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Nürnberg (Nuremberg) [Nureburgh; Nurremberge; Noremberge; Norenberge]

Germany

Coordinates: 49° 27' 0" N, 11° 5' 0" E

889 [865]

K. Henry. 8. Cardinall Campeius against priestes mariage. The Heluetians.

be adiudged, but vnder some iudge of their owne Citie. But now contrary to the said agreement, MarginaliaThe Bishop of Strausburgh breaketh the agreement made, & the liberties of the Citie.the Bishop called those Ministers out of their liberties, and so the Ministers claiming the right and priuiledge of the Citie, were condemned, their cause being neither heard nor knowne. And now if the Senate should shew themselues any thing more sharpe or rigorous vnto those Ministers, in claiming the right of the Citie, the people, no doubt, woulde not take it well, but happely woulde rise vp in some commotion against them, in the qurarell and defence of their fraunchises and liberties.

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And where it is obiected, that they receaue Priests and men of the Clergy, into the fredome and protection of their Citie, to this they answered, that they did nothing herein, but which was correspondent to the auncient vsage and maner of the Citie before: and moreouer, that it was the Byshops owne request & desire, made vnto them so to do.

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MarginaliaThe answer of Campeius to the ambassadours.To this the Cardinall againe aduising well the letters of the Bishop, & the whole order of the matter, which was sent vnto him, declared that he right wel vnderstood by the letters sent, that the Ministers in deede (as the Ambassadours sayd) were called out from the freedome, & liberties of the Citie, and yet no order of law was broken therein: MarginaliaThe Popes prelates be lawles, and can breake no order whatsoeuer they doe. for as much as the Bishop (said he) had there no lesse power and authoritie, then if he were his owne Vicare delegate, and therefore he desired them, that they woulde assist the Bishop in punishing the foresayd Ministers, &c.

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MarginaliaThe ambassadours reply against the Cardinall.After much other talke and reasoning on both partes, wherein the Ambassadours argued in defence of their freedome, that the iudgement should not be transferred out of the Citie: among other cōmunication, they inferred moreouer and declared, how in the Citie of Strausburgh were many, yea the most part of the Cleargy, which liued viciously and wickedly with their strumpets & harlots, whom they kept in their houses, to the great offence of the people, shame to Christes Church, and pernitious example of other: MarginaliaHoly matrimony punished, wicked whoredome escapeth.and yet the Bishop would neuer once stirre to see any punishing or correction thereof. Wherefore if the Senate (said the Ambassadours) should permit the Bishop to extend his crueltie and extremitie against these married Ministers, for not obseruing the Bishop of Roomes law, and leaue the other notorious whoremaisters, whiche brake the law of God, to escape vnpunished, doubtles it would redound to their great danger and perill, not onely before God, but also among the commons of their Citie, readie to rise vpon them.

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MarginaliaCampeius answereth.To this Campeius aunswered, what composition or bargaine was betwixt the Bishop and thē, he knew not: but surely the Acte of the one was manifest, and needed no great triall in law of prouing and confessing, and therefore they were sequestred and abandoned from the communion of the Church, ipso facto. MarginaliaIpsofacto, that is, vpon the very doing of the acte without any further iudgement or triall by the lawe. As for the other sorte of them, which keepe harlots and concubines although (said he) it be not well done: yet doth it not excuse the enormitie of their Mariage. Neither was he ignorant, but that it was the maner of the Bishops of Germany, for money to winke at Priests lemans, and the same also was euil done in deede: and farther, that the time should come, when they shall be called to an accompt for the same: but yet neuerthelesse it is not sufferable that Priestes therefore shoulde haue wiues. And if comparison should be made (sayd he) much greater offence it were, a Priest to haue a wife, then to haue and keepe at home many harlots. His reason was this: MarginaliaA fitt reasō for a carnall Cardinall: better it is to haue many concubines, then one wife.For they that keepe harlots (sayd he) as it is naught that they do, so do they acknowledge their sinne: the other perswade themselues to do well, and so continue stil without repentance, or conscience of their fact. All men (said he) can not be chaste, as Iohn Baptist was: yet can it not be proued by any example, to be lawfull for Priests professing chastitie, to leaue their single life, and to marrie: no not the Greekes themselues, MarginaliaTouching the Greeke church how vntruely this Cardinall speaketh turne to the pag. 187. which in rites be differing from vs, do geue this libertie to their owne Priestes to marry: wherefore he prayed them to geue their ayde to the Bishop in this behalfe.

