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Ammonius Saccas

(fl. late C2, early C3)

b. Alexandria; started a neoplatonic school there c. 193; teacher of Clement and Origen

Ammonius wrote many books in defence of Christianity. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Anterus (St Anterus)

(d. 236) [Kelly]

Pope (November 235 - January 236)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Antiochus

According to Henry of Erfurt, a persecuter of Christians during the reign of Severus Alexander

Antiochus, while sitting in judgement, suffered a sudden illness and died. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Asclepiades

Bishop of Antioch for 8 years early C3 [Gams]

Asclepiades suffered during the reign of Severus. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.

Foxe finds discrepancies in the dating of his martyrdom. Vincent of Lérins places his martyrdom during the reign of Decius. 1570, pp. 88, 91; 1576, pp. 61, 63; 1583, pp. 61, 63.

 
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Aselepodotus

One of leaders of the followers of Theodotus the Tanner at Rome; persuaded Natalius to become bishop of the sect c. 200 [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Zephyrinus]

He offered Natalius money to lead the sect. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Calepodius

C3 priest in Rome; martyr

Calepodius's body was drawn through the streets and then thrown into the Tiber. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Damasus I (St Damasus)

(c. 305 - 384) [Kelly]

Pope (366 - 84) His election was followed by a disputed succession and violent riots; he was opposed by antipope Ursinus. Promoted Roman primacy. Wrote briefly on the martyrs and saints.

Damasus said that Pope Anterus caused the accounts of the martyrs to be written and as a result was himself martyred. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 4, 23, 77, 93, 133; 1576, pp. 3, 18, 52, 65, 97; 1583, pp. 3, 18, 52, 57, 65, 96.

 
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Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
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Fabian (St Fabian)

(d. 250) [Kelly]

Pope (236 - 50) Arrested; died at the beginning of Decius's persecution

Fabian and Origen converted Emperor Philip the Arab and his family to Christianity. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59

Origen wrote De orthodoxia su? fidei to Fabian. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

Decius had Fabian killed either because Philip the Arab had committed his treasures to Fabian, or because he hated Philip the Arab. 1570, pp. 86-87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

 
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Gelasius I (St Gelasius)

(d. 496) [Kelly]

Pope (492 - 96) Asserted the primacy of Rome over the entire church; prolific writer

Gelasius was the son of a married priest. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

Gelasius spoke of the transmutation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ, but still remaining in their proper nature. 1570, p. 1299; 1576, p. 1112; 1583, p. 1137.

Gelasius decreed that communion was to be taken in two kinds. 1570, p. 1314; 1576, p. 1124; 1583, p. 1149.

 
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Gordian III

(225 - 244) [M. L. Meckler www.roman-emperors.org]

Grandson of Gordian I

Roman emperor (238 - 44); died on campaign against the Sassanids

Gordian was concerned for the welfare of the empire and ceased the persecution of the Christians. Foxe says he was killed by his successor, Philip the Arab. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Henry of Erfurt (Henricus de Erfordia)

Taught philosophy in Bologna in (1351 - 52); writer and historian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68, 78, 80, 86, 98, 104, 110, 146; 1576, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 60, 69, 74, 79, 108; 1583, pp. 40, 45, 53, 55, 59, 69, 74, 78, 107.

 
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Hippolytus (St Hippolytus)

(d. 235) [Kelly]

Writer of the early Christian church; presbyter of the church at Rome under Zephyrinus

Antipope (217 - 35); deported with Pope Pontian to Sardinia in 235

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis (Jacob Philip of Bergamo)

(1434 - 1520)

Chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 65, 85, 91, 97, 104, 128, 132; 1576, pp. 38, 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 95.

 
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Jerome (Eusebius Hieronomous) (St Jerome)

(c. 340/2 - 420) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Scholar; translator of the bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin; studied at Rome and Trier. Lived as an ascetic (374 -79); lived in Constantinople (380 - 81), Rome (382 - 85) and Bethlehem (386)

Jerome was called 'papas' or 'father' by Boniface I and others. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

 
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Julia Mamaea

(d. 235) [H. W. Benario, sub Severan Julias www.roman-emperors.org]

Younger daughter of Maesa; married Gessius Marcianus; mother of Severus Alexander. She effectively governed while Alexander was a minor and remained a dominant figure; assassinated with her son at Mainz

Mamaea sent for Origen, who remained for a time with her and Severus Alexander. She was killed with her son. 1570, p. 84; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 57.

