaloniki [Thessalonica]TiristaToroValpovo (Valpó) [Walpo]Varna [Verna]Wiener Neustadt [Neustat; Neapolis]Zadar (Zara)
 
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Cerinthus

(fl. late C1 - C2) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Leader of a sect regarded by orthodox Christians as heretical; founded a school

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 57; 1576, p. 36; 1583, p. 36.

 
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Ægina [Æegira; Aegira]

Aegean Islands, Saronic Gulf, Greece

 
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Šibenik (Sebenica)

Dalmatia, Croatia

Coordinates: 43° 44' 0" N, 15° 55' 0" E

 
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Štrigova (Stridon)

Medimurje, Croatia

Coordinates: 46° 30' 0" N, 16° 17' 0" E

 
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Acherontas [Acarnanon]

Thesprotia, Greece

 
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Actium (Punta)

Acarnania, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 57' 0" N, 20° 46' 0" E

 
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Alba Julia

Gyulafehérvár: Hungarian; Weissenburg Karlsburg: German) [Alba Iulia], Romania

Coordinates: 46° 4' 1" N, 23° 34' 12" E

 
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Aleppo

Beroia Veroia) [Berrhæa], nothern Syria

Coordinates: 36° 13' 0" N, 37° 10' 0" E

 
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Ambracia (Arta)

Corinth, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 9' 0" N, 20° 59' 0" E

 
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Amfilochiko [Amphilochia] Argos

Ampelaki, Amfilochia, Greece

 
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Amphipolis

Central Macedonia, Greece

Coordinates: 40° 49' 12" N, 23° 51' 0" E

 
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Apollonia in Mygdonia [Mygdoniæ]

Central Macedonia, Greece

 
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Argos

Arkadia, Greece

 
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Astacus

Ambrachia, Greece

 
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Athens

Attica, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 58' 0" N, 23° 43' 0" E

 
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Azelia

Chaonia, Albania/Greece

 
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Belgrade (Sigindunum) [Belgradum]

Serbia

Capital of Serbia

Coordinates: 44° 48' 58.32" N, 20° 28' 53.76" E

 
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Braşov

Kronstadt: German; Brassó: Hungarian; Corona Brassovia: Latin) [Cronestat], Transylvania, Romania

Coordinates: 45° 40' 0" N, 25° 37' 0" E

 
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Buda [Ofen: German]

Hungary

Capital of Hungary 1361 - 1541

Coordinates: 47° 30' 0 N, 19° 1' 60 E

 
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Calydon

nr Mesolongion, Aetolia, Greece

 
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Carystus [Charistus]

Euboea, Greece

 
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Cerinthus

 
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Chalcis

Euboea, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 28' 0" N, 23° 36' 0" E

 
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Chilia Veche (Achillea)

Romania

Coordinates: 45° 25' 0" N, 29° 17' 0" E

 
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Corinth

Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 56' 0" N, 22° 56' 0°

 
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Delphi [Delphos]

Phocus, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 29' 0" N, 22° 30' 0" E

 
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Demetrias (Volos)

Magnesia, Greece

Coordinates: 39° 22' 0" N, 22° 56' 0" E

 
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Egitio [Egris]

Phocus, Greece

 
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Enona (Nin)

Croatia

Coordinates: 44° 14' 0" N, 15° 10' 0" E

 
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Epidaurus

Saronic Gulf, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 35' 46" N, 23° 4' 45" E

 
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Epidaurus (Ragusavecchia; Cavtat)

Croatia

Coordinates: 42° 34' 0" N, 18° 13' 0" E

 
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Esztergom (Gran: German; Strigonium: Latin)

Komárom-Esztergom, Hungary

Cathedral city

Coordinates: 47° 48' 0" N, 18° 45' 0" E

 
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Gerestus

Euboea, Greece

 
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Golubac (Golubački grad: Serbian; Galambóc vára: Hungarian; Columbarium: Latin) [Columbatium; Columbetz]

Serbia

Coordinates: 44° 39' 44" N, 21° 40' 42" E

 
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Gyula (Guila: Romanian; Julau: German) [Iula]

SE Hungary nr Romanian border

Coordinates: 46° 39' 0" N, 21° 17' 0" E

 
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Halieis [Helice]

nr Port Helis, Argolis, Greece

Partly submerged

 
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Hunedoara (Eisenmarkt: German; Vajdahunyad: Hungarian) [Huniad]

