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Anabius

Assistant to Claudius, governor in the Italian Alps under Valerian

He assisted at the execution of Pontius. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Antoninus (St Antoninus)

(1389 - 1459) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican theologian; historian. Established the convent of San Marco, Florence, in 1436; archbishop of Florence (1446 - 59)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 16, 62, 65, 85, 132, 1329; 1576, p. 13, 38, 41, 59, 96, 1133; 1583, p. 13, 38, 41, 58, 73, 95, 1162, 1172.

 
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Avitus and Sergius

Legendary sons of Philippus, governor of Alexandria C3

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Claudia

Legendary wife of Philippus, governor of Alexandria C3

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Claudius

Governor in Italy under Valerian

Claudius commanded the execution of Pontius. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

He died biting his tongue. 1570, p. 105; 1576, p. 75; 1583, p. 74.

 
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Eugenia

Legendary daughter of governor of Alexandria C3

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
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Helenus

Legendary elderly C3 bishop of Hierapolis

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

Eusebius says Helenus was bishop of Tarsus, not Hierapolis as in the story. 1570, p. 105; 1576, p. 74; 1583, p. 74.

 
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Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis (Jacob Philip of Bergamo)

(1434 - 1520)

Chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 65, 85, 91, 97, 104, 128, 132; 1576, pp. 38, 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 95.

 
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Maxima, Donatilla and Secunda

C3 virgin martyrs in Tebourba

Maxima, Donatilla and Secunda were tortured, thrown to wild beasts and then beheaded. 1570, p. 103; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Maximus of Alexandria

(d. 282) [Gams]; deacon of Alexandria under Dionysius

Patriarch of Alexandria (265 - 82)

He was banished along with Dionysius under Valerian. 1570, p. 102; 1576, p. 72; 1583, p. 72.

 
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Melancia

Legendary matron of Alexandria C3

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Petrus de Natalibus (Equilinus)

(d. 1400 - 1406) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Bishop of Equilio (c. 1370 - 1400) [Gams]; wrote a collection of the lives of the saints

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 68, 104, 131; 1576, pp. 45, 73, 95; 1583, pp. 45, 73, 94.

 
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Philippus

Legendary C3 governor of Alexandria

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Pontius

C3 martyr in the Italian Alps

Pontius was tortured, thrown to wild beasts and then burnt alive. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Priscus, Malchus and Alexander

C3 martyrs in Caesarea

Priscus, Malchus and Alexander, inspired by the example of the martyrs, went to the judge and declared themselves Christians. They were thrown to wild beasts. 1570, p. 103; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Prothus and Hiacynthus

Legendary eunuch schoolfellows of Eugenia, daughter of Philippus, C3 governor of Alexandria

Foxe gives the story of Philippus and his daughter Eugenia as related by later historians, but believes it to be untrue. 1570, pp. 104-05; 1576, pp. 73-74; 1583, pp. 73-74.

 
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Publius Gallienus

(218 - 268) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Co-emperor with his father Valerian (253 - 60); sole Roman emperor (260 - 68) ; assassinated with his son and his brother

Excluded senators from military command; patron of philosophers

Gallienus participated in the persecutions of his father, but moderated his position after his father's capture by the Persians. 1570, pp. 105-06; 1576, pp. 75-76; 1583, pp. 74-75.

In a letter to the Persian king Shapur II, Constantine I used the examples of Gallienus and his father to illustrate that rulers prospered when they treated Christians well, but suffered ill fortune when they persecuted them. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

 
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Theonas of Alexandria

(d. 299) [Gams]

Patriarch of Alexandria (282 - 99)

He is mentioned by Foxe. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus)

(d. 260) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Commander under Decius; senator

Roman emperor (253 - 60); captured and killed by the Persians

In the early years of his reign, Valerian behaved favourably towards the Christians and the senate. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 67.

