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Aldermanbury [Aldermanberie]

London

 
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Bermondsey [Barmondsey; Barmsey]

Middlesex, Southwark, London

Site of the Cluniac abbey of St Saviour's, which possessed an ancient cross found near the Thames in 1117; pilgrimage site [VCH: Surrey, vol 2 (1967) pp. 64-77]

 
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Stratford (Stratford Langthorne)

Newham, east London

OS grid ref: TQ 375 835

 
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Willesden

[Wilsdone; Wilsedon]

Middlesex, London

OS grid ref: TQ 225 845

838 [814]

K. Hen. 8. Defence of Ric. Hun against Cope. Diuerse men and wemen forced to abiure.

And as touching my former historyes set foth in latine and in English, which speake first of the foremanne of the quest, then of the kinges Attorney to be labored with some giftes or mony: as Cope hath yet proued no vntruth in my saying, so lesse can he finde any repugnaunce or disagreeing in the same. 

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In the Rerum (p. 121), Foxe stated that the foreman of the coroner's jury had been bribed to find Horsey not guilty. In the 1563 edition (p. 391), he claimed that the King's Attorney had been bribed to find Horsey innocent. Harpsfield pointed out the contradiction and demanded what proof Foxe had of either charge? (Dialogi sex, p. 848). Foxe avoids the issue of bribery (by 1570, he knows that Henry VIII ordered Horsey to found innocent) by stating, after some bluster, that he had repeated what Edward Hall had said in his chronicle.

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For he that speaketh of bribing, first of one person, and then afterward of another, where both might be bribed together, is not contrary (I thinke) to himselfe, but rather doth comprehend that in the one booke, whiche he before leaueth out in the other, and yet no great repugnāce either in the one or in the other, seing þt which is sayd, may be verified in both, as it is no other like but in this matter it was. For how is it otherwise like or possible, but that there must nede be found some priuy packing in this matter, seeing after such euidence found and brought in by the Crowners inquest and Iury of 24. chosen persons, after so many marks and tokens of the murder so cleare and demonstrable, and layd forth so playne to the eies of all the world, that no manne coulde deny, or not see the same? yet through the handling of the foresayde Attorney, and of the foreman of the quest, the murderers were borne out, & confessed to be no murderers. If such bolstring out of matters and parciality were then suche a rare case in the Realme of England in the time of Cardinal Wolsey, who then vnder the king, and in the kinges name did what he list: then let it seeme vntrue in my former stories, that I haue writtē. And yet the words of my story which Cope carpeth at so much, be not mine, but the words of Ed. Hall MarginaliaEx Edu. Halle, in vit. Henr. 8. anno. 6. his owne author. 
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Edward Hall, The unyon of the twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York (London, 1550), fo. Lv.

Wherfore if his disposition be so set, that he must needs be a censor of other mens writinges, let him expostulate wyth Hall, and not with me.

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But I trouble the reader too much in this matter of Richard Hunne, being of it selfe so cleare, that no indifferent iudge can doubt therof. As for wranglers and quarrellers they will neuer be satisfied. Wherefore to returne agayn to the purpose of our story intermitted, in the table aboue, cōteining the names 

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Lollard martyrs

Foxe's account of these victims of a crackdown against heresy initiated by Bishop Fitzjames of London in the years 1517-20, comes largely from a now lost courtbook of London diocese. Some of the material in this courtbook, however, was summarized in notes taken by Archbishop James Ussher (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775, fos. 122r-125r). For the case of Thomas Man he appears to have also drawn on a courtbook from Lincoln diocese, which is now missing. He also used the Lincoln court book to correct and amplify cases that he had already discussed. Perhaps Foxe acquired the L courtbook whilst the 1570 edition was being printed. Or alternatively it may be the case that he collated the information he received from individual informants with other material which he found in the diocesan records. Once again, Foxe was concerned use these Lollards to show that there was a 'True Church' before Luther.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

of them whiche about this time of Richard Hunne, were forced to deny and abiure their professed opinions, pag. 774. mention was made of Elizabeth Stamford, MarginaliaAnno. 1517. Elizabeth Stamford. Iohn Houshold, and other mo, abiuring about the yeare of our Lord. 1517. 
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I.e., members of the Court of Arches, the central ecclesiastical court in medieval England.