Transylvania, Romania

Coordinates: 45° 46' 11" N, 22° 55' 13" E

 
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Island of Delos [Delus]

smallest of the Cyclades, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 23' 0" N, 25° 15' 0" E

 
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Jaitza (Jajce) [Iaitza]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Coordinates: 44° 20' 31" N, 17° 15' 56" E

 
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Labacus

Dalmatia

 
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Lasæa [Lasaea]

nr Pulchri Portus, Crete

 
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Lerna

Argolis, Greece

 
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Leuctrum (Lefktron)

Arkadia, Greece

 
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Locris

Aetolia, Greece

 
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Megalopolis [Megalipolia]

Arkadia, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 24' 0" N, 22° 8' 0" E

 
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Megara [Megaris]

Attica, Greece

Coordinates: 38° 0' 0" N, 23° 20' 0" E

 
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Meleda (Mljet)

Adriatic island, Dalmatia, Croatia

Coordinates: 42° 44' 0" N, 17° 31' 0" E

 
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Messene [Mesena]

Messenia, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 3' 0" N, 22° 0' 0" E

 
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Methoni

Mothone Modon; Methone), Messinia, Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 36° 49' 0" N, 21° 42' 0" E

 
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Mycenae

north-eastern Peolopponese, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 43' 51" N, 22° 45' 22" E

 
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Naissus (Niš) [Nessus]

Serbia

Coordinates: 43° 18' N, 21° 54' E°

 
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Naupactus

Aetolia, Greece

 
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Nauplia (Návplion) [Nauplea]

Argolis, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 33' 49" N, 22° 48' 27" E

 
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Neapolis,Vatica

Peloponnese, Greece

Coordinates: 35° 15' 14" N, 25° 36' 35" E

 
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Nemea

nr Heraklion, Korinthia, Greece

Coordinates: 35° 20' 0" N, 25° 8' 0" E

 
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Nikopol (Nicopolis ad Istrum)

Thrace, Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 42' 0" N, 24° 54' 0" E

 
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Novigrad [Nouigradum]

Zadar, Croatia

Coordinates: 44° 11' 39" N, 15° 33' 24" E

 
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Ocna Sibiului (Salzburg: German; Vizakna: Hungarian) [Saltzburg]

Transylvania, Romania

Coordinates: 45° 52' 29" N, 24° 4' 0" E

 
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Oescus (Colonia Ulpia; Gigen)

Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 42' 0" N, 24° 29' 0" E

 
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Olympia

Ilia, Peloponnese, Greece

 
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Omphalium

Ambrachia, Greece

 
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Oradea (Varadinum)

Romania

Coordinates: 47° 4' 20" N, 21° 55' 16" E

 
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Pécs (Fuenfkirchen; Quinque Ecclesiae) [Quinque Ecclesias]

Baranya, Hungary

Coordinates: 46° 4' 16.5" N, 18° 13' 59.2" E

 
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Pest [Pesta]

eastern part of Budapest, Hungary

Coordinates: 47° 28' 19" N, 19° 3' 1" E

 
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Phœnice [Phoenice]

Crete

 
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Philippi

Macedonia, Greece

Coordinates: 41° 0' 47" N, 24° 17' 11" E

 
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Pulchri Portus

Crete

 
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Rhætiaria (Archar) [Rhaetiaria]

Mœsia superior, Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 49' 16" N, 22° 55' 41" E

 
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Salamis [Salus]

Island of Salamis, Saronic Gulf, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 56' 0" N, 23° 30' 0" E

 
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Samandria

Serbia

 
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Scupi (Skopje)

Macedonian Republic

Coordinates: 42° 0' 19" N, 21° 26' 30" E

 
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Senj (Senia)

Lika-Senj, Croatia

Coordinates: 44° 57' 0" N, 14° 54' 0" E

 
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Sibiu (Hermannstadt: German; Nagyszeben: Hungarian) [Hermenstat]

Transylvania, Romania

Coordinates: 45° 47' 45" N, 24° 9' 8" E

 
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Sicyon (Sikyon) [Sycione]

Peloponnese

City in ancient Greece [the village of Vasiliko now occupies the site]

 
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Sparta

Laconian plain, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 4' 55" N, 22° 25' 25" E

 
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Székesfehérvár (Stuhlweissenburg: German; Alba Regia) [Alba Regalis]

