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BerneMirandola [Mirandula]Modena (Mutina)
 
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Berne
Berne
NGR:

Unidentified

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Mirandola [Mirandula]

Modena, Italy

Coordinates: 44° 53' 0" N, 11° 4' 0" E

 
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Modena (Mutina)

Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Cathedral city; university town

Coordinates: 44° 39' 0" N, 10° 56' 0" E

826 [798]

K. Hen. 8. Foure Friers burned. The death of P. Julius. Persecution in London dioces.

ple therwith were brought in a maruelous perswasion, til at length the fraude being espied, the Friers were taken, condemned, and burned at Berne, Marginalia4 Friers burned at Berne. the yere aboue mentioned. 1509. 

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In the first decade of the sixteenth century, one Jetzer, a novitiate atthe Dominican convent in Berne, began to have visions of the Virgin Mary andvarious saints. Encouraged by the prior of the convent, Jetzer publicly announcedhis visions, which were confirmed by a statue of the Virgin that miraculously moved,wept, groaned, etc. These visions appear to have been originally intended to glorify the convent, but they rapidly came to have been used to buttress the Dominican order.Ultimately Jetzer claimed that the Virgin Mary denounced the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception in his visions. After an investigation by the Church, fourDominicans, including the prior (but not including Jetzer) were found guilty of fraud, handed over to the secular authorities and burned at Berne on 31 May 1509. (For details of the case see R. Reuss, 'La procès des Dominicains de Berne en 1507-1509',Revue de l'histoire des religions 52 [1905], pp. 237-59 and Die Akten des Jetzerprozesses nebst dem Defensionnium, ed. Rudolf Steck, Quellen zur Scweitzergeschichte 21 [Basel, 1904]). The affair became an international scandal,discussed in Erasmus's colloguy Exequiae Seraphicae (1531).

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Ex Peucer. Sabast. Munstero, Carione, & alijs. In the Centuries of Iohn Bale, I finde their names to be Ioannes Vetter, Franciscus Vliscus, Stephanus Bolizhorst, and Henricus Steinegger.

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In the storie of Ioh. Stumfius, this story aforesayde doth partly appeare: but in the Registers and Recordes of the Citie of Berne, the order and circumstance therof is more fully expressed and set foorth both in meter and prose, 

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From this note, it is clear that Foxe was drawing on Johann Stumpf's chronicle, which contained a detailed account of the Jetzer affair (Johann Stumpf, Gemeiner loblicher Eydgenossschaft…Chronikwirdiger [Zurich, 1548], fos 455r-459r) and on civic records of the affair. (These may, or may not, have also includedThomas Murner's account of the affair, De quattor heresiarchis…in civitate Bernensicombustus, which was printed in Berne in 1509). These materials were probably sent to Foxe by a contact in Switzerland. (Since there is no evidence that Foxe could readGerman, and since Stumpf's chronicle was not available in Latin, Foxe's contactprobably translated extracts from it for the martyrologist).

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and is thus declared.

MarginaliaEx Histor. Fernensi conscripta vulgari et latino sermone.In the Citye of Berne there were certaine Dominike friers, to the nūber chiefly of 4. principall doers, and chieftaines of that Order, who had inueigled a certaine simple poore frier, who had newly planted himselfe in the cloister: whome the foresayd Friers had so infatuated wyth sundry superstitions, & fained apparitions of S. Maria, S. Barbara, and S. Catherina, 

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Not the martyr St. Catherine, but St. Catherine of Siena, who was arguably the most famous Dominican mystic of the Middle Ages.

and wt their inchauntments, and imprinting moreouer in hym the woundes of S. Fraunces, that he beleeued plainely, that the Virgine Mary had appeared to hym, and had offered to hym a red hoost consecrated, with the bloud also of Christ myraculous: whych blessed virgin had also sent him to the senatours of Berne, with instructions, declaring vnto them, from the mouth of the virgine, þt she was conceiued in sinne, & that the Franciscane friers were not to be credited nor suffered in the city, which were not yet reformed from that erroneous opinion of her conception. He added moreouer that they shuld resort to a certaine image there of þe virgine Mary (whych image the Friers by engines had made to sweat) & should do their worship, & make their oblations to the same. &c.

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This fained deuise was not so soone forged by the Friers, but it was assone beleued of the people: so that a great while the red coloured host was takē vndoubtedly for the true body and bloud of Christ, and certain coloured drops therof sent abroad to diuers noble personages and estates for a great relique, and that not wythout great recōpence. Thus the deceiued people in great number came flocking to the image, and to the red host, and coloured bloud, with manifolde giftes and oblations. In briefe, the Dominike friers so had wrought the matter, and had so swept all the fatte to their owne beardes, from the order of the Franciscanes, that all the almes came to their boxe. The Franciscanes seeing their estimation to decay, and their kitchen to waxe colde, and their panches to be pinched, not able to abide that contumely, & being not ignorant or vnacquainted with suche counterfaited doings (for as the Prouerbe sayth. It is il halting before a creeple) eftsoones espied theyr craftye iuggling, and detected theyr fraudulent myracles. 

