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Alexander Galoway

Canon of Aberdeen

In a letter of 1528 praising the Archbishop Beaton and the Scottish clergy for their condemnation of Patrick Hamilton, the doctors of the University of Louvain mentioned that Alexander Galoway had brought the news to them. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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Alexander Mylne

(c. 1470 - 1548) [ODNB]

BA StAndrews 1494; historian; abbot of Cambuskenneth (1516 - 48); master mason to James V; present at the execution of Patrick Hamilton; 1st president of the college of justice (1532 - 48)

Alexander Mylne was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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David Beaton

(1494? - 1546) [ODNB]

Commendator of Arbroath (1517 - 46); cardinal (1544 - 46); archbishop of St Andrews (1539 - 46); assassinated

David Beaton was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

In a message to King James V, Henry VIII said that he had heard that David Beaton had been created cardinal. He warned James against allowing any of his subjects to accept the office. 1570, p. 1219; 1576, p. 1044; 1583, p. 1071.

A summons was directed from David Beaton and George Crichton upon Thomas Forret, John Beveridge, John Kelowe, Duncan Sympson and Robert Foster, along with three or four others from Stirling. They were condemned for heresy without any opportunity to recant and burnt together on the castle hill in Edinburgh. 1570, p. 1442; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1266.

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David Beaton sat on the assize that condemned Sir John Borthwick for heresy. 1563, p. 575; 1583, p. 1259.

Beaton sat on the assize that judged heretics in Perth. 1570, p. 1443; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1267.

Beaton ordered John Winram to summon George Wishart to appear before the bishops at St Andrews. Beaton sent an armed guard to escort him. 1563, p. 648; 1570, p. 1444; 1576, p. 1231; 1583, p. 1268.

Soon after the execution of George Wishart, David Beaton was murdered by Norman Leslie and other lords. 1570, p. 1448; 1576, p. 1235; 1583, p. 1272.

 
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Gavin Dunbar

(c. 1490 - 1547) [ODNB]

Administrator; MA by 1517; tutor to James V 1517; dean of Moray (1517 - 25); prior of Whithorn (1520 - 24)

Archbishop of Glasgow (1524 - 47); chancellor of Scotland (1528 - 43)

Gavin Dunbar was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1108; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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George Crichton

Abbot of Holyrood; bishop of Dunkeld (1526 - 44) [Fasti ecclesiae scoticanae]

George Crichton was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1108; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

Friars reported Thomas Forret as a heretic to George Crichton, who counselled him not to preach so often. Crichton proudly claimed not to know the Old or New Testament. 1570, p. 1442; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1266.

Soon afterward, a summons was directed from David Beaton and Crichton upon Thomas Forret, John Beveridge, John Kelowe, Duncan Sympson and Robert Foster, along with three or four others from Stirling. They were condemned for heresy without any opportunity to recant and burnt together on the castle hill in Edinburgh. 1570, p. 1442; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1266.

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George Durie

(d. 1577) [ODNB]

Nephew of Archbishop James Beaton of St Andrews; archdeacon of St Andrews c. 1522; papal provision to Dunfermline Abbey (held by the archbishop) in 1526; sole superior (1539 - 72); ceded the archdeaconry to his nephew Robert Pitcairn in 1539

MP, lord of the council, diplomat; keeper of the privy seal (1552 - 55); took part in heresy trials 1527, 1550, 1558; resident in France (1560 - 70); had 4 illegitimate sons

George Durie was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

Durie sat on the assize that deprived and exiled John Kerr. 1570, p. 1448; 1576, p. 1235; 1583, p. 1272.

He sat on the assize that tried and condemned Adam Wallace. 1570, pp. 1448-50; 1576, pp. 1235-36; 1583, pp. 1272-73.

Durie sat on the assize that tried and condemned Walter Mylne. 1570, p. 1452; 1576, p. 1238; 1583, p. 1275.

 
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Henry Orme

Abbot of Lindores (1502 - 28) [The Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from C12 - C16, D. E. R. Watt and N. F. Shead (eds.), Scottish Record Society, vol. 24 (Edinburgh, 2001)]; resigned requesting the appointment of John Philips as successor

Henry Orme was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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John Frith

(1503 - 1533) [ODNB; Hillerbrand]

Theologian and early martyr

BA Cambridge 1525; called by Wolsey to Cardinal College, Oxford

Imprisoned, fled abroad; returned 1531; arrested, placed in the Tower. Burnt at Smithfield

John Frith was converted at Cambridge by William Tyndale. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1031.