Fejér, Hungary

Coordinates: 47°28'18"N 19°2'45"E"

 
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Târgovişte [Tergouistus]

Dâmboviţa, Romania

Coordinates: 44° 55' 27" N, 25° 27' 24" E

 
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Tegea

Arkadia, Greece

Coordinates: 37° 27' 0" N, 22° 25' 0" E

 
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Thebes [Thebæ; Thebae]

Greece

Coordinates: 38° 19' 0" N, 23° 19' 0" E

 
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Thessaloniki [Thessalonica]

Greece

Capital of Macedonia

Coordinates: 40° 38' 0" N, 22° 57' 0" E

 
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Tirista

Moesia Inferior

 
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Toro

Zamora, Castile-Leon, Spain

Coordinates: 41° 31' 0" N, 5° 24' 0" W

 
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Valpovo (Valpó) [Walpo]

Slavonia, Croatia

Coordinates: 45° 40' 0" N, 18° 25' 0" E

 
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Varna [Verna]

Bulgaria

Coordinates: 43° 13' 0" N, 27° 55' 0" E

 
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Wiener Neustadt [Neustat; Neapolis]

Lower Austria, Austria

Coordinates: 47° 49' 0" N, 16° 15' 0" E

 
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Zadar

Zara Jadra) [Iadra], Dalmatia, Croatia

Coordinates: 44° 6' 51" N, 15° 13' 40" E

786 [762]

K. Hen. 7. The history of the Turkes. A table of certaine Cities and countries wonne from the Christians.
Countryes.Cityes.
Græcia.Act. 20Thessalonica.Act. 17
Philippi.Act. 16
Demetrias.
Neapolis.Act. 16
Macedonia.Rom. 15Amphipolis.Act 17
Apollonia mygdoniæ.
Act. 17
Berrhæa.Act. 17
Thessalia.
Epirus.Ambracia.
Actium.
Chaonia.Torona.
Azelia.
Thresprotia.Acarnanon.
Amphilochia.Argos. MarginaliaArgos, is a citie in Amphilochia, and an other also in Peloponesus.
Astacus.
Ambrachia.Omphalium.
Achaia.Rom. 15Athenæ.
Artica.Megaris.
Bœotia.Thebæ.
Phocis.Delphos.
Egris.
Ætholia.Chalidon.
Locris.
Naupactus.
Peloponesus.Corinthus. MarginaliaOf Corinthus, Strabo writeth that more then a thousande virgines, there in the temple of Venus, vsed yearely to be set out to bee made common: and therfore not without cause Saint Paule writeth: Eratis Scortatores, Idololatræ. &c. 1. Cor. 6.Act. 17
Mesena.
Corinthia.Tegea.
Argos.
Argia.Lacedemon, or Sparta
2. Mach. 5.
Epidaurus.
Helice.
Laconia.Lerna.
Leuctrum.
Messenia.Methone.
Mycenæ.
Elis.Megalipolia.
Nemea.
Sicyona.Nauplea.
Olympia.
Arcadia.Sicyon.
Ægira.
¶ Ilandes bordering about Grecia, 
Commentary  *  Close

This list is based on Pius II, Cosmographia (Paris, 1509), fos. 52r-75v.

wonne likewise by the Turke, from the Christians.
MarginaliaThe Ilands about Græcia.
Chalcis.
MarginaliaVide supra pag. 719.Euboea, or Nigropon-Charistus.
tus.Cerinthus.
Gerestus.
Creta. MarginaliaIn Creta, S. Paule ordained Titus to be Byshop and ouerseer.Act. 17Pulchri portus.Act. 27
Lasæa.Act 27.
Phœnice.Act. 17
Salmone.Act. 27.
Clauda.Act. 27
Cyclades,Insulæ. 53Salamis.
Delus. 1.Mach. 15
Cephalenia.
Zacynthus, or Zan-Vide supra.pag. 727
thus
Lemnos.
Ithaca.
Samos.Act. 20.
Corcyra.Vide supra.pag. 727
Corcica. MarginaliaCorcica, is an Iland beyond Italy, whiche the Turkes nauie, ioynyng with the French, dyd ouercome. an. 1553.
¶ After the Turke had subdued Thracia and Grecia, proceding further into Europe, he inuaded other regions, and cities, which also he added to his dition, 
Commentary  *  Close

This list is Foxe updating the list of Turkish conquests from Pius II's Cosmographia with material drawn from his account of Ottoman history.