 
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Julius Pomponius Lætus (Giulio Pomponio Leto)

(1425 - 1497) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Italian humanist; founder of the academy at Rome; imprisoned, tortured on suspicion of heresy, released; continued to teach in Rome

He is mentioned by Foxe as a source: 1570, pp. 86, 94, 105; 1576, pp. 60, 66, 75; 1583, pp. 59, 66, 74.

 
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Marc' Antonio Sabellico (Coccio)

(1436 - 1506) [Eric Cochrane, Historians and Historiography in the Italian Renaissance (Chicago, 1981) pp. 83-6]

Venetian scholar and historian; curator of San Marco library 1487 Wrote a history of Venice 1485; wrote a history of the world 1504: Rapsodie historiarum enneadum

Sabellico and Platina recorded that Constantine IV decreed that bishops of Rome were to be chosen by the clergy and people, not by the emperor. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 62, 86, 105, 112, 133; 1576, p. 38, 60, 75, 80, 97; 1583, p. 38, 59, 74, 80, 96.

 
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Marianus Scotus

(1028 - 1082) [ODNB]

Chronicler; Irish Benedictine monk. Lived in Cologne 1056 - 58, in Fulda 1058 - 69, in Mainz 1069 - 82. Wrote a universal chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. ; 1570, pp. 62, 84, 86, 133; 1576, pp. 38, 58, 59, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58, 59, 96.

 
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Martina (St Martina)

(d. 226x228) [Catholic Encyclopedia); Roman virgin martyr

Martina was tortured, then killed by the sword. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Maximinus

C3 judge in Rome

According to Damasus, Pope Anterus was sentenced to death by Maximinus. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Natalius

Antipope c. 200; later reconciled, submitted to Pope Zephyrinus [Kelly]

Natalius had suffered persecution, but joined with Aselepodotus, Theodotus the Tanner and Theodotus the Money Changer and agreed to lead a separate sect. He repented and was reinstated by Zephyrinus. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Nicephorus

(d. 828) [Gams]

Greek Orthodox theologian and historian; patriarch of Constantinople (806 - 15)

He is cited extensively by Foxe as a source in Book 1.

 
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Origen

(d. c. 254) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, theologian

Head of a school at Alexandria; banished by a church council held in 231; started a school at Caesarea; imprisoned under Decius

Origen was a pious and scholarly child. He would have suffered martyrdom with his father during the reign of Severus, but his mother hid his clothes. After the death of his father, Origen supported his mother and siblings by starting a school. He then went on to translate scripture from the Hebrew. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

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Origen was sought out by his fellow Christians, and many of his associates were martyred. 1570, pp. 79-80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

He was sent for by Julia Mamaea, mother of Emperor Alexander Severus, and he spent some time with them. 1570, p. 84; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 57.

Origen wrote his lost martyrology during the persecutions of Maximinus Thrax. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

He and Pope Fabian converted Emperor Philip the Arab and his family. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

Origen wrote De orthodoxia su? fidei to Fabian. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

Under Decius, Origen suffered threats, torture and imprisonment. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

He was banished from Alexandria for sacrificing to the gods. He went to Jerusalem and spent the rest of his life in misery and poverty. He was buried in Tyre.1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

Jerome was at times critical of Origen's doctrine, but praised his learning. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

 
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Otacilia Severa

(d. 248?) [M. L. Meckler and C. Koerner, sub Philip the Arab, www.roman-emperors.org]

Wife of Roman Emperor Philip the Arab

Severa, with her husband and family, was converted to Christianity by Pope Fabian and Origen. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Pammachius

C3 Roman senator reputedly martyred with his wife and children

Pammachius and his family were beheaded in Rome, and their heads were hung up around the city. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Philetus

Bishop of Antioch (c. 223 - 30) [Gams]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Philip

(c. 237 - 249) [M. L. Meckler and C. Koerner www.roman-emperors.org]

Co-emperor with his father Philip the Arab (247 - 49); murdered after his father's death in 249

Philip was converted with his father and the rest of his family by Pope Fabian and Origen. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Philip the Arab

(d. 249) [M. L. Meckler and C. Koerner www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (244 - 49); killed during mutiny

Philip and his family were converted to Christianity by Pope Fabian and Origen. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

He was said to have been converted by the Roman Christian priest Portius. 1570, p. 91; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 63.

