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Ludlow [Ludlowe]

Shropshire

OS grid ref: SO 515 745

 
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Norwich
NGR: TG 230 070

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Humbleyard, county of Norfolk, of which it is the capital. 108 miles north-east by north from London. The city comprises 33 parishes, and the liberty of the city a further four. Of these 37, three are rectories, 12 are discharged rectories, three are vicarages, one is a discharged vicarage, and 18 are perpetual curacies. St Andrew, St Helen, St James, St Paul and Lakenham are within the peculiar jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter; the rest are in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Norwich, of which the city is the seat.

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Further information:

Andrews church (now St Andrews Hall) is at the junction of St Andrews Street and Elm Hill.

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Ravenna

[Rauenna]

Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Coordinates: 44° 25' 0" N, 12° 12' 0" E

 
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Smithfield

in the northwest part of the city of London

OS grid ref: TQ 31574 81732

Historic livestock market and place of execution

 
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Worcester
NGR: NGR: SO 855 554

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the county of Worcester, of which it is the capital. Seat of the Bishopric of Worcester. 111 miles north west by west from London. The City comprises the parishes of St Alban, All Saints, St Andrew, St Clement, St Helen, St Martin, St Nicholas, St Peter and St Swithin. All in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. St Alban is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; All Saints is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Crown; St Andrew is a discharged vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Clement is a discharged rectory in the same patronage; St Helen is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Nicholas is a discharged rectory in the patronage of the Bishop; St Martin is a rectory in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter; St Peter is a vicarage in the same patronage; and St Swithin is a discharged rectory in the same patronage.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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824 [800]

K. Hen. 8. The progeny of K. Henry 7. Dissention amongest Friers.

MarginaliaBlacke heathe fielde.bassadours whith tree swordes, and three cappes of maintenance, electing and admitting hym to be the chiefe defendor of the faith. The commendation of which facte, howe glorious it is in the eyes of Georgius Lilius, and Fabian, that I leaue to them. 

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Foxe undoubtedly learned of Lily's account of this episode from Bale,who characteristically asserted that Lily 'gloriatur Henricum septimum hanc adorasseBabylonicam bestiam ac monstram Sodomiticum' (Catalogus, p. 645). Bale does notcite Fabyan. The account of the three orators being sent to the Pope is from George Lily, Chronicon (Frankfurt, 1560), fo. 66v. The account of embassies sent by the popes to Henry VII is from Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian (London, 1559),STC 10663, p. 535.

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This I suppose, that when Kyng Henry sent to Pope Iulius three Orators, wyth obedience, if he had sent him thre thousand harquebuziers to furnish his fielde against the French king fighting at Rauenna, hee had pleased pope Iulius much better. If Georgius Lilius had bene disposed to illustrate his story with notes, MarginaliaEx Masseo lib. 20. this had bene more worthy the noting, howe Ludouike 12. French king calling his Parliament, moued this question against Pope Iulius: whether a Pope might inuade any Prince by warlike force, wythout cause, and whether the prince might withdraw hys obedience from that Pope, or not? And it was concluded in the same Parliament wyth the king, against the Pope. 
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Although Foxe cites Christian Massaeus as his source, he is drawingon Bale, Catalogus, p. 643, which gives the same citation from Massaeus.

Also it was concluded the same time (which was in the raigne of this king Henry 7). that the * Marginalia* Pragmatica sanctio was a practising, or a determination of a certaine parliament in Fraunce against the Bishop of Rome, in defēce of certaine matters of religion concluded in the coūcel of Basill. Pragmatical sanction 
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The Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges upheld the autonomous authority of the church of France and disallowed papal nominations to vacant benefices. Thesanction was issued in 1438, not, as Foxe claims, in the reign of Henry VII (1485-1509).

should be receiued in ful force and effect, through all the realme of Fraunce.