as
Countryes.Cityes.
Rhætiaria.
Nessus.
Mysia Superior. MarginaliaThe region of Mysia is deuided into two partes: wherof the one is in Asia, & is deuided into Mysia maior, and Mysia minor. The other is in Europa, & is deuided into Mysia, or Mœsia superior, and Mysia inferior.Vlpianum.
Scupi.
Sigindunum, or Siget.
Triballorum. Oescus.
Mysia. Inferior.Tirista.
Axium, or Chilia.
Dalmatia.2. Tim. 4.Labacus, Metropolis.
Carinthia.Epidaurus, Marginalia

Epidaurus is a citie in Illiria, and also an other in Peloponesus.

These regions were in the former tyme called by the name of Illyria, or Illyricum And afterward by reason of certaine Scythians commyng thether, they were also called Sclauonia.

or Ragusi-
(um.
Milea, or Meleda.
Coruatia.Senia, or Segna.
Enona, or Hona.
Croatia.Iadra, or Zara.
Sebenica.
Istria.Stridon, where S. Hie-
rome was borne.
Bosna. MarginaliaStephanus kyng of Bosna, & afterward of Rascia and Mysia, was by subtil trayne allured to come and speake with Mahumete the Turk: who being come, was taken and his skinne flayne off.Quinquecclesiæ.
Iaitza, Metropolis.
Bulgaria was wonne
of Baiazetes. the Turk
from the crowne of
Hungarye, through
the vnprosperous
warre of Sigismun-
Bulgaria. MarginaliaAll this tracte of Bulgaria, Walachia, Transyluania, Seruia, Rascia, & Moldauia, was wont to be called Dacia, but afterward was seuered into diuers lands and dominions.dus, at the fielde of
Nicopolis, an. 1395.
This Sigismund,
was the burner of
Iohn Hus, and the
persecutor of his doc-
trine.
Tergouistus, or Teruis.
Huniad: where Ioan-
Wallachia.nes Huniades MarginaliaOf Ioannes Huniades, read before, pag. 720. 721. was
borne.
Hermenstat.
Cronestat.
Transyluania or SeptēSaltzburg.
castra.Alba Iulia, or Weissen-
(burg.
Gyula.
Seruia.Samandria.
Columbetz. MarginaliaAt Columbetz, Sigismunde loste the fielde fightyng against the Turkes, Vide supra. pag. 719.
Walpo. Vid sup. pag. 740
Rascia.Nouigradum.
Varna. MarginaliaIn Varna, a Citie in Rascia, Ladislaus K. of Hungary, fought with the Turke, and was ouercome. an. 1444. Vide supra, pag. 720.
Moldauia.
Buda or Osen.
Alba regalis.
Belgradum or Tauri-
num.
Hungaria.Strigonium.
Varadinum.
Neapolis.Maior.
Minor.
Austria.Pestum.
¶ As I was writing hereof, a certayne soūd of lamentable newes was brought vnto vs howe the Turke, whome wee had hoped before to haue bene repulsed by the Emperour Maximilian out of Christendome, hath now of late this present yeare. 1566. got the towne of Gyula about Transyluania, after they had susteined 16 of his most foreceable assaultes, destroying in the same most cruelly, many thousand of our chisten brethren, men, women, and children: 
Commentary  *  Close

The following account of a Turkish repulse when besieging thefortress of Gyula in Hungary in 1566 is reprinted from Newes from Vienna the5 day of August (London, 1566), STC 24716, sigs. B2r-B3r. In fact, the successwas epemeral; Gyula fell to the Turks on 1 September 1566.

but because we haue no full certaynty, we will referre þe story therof, to further information,
¶ The Prophecyes of the holy Scriptures considered touching the comming vp and finall ruine and destruction of this wicked kingdome of the Turkes, with the Reuelations and foreshewinges also of other authours concerning the same 
Commentary  *  Close
Biblical prophecy and the Turks

To Foxe, all of the material on the Turks which preceded this sectionon prophecy was merely illustrative detail. This is the heart of his account of theTurks and, in fact, the reason why Foxe included a history of the Turks in his martyr-ology. The purpose of this section was to identify the Turks as a manifestation of Antichrist. Like most sixteenth-century Protestants, Foxe regarded Antichrist as a spiritual force, and not as an individual. Thus Antichrist could be the Turks, but also the papacy. This flexibility allowed Foxe (and other Protestants) to make almost every event in human history conform to Biblical prophecy. But it wasdifficult for people to accept both the papacy and the Ottomans as Antichrist.

