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Achaius

C3 judge in Caesarea

Achaius sentenced the soldier Marinus to be beheaded because he refused to deny his Christian faith. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 75; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Assyrius

C3 wealthy nobleman of Caesarea; Roman senator

Assyrius was present at the martyrdom of Marinus. He wrapped the body in rich cloth, carried it away and buried it honourably. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 75; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Aurelian

(214x215 - 275) [C. Koerner www.roman-emperors.org]

Supreme commander of the cavalry

Roman emperor (270 - 75); reintegrated the eastern provinces, Gaul and Britain; murdered

Aurelian began his reign by treating the Christians well. Thereafter he intended a harsh persecution, but it did not take effect. 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Caius (Gaius)

(d. 296) [Kelly]

Pope (283 - 96)

He was said to have been martyred. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Claudius II Gothicus

(c. 213/14 - 270) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (268 - 70); defeated invasion of Goths

The reign of Claudius was generally felt to have been a peaceful one for Christians. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Constantine I

(271x273 - 337) [H. A. Pohlsander www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor in the West (306 - 37); defeated Maxentius, rival emperor, in 312

Sole Roman emperor (324 - 37)

Constantine took three legions with him out of Britain, thereby weakening its defence. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife and daughter of Maximian. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

Constantine, preparing for battle against Maxentius and fearing his magical powers, saw the sign of a cross in the sky. He then had a dream with a vision of the cross and of Christ. He took a cross into battle with him as a standard and defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 86; 1583, p. 85.

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After the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine no longer sacrificed to the Roman gods, but he deferred baptism to his old age. He issued edicts restoring church goods and bringing Christians back from exile. 1570, pp. 139-41; 1576, pp. 103-04; 1583, pp. 101-03.

Constantine wrote to Anulinus, his proconsul in Africa, instructing him to restore goods to the Christian churches and to ensure that Christian ministers were freed from public duties. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine wrote to Pope Miltiades, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage, and sent letters to other bishops, issuing instructions and encouraging the ending of schisms. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.

Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.

Constantine defeated Licinius. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31.

He wrote to Alexander of Alexandria and Arius, urging them to end their disagreement. 1570, p. 142, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

Constantine built churches and schools and provided books of scripture. 1570, pp. 142-43, 1576, p. 105, 1583, pp. 103-04.

Constantine wrote a letter to Shapur II, asking him to treat the Christians in Persia well. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

Constantine renounced the Roman gods and was baptised. 1563, p. 8.

Constantine fulfilled St Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

 
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Dionysius (St Dionysius)

(d. 268) [Kelly]

Pope (260 - 268); called a synod at Rome to settle the Sabellianism question

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 75; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
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Eutropius

(fl. 2nd half C4)

Secretary at Constantinople; pagan historian; compiled Breviarium historiae Romanae

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 83, 105, 107, 108, 115, 139; 1576, pp. 57, 75, 76, 82, 102; 1583, pp. 57, 74, 75, 76, 82, 101.

 
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Eutychian (St Eutychian)

(d. 283) [Kelly]

Pope (275 - 83)

He was said to have died a martyr. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Felix I (St Felix)

(d. 274) [Kelly]

Pope (269 - 74)

Felix was said to have died a martyr. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Flavius Vopiscus

C4; one of six reputed authors of Historia Augusta [Arnaldo Momigliano, 'An Unsolved Problem of Historical Forgery: The Scriptores Historiae Augustae', Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, vol. 17, no. 1/2. (1954), pp. 22-46]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Florian

(d. 276) [R. McMahon www.roman-emperors.org]

Half-brother of Tacitus

Roman emperor (276); reigned c. two months; assassinated by his own troops

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 39, 107; 1576, pp. 31, 76; 1583, pp. 31, 75.

 
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Marcus Aurelius Probus

(c. 232 - 282) [R. McMahon www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (276 - 82); he suffered a series of revolts; killed by his own troops

The reign of Probus was peaceful in general, and particularly for the Christians. 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 76.

 
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Nicephorus

(d. 828) [Gams]

Greek Orthodox theologian and historian; patriarch of Constantinople (806 - 15)

He is cited extensively by Foxe as a source in Book 1.

 
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Paul Orosius

(c. 385 - c. 420) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Historian, theologian; disciple of Augustine at Hippo; assisted Jerome against Pelagius in Palestine. Wrote a history of the world.

