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Berkhamsted [Barchamsted]Oxford
 
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Berkhamsted [Barchamsted]

Hertfordshire

OS grid ref: SP 995 082

 
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Oxford

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County town of Oxfordshire; university town

862 [838]

K. Hen. 8. Penance to relapsed persons. John Scriuener. Doctor Colet.

MarginaliaPenaunce enioyned to these abiurates vnder paine of relaps.vpon the highest grece of the Crosse there a quarter of an houre with a fagotte of wood euery one of them vpon hys shoulders, and euery one of them once to beare a fagotte of wood vpon theyr shoulders, before their procession vpon a Sonday, which shall be limited vnto them at Burford, frō the quyre doore going out, to the quyre doore going in, and all the high Masse time to holde the same fagot vpon theyr shoulders, kneeling vpon the grece afore the high aultar there, and euery of them likewise to doe likewise in theyr owne parish Church, vpon such a Sonday as shalbe limited vnto them: and once to beare a fagot at a generall procession at Oxbridge, when they shalbe assigned therto: and once to beare a fagot at the burning of an hereticke, when they shalbe monished therto.

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Also euery one of them to fast bread and ale onely euery Friday during theyr life, and euery euen of Corpus Christi euery one of them to fast bread and water during theyr life vnles sicknes vnfayned let the same.

Also to say euery of them euery Sonday and euery friday during theyr life, once our Ladye Psalter, & if they forget it one day, to say as much another day for the same.

Also they nor none of them, shall not hide the marke vpon theyr cheeke, neyther with hat, cap, hood kerchiefe, napkin, or none otherwise, nor shall not suffer theyr beardes to grow past 14. dayes, nor neuer to haunt againe together with any suspect person or persons, vnles it be in the open market, fayre, church or common Inne or alehouse, where other people may see theyr conuersation.

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And all these iniunctions they and euery of them, to fulfill with their penaunce, and euery part of the same, vnder payne of relaps.

And thus haue you the names, with the causes and the penance of them which were at this present abiured. By the which word * Marginalia* Abiured, what it signifieth. abiured, is ment that they were constrayned by theyr othe, swearing vpon the Euangelists, & subscribing with theyr hand, and a crosse to the same, that they did vtterly and voluntarily renoūce, detest, & forsake, and neuer should hold hereafter these, or any other like opinions, contrary to the determination of the holy mother church of Rome: and further, that they should detect vnto theyr ordinary, whome so euer they shoulde see, or suspect hereafter to teach, hold, or mayntayne the same.

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¶ Here folow the names of them, which were condemned for relaps, and committed vnto the secular power.

AMong these aforenamed persons, which thus submitted themselues, and were put to penance, certeine there were which because they had bene abiured before, as is aboue mentioned, pag. 814. MarginaliaVid. sup. pag. 814. vnder bishop Smith, were now condemned for relaps, and had sentence read agaynst them and so were committed to the secular arme, to be burned: Whose names here follow.

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Martyrs.
MarginaliaAnno. 1521.Thomas Bernard.
Iames Morden.
Robert Raue.
Iohn Scriuener. 
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The signification of the excommunication and relaxation of these four people survives as TNA, C/85/115/13.

Of these mention is made before, both touching theyr abiuration, and also their martirdome, pag. 814. vnto whō we may adioyne.

Ioane Norman.
Thomas Holmes.

MarginaliaTho. Holmes. Vid. supra. pag. 824.This Thomas Holmes, 

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Thomas Holmes informed against so many people that even Foxe is reluctant to credit him as a martyr; yet it was not enough to save him. Why he was treated with such unusual severity is unclear.

albeit he had disclosed and detected many of his brethrē, as in the table aboue is expressed, pag. 824. thinking thereby to please the Bishoppe & to saue himselfe, & was thought to be a feed man of the bishop for the same: yet notwithstanding in the sayd bishops register appeareth the sentence of relaps, & condemnation written & drawne out agaynst him: and most like that he was also adiudged and executed with the other.

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MarginaliaChildren compelled to set fire to their owne father.¶ As touching the burning of Ioh. Scriuener, here is to be noted, that his children were compelled to set fire vnto their father, in like maner as Ioane Clerke also daughter of William Tilseworth, was cōstrayned to geue fire to the burning of her owne natural father, as is aboue specified, pag. 774. 

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See Phillipe de Commines, De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii, trans. Johann Sleidan (Paris, 1561), pp. 205-12. Notice how, once again, Foxe is emphasizing the evil effects of persecution upon families.

The example of whiche cruelty, as it is contrary both to God and nature, so hath it not bene seene nor heard of in the memory of the heathen.