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MarginaliaA note of Gods plagues folowing the burning of his people.And for so muche as wee are fallen into the mention of Georgius Lilius, this in hym is to be found not vnworthy noting, howe after the burning of Thomas Norice, aboue mentioned, pag. 775. at the citie of Norwich, that the same yeare followed such a fire in Norwich, that the whole Citie, well neare, was therewith consumed. 

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Bale (Catalogus, p. 644) notes that Lily mentions the fire inNorwich and Bale concludes that it was providential revenge for the execution ofNoris. Lily, who recorded the fire (George Lily, Chronicon [Frankfurt, 1560], fo. 67r) said nothing about Noris. On Noris see John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae…Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 644. Bale has an additional detail not in Foxe: Noris was from Brockforth, Suffolk.

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Ex Geor. Lilio. Like as also after the burning of the foresayde good aged father in Smithfield, the same yeare (which was 1500.) we reade in the Chronicle of Fabian a great plague to fall vppon the Citie of London, to the great destruction of the inhabitantes therof. Wherein agayne is to be noted (as is aforesayd) that according to the state of the church, the disposition of the common wealth commonly is guided, eyther to be wyth aduersitie afflicted, or els in prosperitie to flourish. 
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In the continuation of Fabyan's chronicle, the entry for a devastatingplague in London, immediately follows the entry recording the burning of an 'oldeheretick' in 1500. The chronicler did not associate the two incidents (Robert Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], STC 10663, p. 532). On the heretic burnedin 1500 see The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas andI. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan’s Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London,1911], p. 687.

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But after these notes of King Henry 7. nowe to the storie of king Henry 8.

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This king Henry 7. finishing his course in the yeare abouesayd, which was 1509. had by Elizabeth hys wife aboue named, MarginaliaThe children & ofspring of king Henry. 7.foure men children, and of women children as many. Of whome 3. onely suruiued: to wit, prince Henry, Lady Margarete, and Lady Mary. Of whome King Henry the eight after hys father succeded. MarginaliaLady Margaret maried to king Iames 4. of Scotland. Lady Margaret maried to the K. of Castile.Lady Margaret was marryed to Iames the fourth king of Scottes. Ladie Mary was affied to Charles king of Castile.

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Not long before the death of king Henry, prince Arthur his elder sonne had espoused Lady Katherine daughter to Ferdinandus, MarginaliaPrince Arthur maried to Lady Katherine daughter to the Spanishe king. being of the age of 15. yeares, and shee about the age of 17. and shortly after hys mariage, wythin 5. monethes, departed at Ludlowe, MarginaliaThe death of Prince Arthur. and was buried at Worcester. After whose decease the succession of the Crowne fell next to king Henry the 8. being of the age of 18. yeres, who entred hys raigne the yeare of our Lorde 1509. and shortly after maried with the foresayde Katherine, MarginaliaK. Henry marieth Lady Katherine his brothers wyfe. his later brother Prince Arthurs wife, to the end, that her dowry being great, shoulde not be transported out of the lande. In the which his marriage being more politique, then Scripture like, he was dispensed wyth by pope Iulius, MarginaliaBlind dispēsatiōs of the Pope. at the request of Ferdinandus her father. The raigne of this king continued with great noblenes and fame, the space of 38. yeres. During whose time and raigne was greate alteration of things, as well to the ciuile state of the Realme, as especially to the state Ecclesiasticall, and matters of the Church appertaining. For by him was exiled and abolyshed out of the Realme, the vsurped power of the Byshop of Rome, Idolatrye and superstition somewhat repressed, Images and pilgrimages defaced, Abbeys and monasteries pulled downe, Sectes of religion rooted out, Scriptures reduced to the knowledge of the vulgarr tongue, and the state of the Church and religion redressed. Concerning all whyche things, in the processe of thys volume heere folowing, wee will endeuour (Christe willing) particularly and in order to discourse: after that first we shall comprehende a fewe matters, which within the beginning of hys raigne are to be noted and collected. Where, leauing of to write of Empson and Dudley, who in the time of king Henry 7. being great doers in executing the penall lawes ouer the people at that time, and purchasing thereby more malyce then lands, with that whych they had gotten, were shortly after the entring of this king beheaded, the one a Knight, the other an Esquier: leauing also to intermeddle wt hys wars, triumphes, and other temporal affaires, 

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It is rather remarkable that Foxe mentions Empson and Dudley at all.Edmund Dudley was the grandfather of Robert Dudley, the earl of Leicester, who wasa sponsor of the Acts and Monuments. Foxe probably included this brief mention of them as a warning to evil counsellors. This warning would almost certainly have been more strident if it were not for Edmund Dudley's good fortune in descendants.