Orosius attended the Council of Carthage in 420, along with Augustine and Prosper. 1570, p. 12; 1576, p. 10; 1583, p. 10.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. , 1570, pp. 19, 54 -, 86, 94, 107, 113; 1576, pp. 15, 34 - , 60, 66, 76, 81; 1583, pp. 15, 34 - , 60, 66, 75, 80, 452.

 
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Quintillus

(d. 270) [T. M. Banchich www.roman-emperors.org]

Brother of Claudius II Gothicus

Roman emperor briefly in 270

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 107; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Sixtus II (St Sixtus)

(d.258) [Kelly]

Pope (257 - 58); martyred: beheaded at Rome

Sixtus was martyred with his deacons. 1570, p. 101; 1576, p. 71; 1583, p. 71.

 
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Tacitus

(d. 276) [R. McMahon www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (275 - 76); died on return from a successful campaign in Asia Minor

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 39, 107; 1576, pp. 31, 76; 1583, pp. 31, 75.

 
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Theodorus (Gregory) of Neocaesarea

(d. c. 270) [Gams]

Bishop of Neocaesarea in Pontus (c. 240 - 264); pupil of Origen; attended the Council of Antioch in 269 that condemned Paul of Samosata

[According to Bede, he was martyred in the reign of Decius.]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 92, 106; 1576, pp. 64, 76; 1583, pp. 64, 75.

 
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Theotecnus

(d. c. 303?) [Gams]

Bishop of Caesarea, Palestine (c. 260 - c. 303)

Theotecnus took Marinus, a Christian soldier, into the church and had him choose between the sword and the New Testament. Marinus chose the latter and was martyred. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 75; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus)

(d. 260) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Commander under Decius; senator

Roman emperor (253 - 60); captured and killed by the Persians

In the early years of his reign, Valerian behaved favourably towards the Christians and the senate. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 67.

Later, Valerian instigated a harsh persecution of the Christians. 1570, pp. 97-104; 1576, pp. 68-74; 1583, pp. 67-74.

Valerian was captured in battle by Shapur I and endured humiliations during his captivity before he was killed. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 74; 1583, p. 74.

In a letter to the Persian king Shapur II, Constantine I used the examples of Valerian and his son to illustrate that rulers prospered when they treated Christians well, but suffered ill fortune when they persecuted them. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

 
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Vincent of Beauvais (Vincentius)

(d. 1264) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican friar; French scholar; compiled encyclopedia of all knowledge

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 68, 80, 88, 106; 1576, pp. 38, 45, 55, 61, 76; 1583, pp. 38, 45, 55, 60, 75.

 
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Antioch (Antioch on the Orontes, Great Antioch, Syrian Antioch) (Antakya)

[Antiochia apud Orontem]

Turkey

Coordinates: 36° 12' 0" N, 36° 9' 0" E

 
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Caesarea Palaestina (Pyrgos Stratonos)

[Cesaria]

Israel

Coordinates: 32° 30' 0" N, 34° 53' 59" E

 
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Constantinople

(Byzantium, Istanbul) [Bizance]

Turkey

Coordinates: 41° 0' 44" N, 28° 58' 34" E

 
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Heraclea [Eraclea]

nr Bitola, Macedonia

Coordinates: 41° 1' 55" N, 21° 20' 5" E

98 [75]

for the dignitie of a certaine order, whiche by all order of course, was next to fall vpon him by right, had not the enuious ambitiō of him þt should follow next after hym, supplanted him both of office & life. For he accused him to be a Christian, and therefore sayd that he was not to be admytted vnto their offices, which was against their Religion. Wherupon Achaius then being iudge examined him of his faith, who finding him to be a christian indede, & constantly to stand to his profession, gaue him iij. houres to deliberate & aduise wyth himselfe. There was the same time in Cesarea a Byshop named Theotechnus, MarginaliaThæotechnus Byshop of Cesarea. otherwise called Theodistus, who perceiuing him to stand in doubtfull delyberation and perplexitie in himselfe, tooke him by the hand & brought him into the house or Church of the Christians, laying before him a sworde (which he had vnder his cloke for the same purpose) and a booke of the new Testament & so willed him to take his free choyse which of them both he would preferre. The souldior immediaiely without delay ran to the booke of the Gospell, taking that before the sword. MarginaliaMarinus animated by the Byshop to dye. And thus he being animated by the bishop, presented himselfe boldly before the iudge, by whose sentence he was beheaded, and died a Martyr. Euseb. ibid. MarginaliaEuseb. ibid.