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MarginaliaThe Ambassadours reply.Whereunto the Ambassadours replyed againe, sayeng, that if he would first punish the whoremasters, then might the Senate assist him the better in correcting the other. But the Cardinall was still instaunt vpon them, that first they shoulde assist their Bishop, and then if the Bishop woulde not punish whoredome, he woulde come thyther himselfe, and see them punished accordingly.

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This Cardinall Campeius, how he was sent by Pope Clement the sixt, to the second assemble or diet of Norenberge, ann. 1524. and what was there done by the sayde Cardinall, is before signified, 

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The second diet of Nuremberg is not discussed in Foxe, he is merely carelessly repeating Sleidan's reference to his previous discussion of the diet.

page 862. After this Councell of Norenberge, MarginaliaThe assembly or Diet at Ratisbone.immediately followed anothersittyng at Ratisbone, 
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This is the Colloquy of Regensburg (Ratisbon) in 1524. Foxe uses John Daus's translation of Sleidan's Commentaries. (See Johannes Sleidan, A famouse cronicle of our time, called Sleidanes Commentaries, trans. John Daus [London, 1560], STC 19848, fos. 49v-50r).

where were present Ferdinandus, Campeius, the Cardinall of Salisburge, the two Dukes of Bauaria, the Byshops of Trēt and Ratisbone: also the Legates of the Byshops, Bamberge, Spires, Strausburgh, Ausburgh, Constance, Basill, Frising, Passame, and Brixine. By whom in the sayd assemble was concluded: That for somuch as the Emperour, at the request of Pope Leo, had condemned by his publicke Edict set forth at Wormes, the doctrine of Luther, for erroneous and wicked, and also it was agreed vpon in both the assembles of Noremberge, that the sayd Edict shuld be obeyed of all men: they likewise at the request of Cardinall Campeius, do will, and commaund the foresayd Edict to be obserued through all their fines and precinctes: That the Gospell, and all other holy Scriptures in Churches should be taught accordyng to the interpretation of the auncient forefathers: That all they which reuiue any old heresies before condēned, or teach any new thyng contumelious, either against Christ, his blessed mother, and holy Saintes, or which may breede any occasion of sedition, the same to be punished accordyng to the tenour of the Edict aboue sayd: MarginaliaPopish decrees. made at the councell of Ratisbone.That none be admitted to preach without the licence of his ordinary: That they which be already admitted, shall be examined how, and what they preach: that the lawes which Campeius is about to set forth for reformation of maners, shalbe obserued: That in the Sacraments, in the Masse, and all other thynges, there shalbe no innouation, but all thynges to stand, as in foretyme they did: That all they which approch to the Lordes Supper without cōfession and absolution, or do eate flesh on dayes forbidden, or which do runne out of their order: also Priestes, Deacons, and Subdeacons, that be maried, shal be punished: That nothyng shall be Printed without cōsent of the Magistrate: That no booke of Luther, or any Lutherian shall be Printed or sold: That they of their iurisdictiō which study in the Vniuersitie of Wittēberge, shall euery one repayre home within three monethes after the publishyng hereof, or els turne to some other place free frō the infectiō of Luther, vnder payne of cōfiscating all their goodes, and loosing their inheritaunce: That no benefice, nor other office of teachyng, be geuē to any student of that Vniuersitie. Item, that certaine Inquisitours fit for the same, be appointed to inquire and examine the premisses: Item, least it may be sayd that this faction of Luther taketh his origine of the corrupt lyfe of Priestes, the sayd Campeius, with other his assisters in the sayd conuocation of Ratisbone, chargeth and commaundeth, that Priestes liue honestly, goe in decent apparell, play not the marchauntes, haunt not the tauernes, be not couetous, nor take money for their ministration: Suche as keepe concubines to be remoued: The nūber also of holy dayes to be diminished. &c.