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we meane in this volume principally to bestowe our trauaile in declaration of matters concerning moste chiefly the state of the Church and of religion, as well in this Church of England, as also of the whole Church of Rome.

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Wherein first commeth to our handes a turbulent tragedie, and a fierce contention, 

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Dissension among mendicant orders

This section of the Acts and Monuments consists of three separatestrands. The first, and largest, is on account of the late medieval debates over the Immaculate Conception, which Foxe casts as a doctrinal schism between theFranciscans and the Dominicans. (Foxe's purpose in this was twofold: to discredit the mendicant orders and also to turn the charge of doctrinal disunity, frequently employed by the Catholics against the Protestants, back upon the Catholics). The second strand is a brief account of a notorious case of fraud that led to the execu-tion of four Dominicans in Berne in 1509; again, Foxe's objective was to discreditthe mendicant orders. He also used the episode to denounce the 'superstition' ofthe Church before Luther (he also used the debate over the Immaculate Conception and the Jetzer affair to denounce this 'superstition'). Finally, Foxe has a caustic summary of the bellicose career of Julius II.

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Foxe's sources for this section are interesting and reveal something of bothhis wide reading in incunabula and his continuing contacts with the Continent. Foxe'saccount of the debates over the Immaculate Conception as taken entirely from Jodocus Clichtoveus's De puritate conceptionis beatae Mariae virginis (Paris, 1513).This work, by a highly respected Sorbonne theologian, sought to defend the immaculist position against Dominican attacks. (For a discussion of De puritatesee J-P Massaut, Critique et tradition à la vielle de la Réforme en France [Paris,1974], pp. 37-45). Foxe cites Peucer's edition of Carion's chronicle, Sebastion Munster's Cosmographia and Bale's Catalogus as sources for his account of thescandal at Berne. Undoubtedly Foxe read their brief accounts of the episode, buthe bases his account on - directly or indirectly - on Johann Stumpf's chronicleand possibly on Thomas Murner's scathing account of the affair. For Julius II, Foxe, as was often the case, turned to Bale.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

which long before had trou-bled che Churche, and nowe thys present yeare 1509. was renewed afresh betweene two certaine orders of begging friers, to wit, the Dominike friers, and the Franciscanes, about the Conception of the virgine Marye, the mother of Christe.

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MarginaliaFranciscane Friers.The Franciscanes were they, which did holde of S. Fraunces, & followed the rule of his testament commonly called Gray friers, or Minorites. Their opiniō was this: that the virgine Mary preuented by the grace of the holy Ghost was so sanctified, that shee was neuer subiecte one moment in her conception, to Original sinne. MarginaliaDominicke Fryers.The Dominike Friers were they, which holding of Dominike, were commonly called Blacke friers, or preaching friers. Theyr opinion was, that the virgine Mary was conceiued, as all other children of Adam be: so that thys priuiledge onely belongeth to Christe, to be conceiued wythout Originall sinne: notwithstanding the sayd blessed virgin was sanctified in her mothers wombe, and purged from her Original sinne, so as was Iohn Baptist, Ieremie, or any other priuileged person. MarginaliaA troublous dissention in the Church for the conception of the Virgin Mary.This friuolous questiō kindling and gendring betweene these two sectes of friers, brast out in suche a flame of partes and sides taking, that it occupyed the heades and wits, scholes, and vniuersities almost through the whole Church, 

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Notice how Foxe exaggerates what was admittedly an intense debateinto a virtual schism which threatened to engulf Christendom.