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MarginaliaA note of Thomas Dorman.Where moreouer is to be noted, that at the burning of this Iohn Scriuener, one Thomas Dorman, 

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This is the 'Yomand Dorman' (i.e., yeoman Dorman) listed before by Foxe.

mentioned before, pag. 775. was present and bare a fagot at Amershā: Whose abiuration was afterwarde layde agaynst hym, atwhat time he should depose for recouery of certeine lands from the schole of Barchamsted. This Thomas Dorman (as I am credibly informed of certeyne about Amersham) 
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For other evidence of Foxe's conducting inquiries among those still living about past persecutions in the chiltern, see the sources used for information on William Tilesworth and Thomas Chase: for information on both of these men, Foxe used aged informants whose accounts proved remarkably accurate.

was then vncle to this our Dorman, 
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Thomas Dorman, a Catholic polemicist and critic of Foxe. Foxe refers, in his marginal note, to the opening sentence of Thomas Dorman's dedication to his A proofe of certayne articles in religion (Antwerp, 1564), STC 7062, in which Dorman described himself as having been 'a young novyce of Calvins religion.

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MarginaliaThis Maister Dormā, because hee was put to schoole by his vncle at Barchamstede to M. Reeue, being a protestāt, therfore he for the same cause, in the first sentēce of his preface, sayth that he was brought vp in Caluins schoole. & found him to schole at Barchamsted vnder M. Reue, which now so vncharitably abused his pen in writing agaynst the contrary doctrine, and rayleth so fiercely agaynst the bloud of Christes slayne seruauntes, miscalling them to be a donghill of stinkin Martyrs. 
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Dorman never said this. Foxe has apparently confused Dorman with Thomas Harding, who called Foxe's book, 'that huge dungehill of your stinking martyrs which you have intituled the Actes and Monumentes' (Thomas Harding, Confutation of a Book intituled an Apology of the Church of England [Antwerp, 1565], STC 12762, fos. 13v-14r). The phrase afterwards became something of a Catholic trope.

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Well, how soeuer the sauour of these good Martyrs doe sent in the nose of M. Dorman. I doubt not but they geue a better odour and sweter smel in the presence of the Lord: Preciosa enim in conspectu Domini mors sanctorum eius. Precious is in the sight of the Lord the death of his Sayntes. 

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Dorman never said this. Foxe has apparently confused Dorman with Thomas Harding, who called Foxe's book, 'that huge dungehill of your stinking martyrs which you have intituled the Actes and Monumentes' (Thomas Harding, Confutation of a Book intituled an Apology of the Church of England [Antwerp, 1565], STC 12762, fos. 13v-14r). The phrase afterwards became something of a Catholic trope.

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And therefore howsoeuer it shall please M. Dorman wyth reprochfull language to misterme the good martirs of christes, or rather Christ in his Martyrs, his vnseemely vsage more cartlike then clerkelike, is not greatly to be weyed. For as the daunger of his blasphemye hurteth not them which are gone: so the contumely and reproch thereof, as well comprehendeth his owne kindred, frendes, and country, as any other els: and especially redoundeth to himselfe and woundeth his own soule and none els, vnto the great prouoking of Gods wrath agaynst him, vnlesse he be blessed with better grace by time to repent.

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Doctour Colet.

MVch about this time, 

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Colet, Chaucer and Gower

This section epitomizes Foxe approaching one of his major themes, the existence of the True Church before Luther, from a novel angle. In the preceding sections dealing with the Lollards in the dioceses of Lincoln and London, Foxe emphasized their numbers and tried to show that an understanding of the gospel preceded the Reformation. In this section, Foxe tries to make the same point, by providing the examples of a few well-known Reform-minded English clergyman - John Colet and William Grocyn - and also the examples of two English anticlerical authors, Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower. (It should be emphasized that all of the figures discussed in this section were, contrary to Foxe's implications, orthodox Catholics - particularly Colet and Grocyn - and that none of them can justly considered a Lollard sympathiser, much less a proto-Protestant).

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For Colet and Grocyn, Foxe's sources were various writings of Erasmus, although he judiciously edited them. For Gower and Chaucer he draws largely on John Bale's Catalogus.

Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

or not past 2. yeares before, died D. Iohn Colet, MarginaliaIohn Colet Deane of Paules. of whom mention was made in the table about pag. 801. To whose sermons these knowen men about Buckinghamshyre, had a great minde to resort. 
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Foxe is interested in demonstrating the zeal of the Lollards in acquiring godly literature, but this is also an indication of the affluence of many of these Lollards. On the importance of books to the Lollards see Margaret Aston, 'Lollardy and Literacy' in Lollards and Reformers: Images and and literacy in late medieval England (London, 1984), pp. 1-47.