Philip and his son were killed by Trajan Decius because they were Christians. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Pontian

(d. 235) [Kelly]

Pope (230 - 235); exiled by the emperor Maximinus Thrax with Hippolytus to Sardinia

Foxe considered epistles attributed to Pontian to be forgeries. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Porphyry

(c. 234 - c. 305) [Eyjólfur Emilsson, 'Porphyry', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2005 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2005/entries/porphyry

Neoplatonist philosopher; studied at Athens; went to Rome 263-69; lecturer; applied Neoplatonism to pagan religion; wrote on Aristotle

He was thought by Suidas to have been a kinsman of Ammonius Saccas 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Prudentius (Aurelius Prudentius Clemens)

(348 - after 405) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Spanish Roman Christian poet; lawyer; provincial governor; retired to become an ascetic

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 56, 86, 101, 104, 124, 126, 129; 1576, pp. 35, 60, 71, 74, 90, 92, 93; 1583, pp. 35, 59, 71, 74, 89, 92.

 
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Quiritius and Julia

C3 Roman nobleman and his mother; martyrs

Quiritius and his mother Julia were martyred together in Rome. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Raphael Volaterranus (Raffaele Maffei)

(1451 - 1522) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b.Volterra; Roman humanist, philosopher, theologian. Established an academy in his house; founded Clarisse monastery, Volterra; wrote an encyclopedia in three parts: geology, anthropology, philology

Volaterran regarded the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 11; 1570, pp. 6, 63, 78, 86, 96, 105, 1329; 1576, pp. 5, 38, 53, 60, 69, 75, 1133; 1583, pp. 5, 38, 53, 59, 69, 74, 1162

 
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Severus Alexander

(208 - 235) [H. W. Benario www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (222 - 235); killed in mutiny at Mainz with his mother

Severus Alexander was wise and gentle and loathed corrupt judges. He appointed learned and wise counsellors. He treated the Christians favourably. He was killed with his mother. 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

 
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Severus Julius Africanus

(d. c. 240) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian traveller and historian; lived at Emmau. His history of the world was used extensively by Eusebius.

Julius Africanus was a great scholar and historian living at the time of Emperor Gordian III. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Simplicius

C3 Roman senator; martyr

Simplicius was beheaded in Rome, and his head was put on display. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Suidas

Author of a massive C10 Byzantine Greek historical encyclopædia of the ancient Mediterranean world [Catholic Encyclopedia]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Theodoret

(c. 393 - c. 457) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Theologian, author; bishop of Cyrus, Syria (423 - 57)

Involved in the Nestorian controversy in opposition to Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 20, 86, 137, 1299; 1576, pp. 16, 60, 100, 1112; 1583, pp. 16, 59, 99, 1137.

 
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Theodotus the Money Changer

One of the leaders of the followers of Theodotus the Tanner at Rome; persuaded Natalius to become bishop of the sect c. 200 [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Zephyrinus]

He offered Natalius money to lead the sect. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Theodotus the Tanner

(fl. late C2) [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Zephyrinus]

Heretical teacher at Rome; excommunicated by Pope Victor

He taught Aselepodotus and Theodotus the Money Changer. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Trajan Decius

(d. 251) [G. Nathan and R. McMahon www.roman-emperors.org]

Consul, commander under Philip the Arab

Roman emperor (249 - 51); killed in battle against the Goths

Decius killed Emperor Philip the Arab and his son Philip because they were Christians. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

Great persecution of Christians took place during his reign. 1570, pp. 86-93; 1576, pp. 60-66; 1583, pp. 59-65.