Frith was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

He and others were released on Wolsey's orders. When he heard of the examination and bearing of faggots of Dalaber and Garrard, he fled overseas. He returned two years later, was arrested at Reading as a vagabond and put in the stocks. He asked to see the schoolmaster there, Leonard Cox, who helped to free him.1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

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John Frith translated Patrick Hamilton's 'Places' into English and wrote a preface to it. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

John Frith wrote an answer to Sir Thomas More's book on purgatory. 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

Frith preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

William Tyndale met John Frith in Germany and became determined to translate the scriptures into English. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1049; 1583, p. 1076.

While abroad, Richard Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books in France and in England. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Lambert translated works from Latin and Greek to English and then went abroad to join William Tyndale and John Frith. 1563, p. 527; 1570, p. 1255; 1576, p. 1075; 1583, p. 1101.

Frith wrote against Sir Thomas More to a friend, who innocently showed the letter to William Holt. Holt then took the letter to More. 1563, p. 498; 1570, p. 1175; 1576, p. 1005; 1583, p. 1032.

Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was imprisoned in the Tower. From there he wrote to his friends, describing his examination before John Stokesley, Stephen Gardiner and John Longland. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Frith refused to retract his articles and was condemned. John Stokesley pronounced sentence and turned him over to the mayor and sheriffs of London. He was taken to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

Frith was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

 
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John Hepburn

(d. 1557) [Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Bishop of Brechin (1516 - 57)

John Hepburn was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

When George Wishart preached in Dundee, he was ordered to desist by John Hepburn but continued in spite of the order. 1563, p. 650; 1570, p. 1445; 1576, p. 1232; 1583, p. 1269.

 
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John Roul

Prior of Augustinian Pittenweem (May) Priory, East Neuk of Fife (1525 - 53) [The Heads of Religious Houses in Scotland from C12 - C16, D. E. R. Watt and N. F. Shead (eds.), Scottish Record Society vol. 24 (Edinburgh, 2001)]

John Roul was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

Roul sat on the assize that condemned Sir John Borthwick for heresy. 1563, p. 575; 1583, p. 1259.

 
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Patrick Hepburn

(c. 1487 - 1573) [ODNB; Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

MP 1525; secretary to James V (1525 - 26)

Prior of St Andrews 1526; bishop of Moray (1538 - 73)

Patrick Hepburn was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

Hepburn sat on the assize that deprived and exiled John Kerr. 1570, p. 1448; 1576, p. 1235; 1583, p. 1272.

He sat on the assize that tried and condemned Adam Wallace. 1570, pp. 1448-50; 1576, pp. 1235-36; 1583, pp. 1272-73.

Hepburn sat on the assize that tried and condemned Walter Mylne. 1570, p. 1452; 1576, p. 1238; 1583, p. 1275.

 
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Robert Forman

Dean of Glasgow (1505 - 30) [Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Robert Forman was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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Roland Blackadder

Subdean of Glasgow (1498x1500 - 1541); commissary of Glasgow 1519 [Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Roland Blackadder was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

 
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William Chisholm senior

(1493/4 - 1564) [ODNB; Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Bishop of Dunblane (1526 - 64)

William Chisholm was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

Chisholm sat on the assize that judged heretics in Perth. 1570, p. 1443; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1267.

Chisholm sat on the assize that deprived and exiled John Kerr. 1570, p. 1448; 1576, p. 1235; 1583, p. 1272.

He sat on the assize that tried and condemned Adam Wallace. 1570, pp. 1448-50; 1576, pp. 1235-36; 1583, pp. 1272-73.

 
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Leuven (Louvain)

[Louain; Louane; Louaine]

Flemish Brabant, Belgium

Coordinates: 50° 53' 0" N, 4° 42' 0" E

Capital of Flemish Brabant; university town

999 [975]

K. Hen. 8. M. Patricke Hamelton of Scot. Martyr. A letter congratulatory from the D. of Louan.

Good workes make not a good man, but a good man doth make good workes: That fayth, hope, and charitie, are so knit, that hee that hath the one, hath the rest, and hee that wanteth the one of them, wanteth the rest, &c. with diuers other heresies and detestable opinions: and hath persisted so obstinate in the same, that by no counsayle nor perswasion, he may be drawne therefrom, to the way of our right faith.