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In fact, the Franciscans played no part at all in unmasking the Dominicans. The fraud was exposed by an investigation initiated by the bishop of Lausanne and furthered by a papal commission.

Wherupon the 4. chiefe captaines aboue named were apprehended, and put to the fire: of whom the Prouinciall of that order was one.

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And thus much touching the beginning & ende of this tumultuous and popish tragedy: wherin euidently it may appeare to the Reader, howe neither these turbulent friers could agree among themselues, and yet in what friuolous trifles they wrangled together. 

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Foxe is using mendicant disagreements to support his claim that there is doctrinal disunity among Catholics.

MarginaliaFriers neither can agree with themselues nor yet do disagree but in vaine trifles. But to let these ridiculous friers passe, wt their trifling phantasies, most worthy to be derided of all wise men: in the meane time this is to be lamented, to beholde the miserable times of the Churche, in which the deuil kept the minds of Christes people so attētiue and occupied in such frierly toyes, that nothing els almost was taught or heard in the church, but only the commendation and exaltation of the virgin Mary. MarginaliaThe miserable blindnes of the time considered. But of our iustification by faith, of grace and the promises of God in Christ, of the strength of the law, of the horrour of sinne, of difference betwene the lawe and the Gospel, of the true liberty of conscience. &c. no mētion or very litle was heard. 
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Foxe now uses both the debate over the Immaculate Conception and the Jetzer affair to denounce the 'superstition' of the Church before Luther.

Wherefore in this so blinde time of darknes, it was muche needefull and requisite, that the Lord of his mercy shoulde looke vpon his churche, & send downe hys gratious reformation, which also he did. For shortly vpon the same, thorowe the gratious excitation of God, came Martine Luther, of whome the order of story nowe requireth that we should and will intreat (Christ willingly) after the storie of Richard Hunne, and a fewe other things premised, for the better opening of the storie to folowe.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1510. Pope Iulius plaieth the warrior.Mention was made sufficiently before of the doings of Pope Iulius, and of hys warlike affaires, for the whych he was condemned, and not vniustly in the coūcell of Turone in Fraunce, Anno 1510. and yet all thys coulde not asswage the furious affection of this pope, but the same yere he inuaded the Citie of Mutina and Mirandula in Italie, and tooke them by force of warre. 

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This summary of the wars of Julius II is drawn entirely from Bale, Catalogus, pp. 636 and 643-44.

MarginaliaAnno. 1512. The Pope ouercome in BattaileWhich Pope Iulius not long after, in the yeare of our Lorde 1512. refusing peace offered by Maximilian the Emperour, was encounteredby Lewes the French king, about Rauenna, vpon Easter day, where he was vanquished, and had of his army slaine to the number of xvj. thousande. Ex Chron. Carion. MarginaliaAnno. 1513. The death of Pope Iulius.And the yere next folowing. Anno 1513. this Apostolical warriour, which had resigned his keyes vnto the riuer of Tybris before, made an end together both of fighting, and liuing, after he had raigned and fought x. yeeres. Atter whome succeded next in the sea of Rome, MarginaliaPope Leo. xPope Leo the 10. About the compasse of which time, great mutatiōs and stirres began to worke, as well in states temporall, as especially in the state of the Church.

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MarginaliaThe state & succession of Princes.Pope Leo 10. in Rome.An. 1513.9.
Charles 5. Emperour in
Germanie.An. 1519.reig-39.
Fraunces K. of France.An. 1515.ned.32.
Henry 8. K. of England.An. 1509.38.
Iames 5. K. of Scotlād.An. 1514.

In the time of which Pope, Emperour, and kinges of England, and of France, great alterations, troubles, and turnes of religion were wrought into the Churche, by the mighty operation of Gods hand in Italy, Fraunce, Germanie, Englande, and all Europe, suche as haue not bene seene (although muche groned for) many hundreth yeares before: as in further discourse of this historie (Christe willing) more manifestly shall appeare.

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But before wee come to these alterations, taking the time as it lieth before vs, wee will first speake of Richarde Hunne, and certaine other godly minded persons heere in Englande afflicted 

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Persecution of Lollards

As Foxe's opening comments indicate, this section was intended as a preface for Foxe's account of the Hunne case which follows it. Foxe's purpose indescribing these late Lollard martyrs and confessors was, as always, to demonstrate the existence of the True Church before Luther (using the existence of the Lollards). Foxe also probably wished to make's Hunne's ordeal seem less exceptional and more part of a general pattern of persecution. With the exception of John Browne (see 1570 pp. 1453-1480; 1576, pp. 1239-41 and 1255; 1583, pp. 1276-1293), all of these Lollards are from the diocese of London. Foxe's source for these martyrs - except for his account of John Browne - is the register of Bishop Fitzjames or diocesan courtbooks that have not survived that Foxe drew upon.