Later, Valerian instigated a harsh persecution of the Christians. 1570, pp. 97-104; 1576, pp. 68-74; 1583, pp. 67-74.

Valerian was captured in battle by Shapur I and endured humiliations during his captivity before he was killed. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 74; 1583, p. 74.

In a letter to the Persian king Shapur II, Constantine I used the examples of Valerian and his son to illustrate that rulers prospered when they treated Christians well, but suffered ill fortune when they persecuted them. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

 
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Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius)

(d. 1264) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican friar; French scholar; compiled encyclopedia of all knowledge

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 68, 80, 88, 106; 1576, pp. 38, 45, 55, 61, 76; 1583, pp. 38, 45, 55, 60, 75.

 
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Zeno of Verona

(d. 380); [Gams] bishop of Verona (362 - 80); there is a Zeno on a list of martyrs at Verona

According to Bede, Zeno bishop of Verona was martyred under Decius. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.

Zeno, bishop of Verona, was said to have been martyred under Valerian. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 73; 1583, p. 73.

 
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Caesarea Palaestina (Pyrgos Stratonos)

[Cesaria]

Israel

Coordinates: 32° 30' 0" N, 34° 53' 59" E

 
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Carthage

[Charlago]

Tunisia

Coordinates: 36° 53' 12" N, 10° 18' 53" E

 
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Cimiez (Cemenelum) [Symela]

nr Nice, Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

Coordinates: 43° 43' 0" N, 7° 15' 0" E

 
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Tebourba [Tuburba]

Tunisia

Coordinates: 36° 50' 0" N, 9° 50' 0" E

96 [73]

stus long after continued in great age, vnto the latter persecution, where he being a very old man at length was beheaded, and died Martyr. MarginaliaFaustus long preserued, at last a martyr.

MarginaliaThe end & death of Dionysius. As touching Dionysius him selfe, thus the stories report, that he suruiuing all these troubles and persecutiōs, by the prouidence of God, continued after the death of Valerian, vnto the xij. yeare of the raigne of Galienus, whiche was about the yeare of our Lord. 268. and so departed in peace in great age, after that he had gouerned the Church of Alexandria the space of xvij. yeares, & before that, had taught the schole of the sayd Citie of Alexandria, the terme of xvj. yeares. After whom succeeded Maximus, as is aboue specified. And thus much touching the full storie of Dionysius Alexandrinus, and of other also Martyrs and Confessours of Alexandria.

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MarginaliaPriscus, Malchus, Alexander, A woeman Martyrs. In Cæsaria Palestine, suffered also the same time, Priscus, Malchus, and Alexander, the which three dwelling in the countrey, and good men, 

Commentary  *  Close
Priscus, Malachas, Alexander and remainder of eighth persecution

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

seing the valiaunt courage of the Christians, so boldly to venter, & constantly to stand, and patiently to suffer in this persecutiō, as men being greued with them selues, began to repent & accuse their so great sluggishnes, and cowardly negligence, to see other so zealous & valiant, & themselues so cold and faint harted, in laboring for the crowne of Christian martyrdome: first consulting and agreing within themselues, came to Cesarea, & there stepping to the Iudge, declared thē selues what they were, & obtained the end they came for, being giuen to the wilde beasts. After which like maner also and in the same Citye of Cesarea, a certaine woman whose name Eusebius expresseth not, who had beene before of the secte of Marcion was brought before the President, and likewise obtayned the same Martyrdome. Euseb. Lib. 7. cap. 12. MarginaliaEuseb. lib. 7. cap. 12.

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MarginaliaThree hundreth Martyrs in Carthage. Ex specul. Vincent. lib. 11. cap. 83. Neither was the citie of Carthage all this while free from the stroke of this persecution, if credit should be giuē to the speculatiue glasse of Vincentius, who cyting out of Hugo, recordeth of 300. Martyrs, of which 300. Martyrs the history saith thus, that the President setting before thē cooles and incense to doe sacryfice, by a lyme kilne, which was there neere at hand, offred vnto them this condition, either to set incense to the coales, for sacrifice to Iupiter, or els to go into the fornace of lyme: wherupon they altogether with a generall motion sodenly rushed into the kilne, and ther with the dusty smoke of the lime were smothered. Vincent. Erford.