Pomponius Laetus said that, when Decius was overcome by the Goths, rather than fall into their hands, he threw himself into a whirlpool and drowned. 1570, p. 94; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

 
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Urban I (St Urban)

(d. 230) [Kelly]

Pope (222 - 30)

St Cecilia sent for Urban to help her to convert the officers who had arrested her. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 58.

Later historians claimed that Urban I had been martyred under Severus Alexander. He converted pagans to Christianity. 1570, p. 84; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 58.

Foxe believes that Urban was martyred under Maximinus Thrax. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Zebinnus (Zbina)

Bishop of Antioch (c. 230 - 238) [Gams]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Zephyrinus

(d. 217) [Kelly]

Pope (198/9 - 217)

Foxe questions the attribution of various writings to him. 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

The antipope Natalius submitted to Zephyrinus and was reinstated into the church by him. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

 
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Ostia Antica

at the mouth of the Tiber (now 3 miles from the sea), Italy

Ancient port of Rome

Coordinates: 41° 45' 0" N, 12° 18' 0" E

82 [59]

wild beasts. With all which torments, when he could not be hurt, finally with sword was beheaded. The executor of these punishments (as by Henricus Erford, may be gathered) was one Antiochus; who in the executing of the foresayd torments, sodenly fell downe from his iudiciall seate, crying out, that al his inward bowels burned within him, and so gaue vp the breath, Henr. de Erfordia, Lib. 6. cap. 29. Marginalia A notable example of Gods iust plague vpon a persecutor. Ex Henr. Erfordiens. Lib 6.

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Marginalia Calepodius, Martyr.Also with the same Agapitus is numbred Calepodius a minister of Rome, whose body first was drawen throught the citie of Rome, & after cast into Tiber. Bergo. ibidem.

Marginalia Pammachius with his wife and children Martyrs. 42. Martyrs.Then followeth Pammachius a Senatour of Rome, wt his wife and children, and other both men and women, to the number of xlij.

Marginalia Simplicius, Martyr.Item an other noble Senator of Rome named Simplicius all which together in one day had their heads smitten off, and their heads after hanged vp in diuers gates of the Citie, for a terrour of other, that none

Marginalia Quiritius, Iulia, hys mother Martyrs.Beside these suffred also Quiritius a noble man of Rome, who with his mother Iulia, and a great number moe, were put likewise to death.

Marginalia Tyberius, Valerianus, brethren and martirs.Also Tiberius and Valerianus, Citizens of Rome, and brethren, suffered (as Bergomensis sayth) the same tyme; who first being bruised and broken with bats, after were beheaded.

Marginalia Martina a Virgine & Martyr.Also Vincentius, Bergomensis, and Erfordiensis, make mētion of Martina a Christian virgine, which after diuers bitter punishments, beyng constant in her fayth, suffered in like maner by the sword.

Albeit as touching the tyme of these forenamed Martyrs, as I find them not in elder writers: so do I suppose them to suffer vnder Maximinus, or Decius, rather then vnder Alexander.

The sixt Persecution. 
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The first ten persecutions

The section on the first 300 years of the church was, however, just the preface to the 'First Ten Persecutions', a structured 'decade' of martyrdoms in the early church that mirrored the 'centuries' into which the Magdeburg Centuries had chosen to organize its history of the Christian church. For our examination of Foxe's (extensive) borrowings from the Magdeburg Centuries, we have made use of the online edition of this text at: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/digilib/centuriae.htm and, for the bibliographical complexities surrounding its publication, Ronald E. Diener, 'The Magdeburg Centuries. A Bibliothecal and Historiographical Study'. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Divinity School 1978/79). For these sections, we have undertaken a very preliminary analysis, concentrating on the following textual divisions: Introduction to first 10 persecutions (1583, p. 34; 1576, p. 34; 1570, pp. 53-4); First persecution (1583, pp. 34-5; 1576, p. 34; 1570, pp. 54-6); Second persecution (1583, pp. 35-9; 1576, pp. 35-9; 1570, pp. 56-7); Third persecution (1583, pp. 39-42; 1576, pp. 39-42; 1570, pp. 57-9); Fourth persecution (1583, pp. 42-46; 1576, pp. 42-46; 1570, pp. 59-69); Martyrs of Lyons (1583, pp. 46-50; 1576, pp. 46-50; 1570, pp. 69-74); Remainder of fourth persecution (1583, pp. 50-4; 1576, pp. 50-4; 1570, pp. 74-9); Fifth persecution (1583, pp. 54-9; 1576, pp. 54-9; 1570, pp. 79-85); Sixth persecution (1583, p. 59; 1576, pp. 59-60; 1570, pp. 85-6).