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MarginaliaAssyrius a rich Senatour and cōfessour. Whose body he beyng dead, one Asyrius a noble Senatour of Rome, and a man very wealthy among the chief of that order, (who the same tyme was there present at hys Martyrdome) toke vp and bare vpō his owne shoulders, wrapping it in a rich & sumptuous weede, & so honourably committed it to the burial. Euseb, Lib. 7. cap 16. MarginaliaEuse. lib. 7. Cap. 16.

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MarginaliaThe worke of Satan disapoynted by the prayer of Asirius. Of which Asyrius the sayde author writeth, moreouer this storye, howe that in the foresayde Citie of Cesarea, the Gentiles vsed ther, of an aūcient custome to offer vp a certaine sacrifice by a fountaine side, the which sacrifice by the working of the deuill, was wont sodainly to vanish out of their eies, to the great admiraciō of the inhabiters by. Asyrius seing this and pittying the miserable errour of the simple people, lifting vp his eies to Heauen, made his praier to almightie God in the name of christ. þt the people might not be seduced of the deuil any lōger: by þe vertue of whose praier the sacrifice was seene to swimme in the water of the fountaine, & so the straunge wonder of that sight was taken away, and no such matter could be their wrought any more. Euseb. Lib, 7. cap. 17. MarginaliaEuseb. lib. 7. cap. 17.

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And because mention is made here of Cesarea, there foloweth in þe next chapter of the same author, a strange miracle if it be true, which he there reporteth, MarginaliaA miracle noted in Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 18. howe þt out of the same City was the woman, which in þe gospel came to our Sauiour, and was healed of her bloudy issue. Her house being in the Citye of Cesarea, before the doore thereof was set vp a certayne pyller of stone, & vpon the piller, an Image was made of brasse, of a woman mekely knelyng on her knes, and holding vp her hands, as one that had some sute. Against the which there was an other Image also of a man proportioned of the same mettall, cūningly engrauen, in a short semely vesture, & stretching forth his hand to the woman. MarginaliaA miraculous operation of an herbe touching the hemme of Christes picture to heale diseases. At the foote of which piller grew vp a certaine herbe of a straunge kind, but of a more straunge opiration, which growing vp to the hemme of his vesture, & once touching the same, is saide to haue such vertue, that it was able to cure all maner of deseases. This picture of the man, (they say) represented the image of Christ. The history is written in Eusebius, as is said, the credite whereof I referre to the Reader, whether he will thinke it true or false. If he thinke it false, yet I haue shewed him myne author: if he thinke it true, then must hee thinke with all that this miraculous operation of the herbe, proceded neither by the vertue of the picture, nor by the praier of the other being both dombe pictures, and engrauen no doubt at that time by the hand of Infidels, but to be wrought by some secret permission of God his wisedome, either to reduce the Infidels at that time to the belief of the storye, MarginaliaNo vertue to be ascribed to pictures. or to admonish the Christians to consider with them selues what strength and health was to be looked for onelye of Christ, and no other aduocate, seing the dumbe picture engrauen in Brasse, gaue his efficacie to a poore herbe to cure so many diseases. This picture saith Eusebius remained also to his time which was vnder Constantinus the great.

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MarginaliaDionysius Byshop of Rome An. 266. As touching the line and order of the Romaine Byshops hetherto intermitted, after the martirdome of Xistus aboue specified, the gouernement of that church was conmitted next, to one Dionysius, about the yeare of our Lord, 266. who continued in the same the space of ix, yeares, as Eusebius saith, as Damasus recordeth but onely vj. yeares, and two moneths. Of his decretall Epistles because sufficient hath bene sayd before concerning that matter, I omit to speake. MarginaliaFelix Byshop of Rome and Martyr. Eutichianus Byshop of Rome and Martyr. Gaius Byshop of Rome and Martyr. After whom succeded Felix, in the first yeare of Probus the Emperour, about þe yeare of our Lord, 280. who gouerned that church v. yeares, and died as Platinasaith, a martyr. After him followed Eutychianus, and then Gaius, both martyrs, as the histories of some do recorde.

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About the time of these byshops, lyued Theodorus byshop of Neocesarea, who is otherwise called Gregorius Mognus, whome also Nicephorus for his myracles, calleth χματρ[illegible text]ν. 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Priscus, Malachas, Alexander and remainder of eighth persecution: citation from Eusebius.
Foxe text Greek

θαυματουργήν

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

conjurer, juggler

Comment

An unusual form, not found in Liddell & Scott, whereas θαυματουργια is found.

Thus Galienus the foresayd Emperour raygned as is declared, with his father Valerian, vij, yeares, after whose captiuitie he ruled the Monarchie, alone about ix. yeares, with some peace and quietnes graunted to the Church.