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MarginaliaMaxima, Donatilla, Secunda, virgines martirs. In Aphrica also in the City of Tuburba[illegible text] the sayd Vincētius out of the Martyrologe inferreth mentiou of thre constaunt virgins Maxima, Donatilla, and Secunda, who in the persecution of this Valerian and Galienus, first had giuen for their drinke vinager and gaule, then with scourges were tried, after that vpon the gibbet were tormented, & rubbed with lime: then were scorched vpon þe fiery gridirō, at last were cast to the wilde beastes, who being not touched of them, finally with the sword were beheaded, Vincent. Erfor.

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MarginaliaPontius, Martyr. In Symela a City in Italy, vnder the Alpes, one Pontius beyng there apprehended, by the commaundement of Claudius the President, was hanged first vppon the racke, then was cast to the wilde beastes, of whom he being nothing hurt, was after cōmitted to the fire. MarginaliaEx Vincēt. Lib. 12. cap. 77. Ex Bergomen lib. 8. Erford. lib. 6. Cap. 17. And finally neither touched therwith, (if the storye of Vincentius be true) was headed by þe ryuers side, & his body throwne into the floude, where immediatlye the same houre, the foresayde Claudius with his assistant Anabius, were taken with wicked spirits, by whom they were so miserablye vexed, that they byt of their tongues, and died.

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MarginaliaZenon, Martyr. Zenon also Byshop of Verona, is saide also in the same persecution to sustayne Martyrdome.

MarginaliaBergomensis reproued. Moreouer in the same Citie of Alexandria aforesayde, Bergomensis in his 8. booke, writing of the story of Valerianus Emperour, maketh mention of Philippus, bishoppe of the said sea of Alexandria, who (as he saith) was vnder the sayd Valerian beheaded. But that is not to be founde in any approued story, nor stādeth with the truth of time that any such Philip then was bishop of Alexandria, or any other except onely Dionysius. After whom next succeeded Maximus, who remained xviij. yeares, and after him Theonas, &c. So that by the auncient recordes of olde writees it appeareth not that Philippus or any other of that name was Bishop of Alexandria, during this time signified by Bergomensis.

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Although in some other later writers, as Equilinus Antoninus, and Bergomensis, I finde a certaine historye of one Philippus, President of Alexandria about the same tyme of Valerian and Galienus, elected by the Emperour and Senate of Rome, to gouerne those quarters, where he was at length conuerted to the christian faith, and after made Priest or Bishop, as they saye, of Alexandria, MarginaliaEx Antoni. part. 1. ca. 6. but that not to be so, the testimony of auntient writers doth refell. The history of this Philippus, witnessed in our later Chroniclesis this: Philippus, being promoted to the Presidentship of Alexandria came downe with his wife Claudia, and his two sonnes, Auitus, and Sergius, and with his daughter named Eugenia, MarginaliaThe story of Philippus and Eugenia. of the which Eugenia a long history full of straunge and prodigious miracles is written of Antoninus & other, wherof many things I will cut of, and brieflye touche the effect of the storye, leauing to the iudgement of the reader the credit of mine authors, as he shall see cause.