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In the block on the first persecutions, prepared for the 1570 edition and repeated in the later ones, Foxe cites as his source Eusebius, book 3, ch. 30. Although it is probably the case that he consulted the source, it is much more likely that, for this (as for the succeeding sections of this part of the narrative) that he drew on the published volumes of the Magdeburg Centuries, in this case, vol. 1, book 2, cols 561-4.

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For the second persecution, Foxe continued to use Eusebius, supplementing it (apparently) with Irenaeus' Against Heresies and the Historiae adversum paganos of Orosius. Again, although it is difficult to be certain of this at present, his direct source was likely to have been the Magdeburg Centuries. For the fourth persecution, concerned especially with the martyrdom of Polycarp, we can be clearer. Although some of the sections of Foxe's narrative (such as the Epistle to Pontus and the sayings of Polycarp to Martin the heretic, are direct translations from Eusebius, the section on the life and works of Polycarpus, which indirectly comes from Eusebius, book 5, ch. 20, is clearly lifted from the Magdeburg Centuries, II, cols 173 and 176. For the contradictory views of various authors on who were the popes at the time, Foxe clearly used the Magdeburg Centuries, I, book 2, cols 626-8 but he also consulted at least some of the other sources he mentions in order to construct an independent view. The section on the order of the popes to Eleutherius certainly is taken from the Magdeburg Centuries, II, cols 117 and 209-210.

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For the fourth persecution, it is evident that the Magdeburg Centuries formed the direct source for the following sections of it:- the Epistle of Pliny to Trajan and its response (p. 53 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 13-4); the martyrdoms under Emperor Hadrian (p. 54 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 15-6 and cols 231-33); the final rising of the Jews under Hadrian and subsequent slaughter, the succession of Antoninus Pius, and resumption of the fourth persecution (p. 55 of the 1570 edition) - (II, col 17); the disputed claims concerning Hyginus (p. 66 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 111; 141; 212-3); Eleutherius' mission to convert the British (II, cols 8-9); and the contention over the date of Easter at the time of Commodus (p. 67 of the 1570 edition) - (II, col. 118).

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For the fifth persecution, Foxe drew directly on the Magdeburg Centuries for the following passages:- the fifth persecution by Septimus Severus (p. 67 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 9-10); the martyrdom of Origen and his father - (III, cols 9-10; 150-1; 253-259); for the list of martyrs under Septimus Severus (p. 68 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 10; 251; 305); for Basilides and the miracles of Potomiena - (III, col. 305); for Alexander as bishop of Jerusalem - (III, col. 209); for the persecutions in the time of Septimus Severus - (III, cols 295-6; 211); for Tertullian as an ecclesiastical writer (p. 69 of the 1570 edition - (III, cols 236; 241; 242); for the controversy over Easter in the time of Victor (p. 70 of the 157- edition) - (II, cols 152-58); for the epistles of Zephirus - (III, cols 275-6); for the invasion of Britain - (III, col. 315); for the epistles of Calixtus (p. 72 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 276-77). Foxe clearly used other sources for this account as well, but only further research will confirm more precisely the extent to which he worked outwards from the Magdeburg Centuries to write a more independently based narrative of this section.

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For the sixth persecution, we have undertaken a similar analysis of the extent of Foxe's dependence on the Magdeburg Centuries. The results are less complete. It is certainly the case that he drew somewhat on that source for the beginning of the sixth persecution under Emperor Maximus (pp. 73-4 of the 1570 edition) - (III, col. 13). He also borrowed to some degree for the description of the rule of Pontianus, bishop of Rome (p. 74 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 177; 278); for the story of Natalius he also fairly clearly derived his material from the Centuries - (IIII, cols 287-288); for Emperor Philip the same is true (III, cols 8; 254; 279).