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MarginaliaWolues in Lambes skinnes.All these premisses being considered, we hauing God and the integritie of our fayth before our eyes, and following the counsayle and aduise of the professours of the holy Scripture, men of law, and others assisting vs, for the tyme: do pronounce, determine, and declare, the said M Patrike Hamelton, for his affirming, confessing, and mayntayning of the foresayd heresies, and his pertinacitie (they being condemned already by the Church, generall Councels, and most famous Vniuersities) to be an hereticke, and to haue an euill opinion of the fayth, and therefore to be condemned and punished, like as we condemne, and define him to be punished, by this our sentence definitiue, depriuing and sentencing him, to be depriued of all dignities, honours, orders, offices, and benefices of the Church: MarginaliaM. patricke geuen to the secular power.and therefore do iudge and pronounce him to be deliuered ouer to the secular power, to be punished, and his goodes to be confiscate.

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This our sentence definitiue, was geuen and read at our Metropolitane Church of S. Andrewes, the last day of the moneth of February, an. 1527 

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1528.

. being present, the most reuerend fathers in Christ, and Lords, Gawand Byshop of Glasgow, George Byshop of Dunkelden, Iohn, Byshop of Brecham, William, Byshop of Dunblane, Patrike, Prior of S. Andrew. Dauid, Abbot of Abirbrothoke, George, Abbot of Dunfermeling, Alexander, Abbot of Caunbuskyneth, Henry, Abbot of Lendors, Iohn Prior of Pittyrweme, the Deane, the Subdeane of Glasgow, M. Hugh Spens, Thomas Ramsay, Allane Meldrun, &c. In the presence of the Cleargy and the people.

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After the condemnation and Martyrdome of this true Saint of God was dispatched by the Byshops and Doctours of Scotland, the rulers and Doctours of the Vniuersitie of Louane hearing therof, receaued such ioy & consolation, at the sheding of that innocent bloud, that for the aboundance of hart, they could not stay their penne, to vtter condigne thanks, applauding and triumphing in their letters, sent to the foresaid Bishop of S. Andrewes, & Doctours of Scotland, at the worthy & famous deseruings of their atchieued enterprise, in that behalfe: as by the tenour of their sayd letter may appeare, which heere foloweth.

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¶ The copie of a letter congratulatorie, sente from the Doctours of Louane, to the Archbysh. of S. Andrewes and Doctours of Scotland, commending them for the death of mayster Patrike Hamelton.

MarginaliaA letter of thankes, sent frō Louane, to them of Scotland for shedding the bloud of Patricke Hamelton.YOur excellent vertue (most honourable Bishop) hath so deserued, that albeit we be farre distant, both by sea and land, without coniunction of familiaritie, yet we desire with all oure harts, to thanke you for your woorthy deede, by whose workes, that true faith which not long ago, was taynted wyth heresie, not only remayneth vnhurt, but also is more confirmed. For as oure deare friend M. Alexander Galoway, Chanon of Aberdon, hath shewed vs, the presumption of the wicked hereticke Patrike Hamelton, which is expressed in this your example, in that you haue cut him off, when there was no hope of amendement, &c.

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MarginaliaWhat ioy the Papistes make in spilling the bloud of Christians.The which thing, as it is thought commendable to vs, so the maner of the proceeding was no lesse pleasaunt, that the matter was perfourmed by so great consent of so many estates, as of the Cleargy, nobilitie, and vulgare people, not rashly, but most prudently, the order of law being in all poyntes obserued. We haue seene the sentence which ye pronounced, and alway do approue the same, not doubting but that the Articles which be inserted, are erroneous: so that whosoeuer will defend for a truth, any one of the same, with pertinacitie, shoulde be esteemed an enemie to the fayth, and an aduersary to the holy Scripture. MarginaliaIf ye coulde shew to what place of the scripture, we would gladly heare you.And albeit one or two of them appeare to be without errour, to them that wyll consider onely the bare words: as (for example) good woorkes make not a good man, but a good man worketh good workes, yet there is no doubt, but they conteyne a Lutherane sense, which in a maner, they signifie: to wit, that workes done after fayth, and iustification, make not a man the better, nor are worthy of any rewarde before God. Beleeue not, that this example shall haue place onely among you, for there shall be among externe nations, which shall imitate the same, &c.