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Both the records and the Lollards themselves gave Foxe a good deal of trouble. The records not only listed numerous abjurations by the Lollards, they alsolisted of opinions they held which were embarrassing to Foxe. Occasionally Foxe tried to explain these inconvenient facts, more frequently, however, Foxesimply excised the offending passages from the documents that he quoted (as in the accounts of Joan Baker and William Pottier).

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Thomas S. Freeman

for the woorde of Christes Gospell in great multitude, 
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In this case 'great multitudes' actually means around 40 people.

as they be found and taken out of the Registers of Fitziames Bishop of London, by the faithfull helpe and industry of R. Carket citizen of London. 
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This is a very valuable (and rare) indication by Foxe of the assistancehe received in having official transcribed. It also indicates that, even for records in London, Foxe relied on transcriptions of archival documents, rather than examiningthe documents himself.

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The historie of diuers good men and women, persecuted for religion in the Citie of Dioces of the Bishop of London, briefly extracted out of the Registers of Richard Fitziames.

AMongest and besides the great number of the faithful martyrs and professours of Christe, that constantly in the strength of the holy Ghost, gaue their liues for the testimonie of his truthe, I finde recorded in the Register of London, betwene the yeares of our Lorde. 1509. and 1527. MarginaliaEx Registro Fitziames. the names of diuers other persons both men and women: who in the fulnes of that darke and mystie times of ignoraunce, had also some portion of Gods good spirite whiche induced them to the knowledge of his trueth and Gospel, and were diuersly troubled, persecuted, and imprisoned for the same: 

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Here, and in the following passages, Foxe tries to justify both theoccasional 'erroneous' beliefs of the Lollards as well as their readiness to abjuretheir believes rather than die for them.

notwithstanding by the proud, cruell and bloudy rage of the Catholique seat, and through the weaknes and frailtie of their owne nature (not then fully strengthned in God) it was againe in them, for the time, suppressed and kept vnder, as appeareth by their seueral abiuratiōs made before Richard Fitziames then bishop of London (in hys time a most cruell persecutor of Christes church) or els before his vicar general deputed for þe same. MarginaliaThe professiō of the Protestantes no new doctrine.And for asmuch as many of the aduersaries of Gods trueth, haue of late dayes disdainefully and braggingly cried out, and made demaunds in their publique assemblies and yet do, asking where this our church and religion was wythin these 50. or 60. yeares: 
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Foxe is stating here precisely why these Lollards were importantassets to his history, despite the their theological imperfections and 'weaknesses';they provided evidence that there was a church before Luther despite Catholicclaims to the contrary.

I haue thought it not altogether vaine, somewhat to stop such lying crakers, both by mentioning theyr names, and likewyse opening some of the chiefe and principal matters, for which they wer so vnmercifully afflicted and molested, thereby to geue to vnderstand, as wel the continuaunce and consent of the true church of Christe in that age, touching the chiefe poynts of our faith, though not in like perfection of knowledge and cōstancie in all: as also by the way, something to touch what fond and friuolous matters the ignoraunt Prelates shamed not in that time of blindnesse to obiect against the poore & simple people, accounting them as heynous and great offences, yea, such as deserued death both of body and soule. 
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Here, and in the following passages, Foxe tries to justify both theoccasional 'erroneous' beliefs of the Lollards as well as their readiness to abjuretheir believes rather than die for them.

But least I shauld seeme to prolixe and tedious heerein, I will nowe briefly prceede wyth the storie, and first begin wyth theyr names, whych are these. 
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Foxe asserts that these names came from Bishop Fitzjames's register.Some of these people are mentioned in Fitzjames's register; most are not. Instead,Foxe was almost certainly drawing on a courtbook, now lost, of heresy trials in thediocese during this period (There is corroboration for these heretical trials in notes made by James Ussher (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fos. 122r-125r).

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Anno.Ioanne Baker.Lewes Iohn.
1510.William Pottyer.Ioanne Iohn.
Iohn Forge.Ihon Webbe, alias Ba-
Thomas Goodred.ker. MarginaliaAnno. 1512.
Thomas Walker, aliasIohn Houshold.
Talbot.Robert Rascal. MarginaliaAnno. 1517.
Thomas Forge.Elizabeth Stanford.
Alyce Forge.George Browne. MarginaliaAnno. 1518.
Iohn Forge, theyr son.Iohn Wykes.
William Couper.Richard Butler.
Iohn
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