Whose vexation and weaknesse although it be pitifull to behold, yet to consider the confession of theyr doctrine in those aūcient dayes, it is not vnprofitable. MarginaliaThe teaching of the former times to be considered.Wherein we haue to see the same fourme of knowledge and doctrine then taught and planted in the harts of our foreelders, which is now publiquely receiued, as well touching the Lordes Sacrament of his body, as also other specialities of sincerity. And although they lacked thē publique authority to maynteyne the open preaching and teaching of the Gospell, which the Lords merciful grace hath geuē vs now, yet in secret knowledge and vnderstanding they seemed then little or nothing inferiour to these our times of publicke reformation 
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Foxe's warm endorsement of these Lollards for their spiritual knowledge, is a consequence of his desire to show that there was a 'True Church' before Luther. But it also has an interesting, if implicit, anti-authoritarian message, that ordinary people might have spiritual insights denied to their superiors in status and education.

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: as may appeare by this cōfession of Elizabeth Stamford here vnder written, whiche only may suffice for exāple to vnderstand what ripe knowledge of Gods worde was then abroade, although not in churches publickely preached, for daunger of the bishops, yet in secret wise taught and receiued of diuers.

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In number of whom was this Elizabeth Stamford, 

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Regrettably there is no surviving record of Elizabeth Stamford's trial. Almost certainly, Foxe obtained it from a London court book.

who being brought and examined before Fitziames Bishop of London ann. 1517 confessed that she was taught by one Thomas Beele, MarginaliaThomas Beele. sometime dwelling at Henley, these wordes, 11. yeares before: That Christ feedeth, and fast nourisheth his Church with his owne precious body, that is, the breade of life comming downe from heauen: this is the worthy worde that is worthely receiued, and ioyned vnto man for to be in one body with him. Soth it is that they be both one, they may not be parted: this is the wisely deeminge of the holy Sacrament Christes owne body: this is not receiued by chewing of teeth, but by hearing of eares and vnderstanding with your soule, and wisely working thereafter. Therefore saith S. Paule, I feare me amongest vs, brethren, that many of vs be feeble and sicke, therefore I counsell vs brethren to rise & watch, that the great day of dome come not sodēly vpon vs, as the theefe doth vpon the Marchaunt. Also the sayd Thomas taught and shewed her, that the Sacrament of the aultar was not the very body of Christ, but very bread: and that the Sacrament was the very bodye of Christ put vppon the Crosse, after a diuine or mistical maner. And moreouer that þe said Thomas Beele did many times and ofte teache her thys foresayd lesson, that she should confesse her sinnes to God, and that the Popes pardons and indulgence were nought worth and profited not, and that worshipping of Images and pilgrimages are not to be done.

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To this Elizabeth Stamford, may also be annexed the doctrine and confession of Ioane Sampson, MarginaliaIoanne Sampson. wife of Iohn Sampson 

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This is apparently the Elizabeth Sampson, whose previous trial for heresy in 1509, was also recorded by Foxe. These articles bear a close relation to the previous charges against her, particularly in her denuncia- tion of pilgrimages to the images of the Virgin Mary at Willesden and Bermondsey and in her sacramentarianism. But the charges of her spitting at the Virgin Mary's name, her denouncing the invocation of the Virgin Mary by women during childbirth and her claim that it was better to eat the altercloth than the Eucharist, are new.

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Carpenter of Aldermanbury in London: Against whom being cited, and examined before the Bishopof London, certaine witnesses were producted: who vpon theyr othe being sworne, did detect and denounce the sayde Ioane Sampson in these articles and opinions folowing.

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MarginaliaArticles of Ioanne Sampson.1. First, that she being in her labour what time Ioane Sampson her predecessor then being aliue, was with her, and after the maner then of women, called much vpon the helpe of the virgin Mary, she spitting thereat, was in such sort agreeued, that the other party was compelled to forsake the house.