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After he 
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The following account of Colet is abridged from Erasmus's mini- biography in Colet in his letter to Justas Jonas, dated 13 June 1521. (The letter is printed is epistle 1211 in The Correspondence of Erasmus, Letters 1122-1251, trans. R. A. B. Mynors and annotated Pieter G. Bietenholz [Toronto, 1998]; the section on Colet is on pp. 233-43). Foxe's abridgement involves more than saving space. While Foxe is accurate in what prints, he omits certain details Erasmus provided - such as Colet's celibacy, his avoiding the company of laymen, his desire to join the Carthusians and his strong approval of auricular confession - that do not fit with Foxe's idea of a proto-Protestant divine.

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came from Italy and Paris, MarginaliaPaules Epistles first read openly in Oxforde.he first beganne to read the Epistles of S. Paule openly in Oxford, in sted of Scotus and Thomas. MarginaliaThe commendation of Doctor Colet.From thence he was called by the kyng and made Deane of Paules: where he accustomed much to preach, not without great auditory, as well of the kinges court, as of the citizēs and other. His diet was frugall: his life vpright: in descipline he was seuere: In so much that his Canons because of theyr strayter rule, complained that they were made like monkes. The honest and honourable state of matrimony he euer preferred before the vnchast singlenes of priests. 
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Foxe exaggerates what Erasmus writes. What Erasmus actually said was that Colet was relatively tolerant sexual misconduct by priests, but that Colet still regards clerical failure to maintain celibacy as a vice. Erasmus does not record Colet saying anything in favor of married clergy (The Correspondence of Erasmus, Letters 1122-1251, trans. R. A. B. Mynor and annotated Pieter G. Bietenholz [Toronto, 1988], p. 239).

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At his dinner commonly was read either some chapter of S. Paule, or of Salomons Prouerbs. He neuer vsed to sup. And although the blindnesse of that time caryed him away after the common errour of Popery: yet in ripenes of iudgemēt he seemed something to incline frō þe vulgar trade of that age. The religious orders of monks and friers he fantised not. As neither he coulde greatly fauour the barbarous diuinity of the schole Doctours, as of Scotus, but least of all, of Thomas Aquine: MarginaliaColettes iudgement of Thomas Aquine.In so much that when Erasmus speaking in the prayse of Thom. Aquine, did commēd him that he had red many old authors, and had written many new workes as Catena aurea, & such like, to proue and to know his iudgement: Colet first supposing that Erasmus had spoken in iest, but after supposing that he ment good fayth, brusteth out in great vehemency, saying: what tell you me (quoth he) of the commēdation of that man, who except he had bene of an arrogant and presumptuous spirit, would not define and discusse all thinges so boldly & rashly: and also except he had bene rather wordly minded, then heauenly, would neuer haue so polluted christes whole doctrine with mans prophane doctrine, in such sort as he hath done.

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MarginaliaD. Colet accused.The Bishop of London at that time was Fitziames, of age no lesse then 80. 

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Foxe is repeating Erasmus's estimate of Bishop Fitzjames's age. The bishop's date of birth is unknown, but he must have been in his seventies at this time.

Who bearing long grudge and displeasure agaynst Colet, with other 2. Bishops taking hys parte, like to himselfe entred action of complaynt agaynst Colet to the Archb. of Cant. being then W. Warham. The matter of his complaint was deuided into 3. Articles. The first was for speaking agaynst worshipping of Images. The second was about hospitalitye, for that he entreating vpō the place of the gospell, pasce, pasce, pasce, feed, feed, feed: when he had expounded the 2. first, for feeding with example of life and with doctrine: in the third, which the scholemen doe expounde for feeding with hospitalitye, hee left out the outwarde feeding of the belly, and applyed it an other way. 
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In other words, Colet argued that the gospel command, 'Feed my sheep' was meant spiritually, but not materially. The passage had been used to argue that the clergy were enjoined to hospitality, but Colet's understanding of the passage was hardly novel.

The third crime wherewith they charged him, was for speaking agaynst suche as vsed to preache onely by bosome Sermons, declaring nothing els to the people, but as they bring in theyr prayers with thē. 
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In other words, Colet criticized those who read their sermons from notes, rather than delivering it from memory.

Which because the Bishop of London MarginaliaThe B. of London enemie to D. Colet.vsed then much to do for his age, he tooke it as spoken against him, and therefore bare him this displeasure. The Archbishop MarginaliaThe Archb. of Canter. fauorer of D. Colet. more wisely weying the matter, and being well acquaynted with Colet, so tooke hys part agaynst his accusers, that he at that time was rid out of trouble.

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William
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