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We have not continued our analysis beyond this stage at present. It will require a more extensive and detailed examination of the full range of the sources cited by Foxe in his marginalia, and a comparison of them with what was contained in the extant volumes of the Magdeburg Centuries, which had become available to him in between the publication of the 1563 and 1570 editions, to arrive at a proper assessment of Book One.

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Mark Greengrass and Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

AFter the death of Alexander the Emperour, who with his mother Mammea (as is said) was murdred in Germany folowed Maximinus, Marginalia Maximinus Emperour and persecutour. The vi. persecution. An. 237. chosen by the will of the souldiours, rather then by the authority of the Senate, about the yeare of our Lord, 237. who for the hatred hee had to the house of Alexander (as Eusebius recordeth) raysed vp the vj. persecution against the Christians: especially against the teachers and leaders of the Church, thinking thereby the sooner to vanquish the rest, if the captains of them were remooued out of the way. Whereby I suppose rather þe Martyrdome of Vrbanus the bishop, and of the rest aboue specified, to haue happened vnder the tiranny of this Maximinus then vnder Alexander. In the tyme of this persecution, Origene wrote his booke De Martyrio: Marginalia Origenes de Martyrio. which booke if it were extant would geue vs some knowledge, I doubt not, of such as in this persecution did suffer, which now lye in silence vnknowne. And no doubt but a great number they were, & moe should haue bene, had not the prouidēt mercy of God shortened his dayes, & brideled his tiranny, for he raigned but three yeares. After whom succeeded Gordianus an 240. Marginalia Gordianus Emperour. An. 240. a man no lesse studious for the vtilitie of the commō wealth, as mild and gentle to the christians. This Gordian after he had gouerned with much peace and tranquilitie the Monarchie of Rome the space of vj. yeares was slayne of Phillip Emperour after him.

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In the dayes of these Emperours aboue recited, was Pontianus bishop of Rome, Marginalia Pontianus Byshop of Rome. > who succeeded next after Vrbanus aboue rehersed, about the yeare of our Lord, 236. in the xij. yeare of Alexander, as Eusebius, Lib 6. cap. 28. noteth: declaring him to sit vj. yeares. Contrary Damasus and Platina write, that he was bishop ix. yeares and a halfe. Marginalia Diuersity betweene Damasus and Euseb. And that in the tyme of Alexander, he with Philippus his Priest was banished into Sardina, and there died, But it semeth more credible that he was banished rather vnder Maximinus, Marginalia Pontianus banished. and died in the beginning of the raigne of Gordianus. In his Epistles decretal (which seeme likewise to be fayned) he appeareth very deuout, after the common example of other bishops to vphold the dignitie of Priests, and of Clergie men, saying: that God hath them so familiar with him, that by them he accepteth the offrings and oblations of other, and forgiueth their sinnes, and reconcileth them vnto him. Also, that they do make the body of the lord with their owne mouth, and geue it to other, &c. Marginalia This doctrine seemeth derogatory to Christ and blasphemous. Which doctrine how it standeth with the Testament of God, & glory of Christ, let the Reader vse his owne iudgement.

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Other notable fathers also in the same time were raysed vp in the church, as Philetus Bishop of Antioch, which succeded after Asclepiades afore mentioned, an. 220. and after him Zebennus bishop of the same place, an. 231.

To these also may be added Ammonius Marginalia Ammonius a Christian writer. the schoolemaister of Origene, as Suidas supposeth, also the kinsmen of Por-phiry the great enemy of Christ. Notwithstanding, this Ammonius endued wt better grace, as he left diuers bookes in defence of Christes religion: so he did constantly perseuere (as Eusebius reporteth) in þe doctrine of Christ, which he had in the beginning receaued, who was about þe days of Alexander.

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Iulius Aphricanus Marginalia Iulius Aphricanus writer. also about the tyme of Gordianus aforesayd, is numbred among the old and auncient writers, of whom Nicephorus writeth to be the scholer of Origene, and a great writer of histories of that tyme.