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2. Also, that she spake against pilgrimage, and the worshipping of the blessed virgine, and of all saints, affirming that there is none holy but one.

3. Item, an other time in the hearing of one Margaret Anworth, when shee and other women were inuocating the blessed Virgine to helpe in womens labour, shee stoode agaynst them, and contumeliously spake agaynst the inuocators.

4 Item, that shee speaking agaynst the Pilgrimage of our Lady of Wilsedon, (as she was then called) and of S. Sauiour at Barmsey, called the sayd Saynt Sauiour, S. Sawyer.

5. Item, for hauing two certayne bookes in Englishe, one bigger, and an other lesser, which shee committed to one Iohn Austed and Cooke, which bookes in the Register be not named.

MarginaliaAgainst the Sacraments of the altar.6 Item, that the sayde Ioane Sampson at a Supper in the hearing of certayne men, and of a certayne widdow named Ioane White, spake openly in contempt of the Sacrament of the aultar, saying that the Priestes were Idolaters which did lift vp the breade ouer theyr heades, making the people to worship it & making the people to beleue that it was the Lords body, and that it was better to eat the aultar cloth, if it might be eaten and digested as easily as the other.

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Here followeth moreouer the names of diuers other which in the Registers be specified to abiure, as MarginaliaThe names of diuers persons abiured.

William Iacum Carpēter.Iohn Geeste of Stratford.
Iohn Stradlyng.Iohn Bryan of the Parish
Iohn Newman Sherman.of S. Steuen.
Robert Boshel.Iohn Bol.
Tho. Edward Dyar.Richard Wescotte.
Richard Dewar.William Crosse.
Rich. Appulby.George Lawnd Prior of
Iohn Osborne.S. Sithe.
Robert Roger.Henry Colle.
Iohn Eton.William Manne.
Iohn Chapman.William Sweting.
William Chakon.Iacob Bruster.
Richard Myldnale.Sabine Manne.
Iohn Hatchot.Iohn Spencer.
Iacob Sturdey.Patricke Dowdal alias
Tho. Puruall Taylor.Capper.
Iohn Bytam.Robert Aleyn.
Rob. Hutton Pynner.Iohn Finch Cooke.
Robert Pope.Iohn Southwyke.

Agaynst this Iohn Southwike MarginaliaIohn Southwike. last named 

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Unfortunately there is no surviving record of this case.

, was layde & obiected, that whē one Riuelay cōming frō the church of the Gray friers in London, had sayde to his wife (asking where he had bene) that he had heard Masse, & had sene his Lord God in forme of bread & wine ouer þe priests head. &c. the foresayd Iohn Southwike there present aunswered agayn & sayd: nay, William, thou sawest not thy Lord God: thou sawest but bread, wine, & the Chalice. And when the sayd William answered agayn in þe same words, as before, saying: I trust verily that I saw my Lord God in forme of bread & wine, & this I doubt not: the other replying again answered & sayd, as before: nay, I tel thee, thou sawest but onely a figure or sacramēt of him, þe which is in substance, bread and wine &c. This was in the yere of our Lord. 1520 In which he was compelled to abiure.

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MarginaliaConsent of doctrine.All these aboue named in one key of doctrine & religion did hold & concord together, agaynst whō were obiected 5. or 6. especiall matters: to witte, for speaking agaynst worshipping of saynts, agaynst pilgrimage, agaynst inuocatiō of the blessed virgin, agaynst the sacramēt of the Lords body, & for hauing scripture bookes in English: which bookes especially I finde to be named, as these: the booke of the 4. Euangelistes, a booke of the Epistles of Paule and Peter, the Epistle of S. Iames, a booke of the Apocalips, and of Antichrist, of the 10. Comaundementes, and Wickeliffes wicket, with such other like. 

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For the wide circulation of these works among the London Lollards, and the importance these texts held for them, see Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1991), pp. 89-91.

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¶ Iohn Stilman, Martyr.

MarginaliaAnno. 1518.IT would aske a long tractation & tedious, to recite in order the greate multitude and number of good men & wo-

men,
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