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These thynges would Campeius haue had enacted in a full Councell & with the cōsentes of all the Empire: MarginaliaCampeius missed of his purpose in Germanie.but when he could not bryng that to passe, by reason that the myndes of diuers were gone frō the Pope, he was fayne therfore to get the same ratified in this particular conuenticle, with the assentes of these Byshops aboue rehearsed.

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These thynges thus hetherto discoursed, whiche fully may be sene in the Cōmentaries of Ioh. Sledan, it remaineth next after the story of Martin Luther, somewhat to adioyne likewise touchyng the history of Zuinglius & of the Heluetiās. But before I come to the explicatiō of this story it shal not be incōueniēt, first to geue some litle touch of the townes called pages, of these Heluetians, & of their league and confederation first begon amongest them.

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¶ The history of the Heluetians or Suitzers, how first they recouered their libertie, and after were ioyned in league together. 
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Swiss Reformation

Foxe begins his account of the Swiss Reformation with a brief history of the Swiss Confederation, emphasising how 'first they recouered their libertie, and after were ioyned in league together'. His principal source here was Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis, book 3 (in the 1552 Basel edition, pp. 360 et seq). The cantons or 'pagi' ('pagus' in Latin = village) are enumerated. Foxe mentions the first confederation (Urani=Uri; Vntervaldij=Unterwalden; Suicenses=Schwyz), its subsequent enlargement ( including Lucernates=Lucerne; Tigurini=Zurich; Bernatus=Berne; Glareanti=Glarus; Apencellenses=Appenzell; Basilienses=Basel; Solodurij=Solothurn) and then those who joined later (Sangalli=St-Gall; Mullusiani=Mulhouse, etc). From this same source also came Foxe's passage on William Tell (p. 361), a myth which had already acquired iconic status through the verse drama, the Urner Tellspiel (c.1512; published 1530s) and Aegidius Tschudi's Chronicon Helveticum, which Foxe mentions in the margin. He may have become acquainted with its existence, or even have read it, whilst he was in Basel (for it was not published in the sixteenth century). For the myth, see R. C. Head, 'William Tell and his Comrades: Association and Fraternity in the Propaganda of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Switzerland' The Journal of Modern History 67, no. 3 (1995), 527-77. It was equally from the Cosmographia that Foxe recounts the history of the war between Frederick, duke of Austria and Ludovic, duke of Bavaria and the counsel of the fool, Kune de Stocken (p. 363).