Vnto these Doctors and Confessors may be adioyned the story of Natalius, mentioned in the fift booke of Eusebius. Marginalia Natalius, Confessor. Ex Euseb. lib. 5 cap. 28. This Natalius had suffred persecution before like a constant confessor, who being seduced and persuaded by Asclepiodotus and Theodorus (which were the Disciples of Theodocus) to take vpon him to be bishop of their sect, promising to geue him euery month an hundreth and fiftie pieces of siluer, and so he ioyning himselfe to them, was admonished by vision and reuelatiō from the Lord. For such was the great mercy of God, and of our Lord Christ Iesu, that he would not his Martyr, which had suffered so much for his name before, now to perish out of his church. Marginalia The Lord will not loose them which haue done or suffered anye thing for him. For the which cause (sayth Eusebius) God by certaine visions did admonish him. But he not taking great heede thereunto, beyng blynded partly with lucre, partly with honor, was at length all the night long scourged of the Angels: In so much that he beyng made thereby very sore, and early on the morow putting on sackcloth, with much weeping and lamentation went to Zephyrinus the bishop aboue mentioned, where he falling down before him and all the Christian congregation, shewed them the stripes of his body, and prayed them for the mercies [illegible text]o: Christ, that he might be receiued into their communion again, from which he had sequestred himselfe before. And so was admitted according as he desired.

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After the decease of Pontianus Bishoppe of Rome afore mentioned, succeeded next in that place Anterius Marginalia Anterius, Byshop of Rome martyr. of whom Isuardus writeth that Pontianus departing away, did substitute him his roome. But Eusebius writeth that he succeeded immediately after him. Damasus sayth, that because he caused the actes and deathes of the Martyrs to be written, therefore he was put to martirdome himselfe, by Maximinus the Iudge. Concerning the tyme of this Byshop, our writers do greatly iarre. Marginalia Authors disagree. Eusebius and Marianus Scotus affirme that he was Bishop but one moneth. Sabellicus sayth that not to be so. Damasus assigneth to him xij. yeares & one moneth. Volateranus, Bergomensis, and Henricus Erford, geue to him three yeares & one moneth. Nauclerus writeth that he sat one yeare and one moneth. All which are so farr discrepant one from an other, that which of them most agreeth with truth, it lyeth in doubt. Next to this Bishop was Fabianus, of whom more is to be said hereafter.

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Of Hippolytus, Marginalia Hyppolitus Byshop and Martyr. also both Eusebius and Hieronymus maketh mention that he was a bishop, but where, they make no relation. And so likewise doth Theodoretus witnes him to be a bishop, and also a Martyr, but namyng no place. Gelasius contra Eutichen sayth, he dyed a Martyr, and that he was bishop of an head Citie in Arabie. Nicephorus writeth, that he was Bishop of Ostia, a port towne neare to Rome. Certain it is, he was a great writer, and left many workes in the Church, which Eusebius and Hierome do recite: by the supputation of Eusebius, he was about the yeare of our Lord, 230.

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Prudentius in his Peristephanon, Marginalia Prudentius Peristepha. making mentiō of great heapes of Martyrs buried by lx. together, speaketh also of Hippolytus, and sayth that he was drawn with wild horses through fields, dales and bushes, and describeth thereof a pitifull story.

After the Emperour Gordianus, the Empire fell to Philippus, who with Philip his sonne, gouerned the space of vj. yeares, an. 246. Marginalia Philippus Emperour. Anno. 246. This Philippus with his sonne and all his familie, was christened and conuerted by Fabianus & Origene, who by letters exhorted him and Seuera his wife to be baptised, being the first of all the Emperours that brought in Christianity into the emperiall seat. Marginalia Philippus the first Christian Emperour. Howsoeuer Pomponius Letus reporteth of him to be a dissembling prince, this is certayne, that for his Christianitye, he with his sonne was slayne of Decius one of his Captaynes. Sabellicus Bergomensis Lib 8. sheweth this hatred of Decius agaynst Philippus to be conceaued, for that the Emperour Philip both the Father and the sonne had committed their treasures vnto Fabianus then Bishop of Rome.

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The seuenth persecution.

THus Philippus beyng slayne, after him Decius inuaded the crowne about the yeare of our Lord, 250, Marginalia Decius Emperour. Anno. 250. by whom

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