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Certaynly, ye haue geue vs great courage, so that now we acknowledge your Vniuersitie, which was founded according to the example of our Vniuersitie of Louane, to be equall to ours, or else aboue: and would God occasion were offered of testifying our mindes towarde you. In the meane time, let vs labour wyth one consent, that the rauening Wolues may be expelled from thesheepefold of Christ, while we haue tyme. MarginaliaThe vniuersity of S. Andrewes was founded about the yeare of our Lord 1416 

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The papal bull of foundation was issued in 1413, confirming an episcopal charter of 1411.

. in the reigne of kyng Iames the first, who brought into Scotland out of other countreyes, 2. Doctors of Diuinitie, and 8. Doctors of decrees, with diuers other. Hect. Boet. Lib. 16. cap. 17. 
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Hector Boece's Scotorum historia (Paris, 1527) was also Foxe's source for the burning of Paul Craw.

Let vs study to preach to the people more learnedly hereafter, and more wisely. Let vs haue Inquisitours, & espyers of bookes, cōtaining that doctrine, especially that is brought in from farre countreys, whether by apostatiue Monkes, or by Marchauntes, the most suspected kynde of mē in these dayes. It is sayd 
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This was indeed a truism amongst Scots, unshaken by the (admittedly marginal) presence of Lollardy in fifteenth-century Scotland: see, for example, The Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. II (1814), p. 295.

, that since Scotland first embraced the Christiā fayth, it was neuer defiled with any heresie Perseuere therfore, being moued thereunto by the exāple of England, your next neighbour, which in this most troublous tyme, is not chaūged, partly by the working of the Bishops, amōg the which * Marginalia* He meaneth Fisher B. of Rochester, who wrote against Oecolampadyus and Luther, and at length was beheaded for treason. Roffensis hath sheweth himselfe an Euangelicall Phœnix, and partly of the kyng, declaring himselfe to be an other Mathias MarginaliaK. Henry. 8. is here a Matthias, when he maketh with you, but when he put downe the pope and his Abbeyes, thē ye make him an hereticke. of the new law: pretermittyng nothing that may defēd the law of his realme. The which, if your most renowmed king of Scotland will follow, he shal purchase to himself eternal glory. Further, as touchyng the condigne cōmendation, due for your part (most reuerēd Byshop) in this behalfe, it shall not be the least part of your prayse, that these heresies haue bene extinct sometimes in Scotlād, you being Primate of Scotlād and principal authour therof: Albeit that they also which haue assisted you, are not to be defrauded of their deserued prayse, as the reuerēd Byshop of Glasgow, of whose erudition, we haue here geuē vs partly to vnderstand, and also the Reuerend Byshop of Aberden, a stoute defender of the fayth, together with the rest of the Prelates, Abbottes, Priours, and professors of holy Scripture. Let your Reuerend Fatherhood take this little testificate of our duety toward you, in good part, whom we wishe long and happely well to fare in Christ. From Louane. An. 1528. Aprill. 21.

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By the Maisters, and professours, of Theologie in
the Vniuersitie of Louane, yours to commaunde.

¶ In this Epistle of the Louanian Doctours, I shall not neede (gētle Reader) to note vnto thee, what a pernitious thyng in a cōmon wealth, is blynd ignoraunce, whē it falleth into cruell hartes. Which may well be compared to a sword put in the handes of one, that is both blynd and mad. For as the blynd man, hauyng no sense to see & iudge knoweth not whom he striketh: so the madde man, beyng cruell & furious, hath no cōpassion in sparyng any. Wherupon it happeneth many tymes with these men, as it dyd with the blynd furious Phariseis, that as they hauing the sword of authoritie in their hādes, in stede of malefactours and false Prophetes, slue the true Prophetes of God, and at last crucified the kyng of glory: so these Catholicke Louanians and folowers of their Messias of Rome, take in their handes the sworde of iurisdiction, who neither seyng what to spare, nor caring whom they smite, vnder the stile and pretense of heretickes, murther and blaspheme without mercy, the true Preachers of the Gospell, and the holy annoynted of the Lord.