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This was scene-setting, however, for the important section to follow on 'The actes and life of Zwinglius'. Foxe accords almost ten pages to the Zwinglian reformation - a clear sign of how much significance he attached to it. The details of his early life were abstracted mainly from the biography, compiled by Oswald Myconius in 'De D. Hvldrichi Zwinglii […] vita et obitv', and composed the year after Zwingli's death in 1532. It had been published as a preface to the edition of Johann Oecolampadius' letters, Epistolarum libri quatuor (Basel [Basileae]: Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius, 1536), which provided Foxe with a considerable insight into the networks of scholarly communication that linked the Rhineland Biblicists in the upper Rhineland quadrant (Basel, Constance, Berne, Zurich, etc). For the evolution of the reformation in these cities, however, Foxe turned to the Commentaries of Johann Sleidan, the protestant historian whose work Foxe helped to promote in England through the martyrology (De Statv religionis et reipvblicae carolo qvinto Caesare Commentarii. Photographic reproduction of the edition of 1785-6, edited by J. Gottlieb ed 3 vols (Osnabrück: Otto Zeller, 1968). The material on the first Zurich Disputations of January 1523, the Constitutions of the Council of Lucerne in 1524, and the energetic defence of the progress of the reformation in Zurich by its magistrates in 1524 and early 1525 all came from Sleidan, books 3 and 4. Equally, for the early events surrounding the reformation in Berne, including the Disputations of December 1527 and January 1528, Foxe also drew on Sleidan, book 6. The same source served for his history of the reformations in Strasbourg and Basel. Towards the end of the account, Foxe indicated how he had supplemented his use of Sleidan with Oecolampadius' letters. For the background to the Second Kappel War, and Zwingli's reasons for personal engagement in it, Foxe felt he had to go beyond the impersonal history of Sleidan, returning to Zwingli's letter to the ministers at Ulm, Martinus Freschius and Cunhardus Somius, which he had found in the preface to J. Oecolampadius, Epistolarum libri quatuor (Basel [Basileae]: Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius, 1536), fol 211v-212, dated 8 November 1530, in which Zwingli vigorously defended himself against his critics, both inside the canton of Zurich and from without. On the fate of Zwingli's body after his death, Foxe cited a further letter from Oecolampadius, this time to Wolfgang Capiton of 22 October 1531 (fols 172v-173). We should note Foxe's lavish praise for Oecolampadius' Commentaries on the Prophets (J. Oecolampadius, In Iesaiam Prophetam hypomnematôn, hoc est commentariorum, Iannis Oecolampadii libri sex [...] ([Geneva]: Jean Crespin, 1568 [1567?]) which, 'with other worth workes, which he left behinde him, liue still, and shall never die'. They carried a laudatory preface from Heinrich Bullinger, and were remarkable as setting a new standard in the methodology and organization of Biblical commentaries. Towards the end of the section, Foxe translated a letter from Zwingli in which the reformer represented views on Christ's descent into Hell which he had already expounded in the mid 1520s in response to the interpretation of the 'catabaptists' concerning Christ's resurrection in the light of their arguments about the sleep of the soul and the final resurrection - see Huldrych Zwinglis Brief edited Oskar Farner. 2 vols (Zurich, 1918-20), 2, pp. 000-000.

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Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaHow the Heluetiās came free & ioyned together in league.THe Heluetiās, whom otherwise we call Suitzers, are deuided principally into xiij. pages. The names of whō are, Tigurini, Bernates, Lucernates, Vrani, Suicenses, Vnterualdij, Tugiani, Glareanti, Basiliēses, Solodurij, Friburgij, Scafusiani, Apēcellēses. Furthermore, to these be added vij. other Pages, albeit not with such a full bond, as the other, be together conioyned: whiche be these, Rheti, Lepontij, Seduni, Veragri, Sangalli, Mullusiani, Rotulenses. Of these xiij. confederate Pages aboue recited, these three were the first, to witte, Vrania, Suicenses, and Siluanij (or as some call them Vnterualdij) which ioyned themselues together.

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If credite should be geuen to old narrations, MarginaliaEx Chronic. Heluetic. Ex Sebasti. Mūster. Cosmog. Lib. 3. Ex Comment. Ioan. Sled. lib. 3. these iij. pages * Marginalia* Note that the Pages is Suitzerland are for the most part situate in valleyes. or valleyes first suffered great seruitude & thraldome vnder cruell rulers or gouernours: In so much that the gouernour of Siluania * Marginalia* Extortion in rulers. required of one of the inhabitaūtes, a yoke of his Oxen: which when the townes man denyned to geue him, the ruler sent his seruaunt by force to take his Oxen frō him. This whē the seruaūt was about to do, cōmeth the poore mans sonne, & cutteth of one of his fingers, & vpō the same auoyded. The gouernour hearing this, taketh the poore man, and putteth out his eyes.

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