some holding one parte wyth Scotus, some the other parte with Thom. Aquine. The Minorites holding with Scotus their maister, disputed and concluded, that she was conceiued without al spot or note of Original sinne, and therupon caused the feast and seruice of the conception of S. Mary the virgine to be celebrate and solemnised in the Church. MarginaliaWhether the Virgin Mary was conceaued without originall sinne.Contrary, the Dominike Friers taking side wyth Aquinas, preached that it was heresie to affirme that the blessed virgine was conceiued without the guilte of Originall sinne: and that they which did celebrate the feast of her Conception, or sayd any Masses thereof, did sinne greeuously and mortally.

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In the meane time as thys fantasie waxed hote in the church, the one side preaching against the other, came pope Sixtus 4. Anno 1476. who ioyning side wyth the Minorites or Franciscanes, first sent forth his decree 

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All of the material on Sixtus IV's decree comes from Jodocus Clichtoveus, De puritate conceptionis beatae Mariae virginis (Paris, 1513), fos.22v-23v.

by authoritie Apostolique, willing, ordaining, and commaunding all men to solemnise thys new found feast of the conception in holy Church for euermore: MarginaliaA new foūd feast of the conception of the virgin Mary. offering to all men and women, which deuoutly frequenting the church, wold heare masse and seruice from the first euensong of the sayde feast, to the Octaues of the same, as many dayes of pardone, as Pope Vrbane the 4. and Pope Martin the 5. did graunt for hearing the seruice of Corpus Christi day. &c. and thys Decree was geuen and dated at Rome. An. 1476.

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MarginaliaA new Aue Maria of the Popes making.Moreouer the same Pope, to the entent that the deuotion of the people myght bee the more encouraged to the celebration of thys Conception, hee added a clause more to the Aue Maria, MarginaliaThe Pope addeth to the wordes of the scripture. graunting great indulgence and release of sinnes to all such as woulde inuocate the blessed Virgine, wyth the same addition, saying thus: Aue Maria, gratia plena, Dominus tecum, benedicta tu in mulieribus, & benedictus fructus ventris tui Iesus Christus, & benedicta sit Anna mater tua, de qua sine macula, tua processit caro virginea. Amen. That is, Haile Marie full of grace, the Lord is with thee, blessed art thou among women, & blessed is the fruite of thy wombe, Iesus Christ: and blessed is Anna thy mother, of whome thy virgines flesh hath proceeded wythout blot of originall sinne. Amen.

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Marginalia3. absurdities to be noted in this decree of the pope.Wherin thou maist note (gentle reader) for thy learning three things: First how the Pope turneth that vnproperly into a prayer, whiche properly was sent of God for a message or tidinges. Secondly, howe the Pope addeth to the wordes of the Scripture, contrary to the expresse precept of the Lorde. Thirdly, howe the Pope exempteth Marye the blessed virgine, not onely from the seede of Abraham and Adam, but also frō the condition of a mortall creature. For if there be in her no originall sinne, then she beareth not the Image of Adam, neither doth shee descende of that seede, of whose sede euil proceedeth vpon al men and women to cōdemnation, as S. Paul doth teach. Rom. 5. MarginaliaRom 5. Wherfore if she descende of that seede, then the infection of Originall euill must necessarily proceede vnto her. If she descend not therof, then commeth she not of the seede of Abraham, nor of the seede of Dauid. &c. Againe, seeing that death is the effect and stipende of sinne, by the doctrine of S. Paule, Roma. 6. MarginaliaRom. 6. then had her flesh iniurye by the lawe (as Christe hym selfe had) to suffer the malediction and punishment of death, and so should neuer haue died, if originall sinne had no place in her. &c. But to returne vnto our storie: Thys constitution of the Pope being set foorth for the conception of the blessed virgin, which was the yeare of our Lorde 1476. it was not long after, but the sayde Pope Sixtus perceiuing that the Dominike friers with their complices wold not conforme

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