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But to returne to the matter agayne of M. Hameltō, here is moreouer to be obserued, as a note worthy of memory, that in the yeare of the Lord. 1564. in þe which yeare this present history was collected in Scotland, there were certaine faythfull men of credite thē aliue, who beyng present the same tyme, when M. Patrike Hamelton was in the fire, heard him to cite & appeale the blacke Frier called Cāpbel 

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John Knox's parallel but independent account describes how Alexander Campbell's accusation arose from a betrayal of personal trust, and alleges that Campbell died 'in Glaskow, in a phrenesye, and as one dispared.' John Knox, The Works of John Knox, ed. David Laing, 6 vols (Edinburgh, 1846-64), vol. I p. 19.

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, that accused him, to appeare before the high God, as general iudge of all mē, to aunswere to the innocēcy of his death, and whether his accusation was iust or not, betwene that, & a certaine day of the next moneth, which he there named. MarginaliaA maruelous exāple of Gods iust punishment vpon the accuser & persecuter of M. Hamelton.Moreouer by the same witnes it is testified, that þe sayd Frier died immediately before þe sayd day came, without remorse of conscience, that he had persecuted the Innocēt. By the example wherof diuers of the people the same tyme, much mused, and firmely beleued the doctrine of the foresayd M. Hamelton, to be good and iust.

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Hereunto I thought good to adioyne a certaine godly and profitable treatise 

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Patrick's Places

While attending the University of Marburg in 1527, the Scottish evangelical Patrick Hamiliton was persuaded by François Lambert, the head of the theological faculty there, to publish a set of propositions on works and justification by faith that Hamiliton had written for public debate. These were printed as the Loci communes. Patrick's Places is the title which John Frith gave to his translation of the Loci communes. This translation was printed in Antwerp around 1531 (STC 12731.4). Frith's version proved quite popular and three further editions of it were printed from 1532 until 1549 (STC 12731.6-12732). But Patrick's Places enjoyed even greater popularity through being printed as part of other widely disseminated works, including primers, John Knox's History of the Reformation in Scotland and, from 1570 onwards, the Acts and Monuments.

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Foxe's plans for publishing Patrick's Places had apparently been brewing for some time. Surviving among Foxe's papers in Emmanuel College, Cambridge, is a manuscript title page for what was presumably a copy-text for a new edition of Patrick's Places (ECL, MS 262, fo. 60r-v). The manuscript title-page states at the bottom that it is 'Newly imprinted in London' in 1566. The remainder of the complete text of Patrick's Places occurs further on in the manuscript (ECL, MS 262, fos. 72r-81r). Its text is clearly marked up in preparation for printing and also contains revisions of the text in Foxe's handwriting. Obviously Foxe intended to produce an edition of Patrick's Places in 1566, but, for some unknown reason, changed his mind. Instead of printing the work as an independent tract, he incorporated it into the Acts and Monuments. The version of Patrick's Places printed in the Acts and Monuments, however, is significantly different from both the Emmanuel College, Cambridge manuscript version and, more importantly, from Frith's version. Although Foxe preserved Frith's preface, he recast the format of the work, changing what was basically a catechism into an academic disputation. All of the syllogisms are Foxe's additions. And he appended a set of 'brief' interpretative notes at the end of the tract, thus doubling its length. These notes discussed the distinction between the law and the gospel which anticipated the longer discussion of this in Foxe's Sermon on Christ Crucified (1571). Thomas S. Freeman

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of the sayd M. Patrike Hamelton, MarginaliaA treatise of M. Patricke Hamelton, called Patricks places. written first by him in Latine, and afterward trāslated by Iohn Frith into English, which he names Patriks Places, not vnprofitable in my mynde, to be sene and read of all men, for the pure and confortable doctrine conteyned in the same, as not onely by the Treatise it selfe may appeare, but also by the Preface of the sayd Iohn Frith, prefixed before, which also I thought not inconuenient to insert with the same, as here foloweth.

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¶ A brief treatise of M. Patrike Hamelton, called Patrikes Places, translated into Englishe by Iohn Frith, with the Epistle of the sayd Frith prefixed before the same, as followeth.
Iohn Frith vnto the Christian Reader. 
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This is the preface from Frith's 1531 edition of Patrick's Places, reprinted - unlike much of the rest of the edition - with complete fidelity to the original.

BLessed be God the Father of our Lord Iesus Christ, whiche in these last dayes and perillous tymes, 

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This passage is an explicit reference to 2 Timothy 3: 1. It is an interesting indication of Frith's placing Hamilton's work in an apocalyptic context.

hath stirred vp in all coū-

treys,
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