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Thys Eugenia daughter of Philippus, being of singular beautie, and diligently brought vp by her parentes in þe studie of science and learnyng, was by occasion of hearyng Christians, reduced and brought vp to Christianitye, with two other Eunuches her Schoolefellowes called Prothus and Hiacynthus: MarginaliaEugenia, Prothus, Hiacynthus, conuerted. wyth whome shee takyng counsaile, vppon occasion, whether to auoyde the daunger of persecucion, or refusing to marry wyth a Pagane, vnknowne to her parents and fryendes dyd flee awaye, and because the more boldlye shee might resort to heare the readynges of Helenus then an aged Byshoppe and of others, chaunged her selfe into mans apparell, and named her selfe Eugenius, MarginaliaEugenia leauing her parentes chaungeth her selfe into mans apparell. vnder the whiche name she was at length admitted unto a certayne Monastery, or a societie of christians in the suburbes of Alexandria although I hardly beleeue that any Monasterye of Christians was then in the suburbes of Alexandria permitted, where also at the last for the excellencye of learnyng and vertue, shee was made head of the place. Here by the waye I omit the myracles of the foresayde Helenus) Byshoppe as the story saith of Hierapolis MarginaliaHelenus Bishop of Hierapolis. (howe he caried burning coales in his lap, & how he aduētured himself to goe in the burning fyre, to refell wicked Zereas a Pagane, remaining in the same vnburned. Here also I omit the careful search of her parents for her, and of the answere of the Pythonisse againe vnto them, that she was taken vp to the heauen among þe Goddesses. I omit moreouer the miracles done by þe sayde Eugenia, in healyng the diseases and sicknesses of such as came to her, &c. The story proceedeth thus: Among other which were by this Eugenius cured & restored, there was a certaine Matrone of Alexandria named Melancia, MarginaliaEugenia accused of Melancia. who after she had vsed the helpe and acquaintaunc of Eugenius supposing her to be a man, fell into an inordiaate loue, sekyng by al meanes how to accomplish the lust of her concupiscence. In so much that in her daily visiting of her, at length she began secretly to breake her mind, and to entise her to her ludenes. Eugenius contrary exhorted her to vertue & honesty, shewing her the miseries of this life, and the peryll of that folly. Melancia seeing that by no meanes shee would be allured, nor by force drawen to her desire, & fearyng moreouer that she in detecting of her would bringe her to shame, beginneth first to make an outcry of Eugenius, declaring howe þt she went about corruptly to defloure her, & so presented her accusation before Philippus þe President, as well against Eugenius, as also against the rest of that company. This matter being heard, and the woman well knowen, the crime began to seeme suspitious, and so much the more, because it was obiected against the Chrystians. By reason whereof Eugenius with her felow Chrystians was now not only in great hatred, but also in daūger of present death and destruction. Then Eugenius purging her selfe & her honesty, although with sufficient probation, yet notwithstanding perceiuing that it coulde take no place, what so euer she said, and seeing no time now to dissemble any longer, for the daunger as well of her owne selfe, as specially of her brethren which troubled her more: desired of the Iudge place and time to make manifest to him the truth, and so she shewed her selfe what she was, and how she was his daughter, the other to be Prothus & Hiacinthus the two Eunuches, her schoolefelowes, vtteryng moreouer to him and to her brethrē the cause of her departing from them. MarginaliaEugenia knowne of her parentes. At the narration whereof Philippus her father, and her two brethren comming to the knowledge of her conceaued no litle ioy, in receauing their Eugenia againe whom they thought had bene lost. No lesse gladnes was among the people, to see þe euidence of the matter so plainely to try out the truth of the one, & the falsenes of the other. MarginaliaFalse accusation conuicted. Wherat þe malignant accuser was wt double shame cōfounded, first for her dishonesty falsly cloked, secondly for the vntruth of her accusation openly detected. Bergomensis addeth moreouer, þt the said accuser was stricken presently with lightning. Thus Eugenia trying her honestly to her parents & friends, not onely was receaued of them againe, but also by the grace of the Lord working with her in the space of time did win thē to Christ. Wherby Philippus the father of her by nature, now by grace was begottē of his own daughter to a more perfect life, MarginaliaPhilippus by hys daughter conuerted vnto Christ. & whō once he thought to haue bene lost, not only he foūd againe, but also wt her found his own soule, & his own life, which before he

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