MarginaliaClaudius Emperour. Anno. 272. he daies of this Galienns being expired, followed Claudius a quiet Emperour, as most stories do record. Although Vincentius affirmeth that he was a mouer of persecution against the Christiās, & maketh mention of 262. Martyrs, which in his time did suffer, but because no such record remaineth to be found in Eusebius, who woulde not haue omitted some memoriall thereof if it had bene true, therefore I referre the same to the free iudgement of the Reader to finde such credite as it maye. This Claudius raigned but two yeares, after whome came Quintilianus, MarginaliaQuintillianus Emperour. his brother next Emperor, & a quiet Prince, who cōtinued but onely xvij. daies, and had to his successor Aurelianus; vnder whome Orosius in his seuenth booke, doth number the ix. persecution against the Christians.

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The ix. Persecution. 
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Ninth persecution

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

MarginaliaThe ninth persecution. HEtherto from the captiuitie of Valerian the Church of Christ was in some quietnes till the death of Quintilianus, as hath beene declared: MarginaliaAurelianus Emperour. After whom Aurelianus the next successor possessed the crowne, who in the first beginning of his raigne (after the common maner of al princes) shewed himselfe a Prince moderate and discrete, much worthy of commendation, if his good beginning had continued in a constant course agreeing to the same. Of nature he was seuere & rigorous in correcting, dissolute in manners, in so much that it was said of him in a vulgare prouerbe, that he was a good phisition, sauying that he gaue to bitter medicines. MarginaliaA prouerbe. A good Phisition but he geueth to bitter medicines. Abstinence the best phisicke. This Emperour being sicke, neuer sent for phisition, but cured himselfe with abstinence. And as his beginning was not vnfruitefull to the common wealth: so neither was he any great disturber of the christians: whom he did not onely tolerate in their religiō but also in their counsell, beyng the same tyme assembled at Antioche, semed not to be against them. MarginaliaThe councell of Antioche. The good beginning of Aurelian. Notwithstauding in continuance of time through sinister motion and instigation of certaine about him (as commonly such are neuer absent in al places from the eares of princes (hys nature somewhat inclinable to seueritie, was altered to a playne tyranny; MarginaliaThe Emperour altered by wicked counsell. which tiranny first he shewed beginnyng with the death of his owne sisters sonne, as wytnesseth Eutropius. After that he proceeded either to mooue, or at least to purpose persecution against the Christians. MarginaliaA notable example of Gods hand stopping persecution. Albeit that wicked pnrpose of the Emperour, the mercifull working of God his hand did soone ouerthrow. For as the edict or proclamation should haue beene denounced for the persecuting of the christians, and the emperour now ready to subscribe the edict with his hande, the mighty stroke of the hand of the lord sodainly from aboue did stop his purpose, binding, as a man might say, the Emperours hands behinde him: declaryng (as Eusebius saieth) to all men, how there is no power to worke any violence against the seruauntes of God, vnlesse his permission do suffer them, and gyue them leaue. Euseb. Lib 7. cap. 30. MarginaliaEx Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 30. No power agaynst the people of God, except God geue leaue. Eutropius and Vopiscus affirme, that as the said Aurelianus was purposing to rayse persecutiō against vs, he was sodainly terriffed with lightning, and so stopped from his wicked tyranny. Not long aiter about the fifte or sixt yeare of hys rayne, he was slaine betwene Bizance and Hieraclea, an. 278. MarginaliaThe death of Aurelianus. Anno. 276. Thus Aurelianus rather intended thē moued persecution. Neither is there any more then this founde cōcerning this persecution in auncient histories and records of the Church. Wherfore I maruell the more, that Vincentius collecting out of the Martyreloges, hath comprehended such a great Cataloge of so manye martirs, which in Fraunce and in Italye (sayeth he) suffered death and torments vnder this Emperour Aurelianus. Wherunto Orosius also seemeth to agree, in numbring this to be the ninth persecution vnder the sayd Aurelian.

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MarginaliaEx Eutropio Tacitus Emperour. Florianus Emperour. Next after Aurelianus the succession of the impery fell to Publius Annius Tacitus, who raigned but vj. monethes, Him succeded his brother Florianus, who raigned but lx. dayes. And after him followed Marcus Aurelius, surnamed Probus. Of whome more hereafter (God willing) shal appeare.

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In the meane time, within the compasse of these Emperours falleth in a story recorded, of Eusebius, and not vn-

worthy
G.ij.
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