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And, in fact, Foxe himself wavered on this point. The best summary of Foxe's complicated thoughts on the identification of the Turk as Anti-christ comes from Katherine Firth: 'Foxe described as Antichrist both the Turk andthe pope: but when by Antichrist he meant to indicate the second beast of theApocalypse, or the whore of Babylon, then he meant only the Papacy' (TheApocalyptic Tradition in Reformation Britain, 1530-1645 [Oxford, 1979], p. 99).Yet the fact that the tension existed in Foxe between the identification of the Papacy or the Turks as Antichrist is worth noting for several reasons.

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The first is that the Acts and Monuments was a crucial work in shaping English apocalyptic thought for the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Along with the Eicasmi, Foxe's Latin commentary on the Book of Revelation, the Acts and Monuments provided what was by far and away the most detailed and authoritative historicist interpretation of that difficult Biblical text in early modern England. It is a historicist interpretation of Revelation in the sense that Foxe maintained that the book contains prophecies describing the history of the Church until the second coming of Christ and that many of the events it prophesied had already taken place. For the relationship between the Eicasmi and the Acts and Monuments, see the entry on John Foxe in the ODNB. For the importance of Revelation see Frith, Apocalyptic Tradition, pp. 109-110.

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The second is that Foxe's changing views on whether the Turks could be identified as Antichrist provide a clear example of the way in which contacts made during his exile influenced his thought. In his 1556 drama, "Christus Triumphans", Foxe explicitly rejected the suggestion that the Turks were Antichrist. (See Two Latin Comedies by John Foxe the Martyrologist, ed. J. H. Smith [Ithaca, NY, 1973}, p.353. But clearly woks that Foxe studied during his exile - in particular a compilation of histories of the Turks, De origine et rebus gestis Turcorum, and the texts bound with Theodore Bibliander's edition of the Qur'an, both works printed by Foxe's employer Johannes Oporinus - induced him to share the viewpoint, widespread among German and Swiss Protestants, that the Turks were Antichrist. In fact, the Acts and Monuments brought these views, hitherto not widely disseminated in England, into the mainstream of English intellectual life. Foxe's work also contributed to creating a demonic conception of the Ottoman Turks in England. (See Matthew Dimmock, Newe Turkes: Dramatizing Islam and the Ottomans in Early Modern England [Aldershot, 2005], pp. 76-81, 135-61 and 198-207).

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Nevertheless the identification of the Turk as Antichrist largely atrophied in England during the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century, however, it revived as Laudian writers, notably Richard Montagu and John Cosins, anxious not to identify the Papacy as Antichrist, argued - drawing on Foxe - that the Turk was Antichrist. (See Christopher Hill, Antichrist in Seventeenth-Century England [Oxford, 1971], pp. 34-40). Another controversial feature of this section of the Acts and Monuments was Foxe's use of non-Scriptural prophecies, such as those attributed to the Sibylls (legendary pagan prophetesses) and to Methodius of Patara, a third-century bishop. Many Protestants considered such sources as, at best, superfluous to scripture or, at worst, superstitious. Edward Topsell, an Elizabethan cleric, openly attacked this part of the Acts and Monuments when he deplored the fact that 'Many of the learneder sort are much affected with the prophecies of the Sibilles, Methodius and others…' (Edward Topsell, Times lamentation (London, 1599), STC 24131, p. 63). Foxe's reason for relying on these dubious sources was that they were more explicit, and conformed more closely to the history of the Turks than Biblical prophecies did.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaProphesies considered for the beginning and falling of the Turkes kingdome.FOr so muche as you haue hitherto sufficiently heard, to what quantity & largenes the dominon of the Turkes hath encreased, & doe vnderstand what cruell tyranny these wretched miscreants haue and do dayly practise most haynously wheresoeuer they come, agaynst the seruaunts and professors of Christ: it shall not be vnprofitable, but rathernecessary, and to our great comfort, to cōsider and examine in the Scriptures, with what prophesyes the holy spirit of the Lord hath premonished and forewarned vs before, of these heauy persecutions to come vpon his people by thys horrible Antichrist. For as the gouernment and constitution of times and states of monarchies & pollicies fall not to

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