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Rædwald (Redwald) of East AngliaRægenhereR. BoltonR. LanteR. ShalcrossRadleyRafe TwingeRafe WhitfieldRafe YetonRagnarr Lodbrók (Ragnarr Hairy Breeches)Rainolde WestRalfe CantrelRalfe CantrelRalph AllertonRalph BayneRalph BradfordRalph BradshawRalph CarltonRalph CholmleyRalph ClervisRalph CrowchRalph d'EscuresRalph de DicetoRalph FoxleyRalph HareRalph HiltonRalph HoptonRalph JacksonRalph MoriceRalph MorriceRalph MorriceRalph NobleRalph ParkinsonRalph SymondsRamseyRamsyRandall TirerRanulf Higden (Ranulf of Chester)Raphael Volaterranus (Raffaele Maffei)Ratramnus of CorbieRatramnus of Corbie [Bertram]Rawlins WhiteRebekah BennetReginald fitz JocelinReginald PoleReginald PoleReinland EastlandRemigius of AuxerreRevocatusReynoldRheticius (Reticius) (St Rheticius)Rhys ap GlynRice ApriceRice GoughRice GoughRichard (William) Pelham (Pelland)Richard AlveyRichard ArchRichard ArgentineRichard AtkinRichard AtkinsRichard AtkinsonRichard AtkinsonRichard AustenRichard BailyRichard BamptonRichard Bayfield (alias Somersam)Richard BeckesRichard BenetRichard 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GraftonRichard GraftonRichard GratwickRichard GratwickRichard GravellRichard GrenvilleRichard GreshamRichard GreyRichard GrivelRichard GwentRichard HampdenRichard HawardRichard HawtreyRichard Hedil (Hedley)Richard HedleyRichard HeghamRichard HilminRichard HookeRichard HopkinsRichard HoverRichard HowboroughRichard HowndonRichard HunneRichard HunneRichard IIRichard IveryRichard Johnson (alias Collins)Richard JolleyRichard JonesRichard JugworthRichard JurdianRichard KempeRichard KitchenRichard LathomusRichard LawkenorRichard le Grant (Grand)Richard LiellRichard LongRichard LongmanRichard LoveitRichard LushRichard ManerdRichard MarshRichard MarshallRichard MarshallRichard MartinRichard MasterRichard MawolyRichard MekinsRichard MereRichard MillarRichard MitchRichard MitchellRichard MorisonRichard MorriceRichard NeleRichard NevilleRichard NicholsRichard NixRichard of DoverRichard PaceRichard ParsonRichard PateRichard PatesRichard PatesRichard PecheRichard Pecksal [or Pexall]Richard PhilipsRichard PointerRichard PondRichard PottoRichard RandallRichard RawsonRichard RayburneRichard Reynold and John PresteRichard ReynoldsRichard RichRichard RichmanRichard RobertsRichard RothRichard SampsonRichard ScotRichard SemanRichard SharpRichard SharplesRichard SheriffRichard ShipperRichard SlavyRichard SmartRichard SmithRichard SmithRichard Smyth (Smith)Richard SpenserRichard SpurgeRichard StokesleyRichard TavernerRichard TaylorRichard ThorndenRichard ThorpeRichard TracyRichard TurnerRichard TurnerRichard WardRichard WatersonRichard WeaverRichard WebbeRichard WestonRichard WhalleyRichard WhiteRichard WhiteRichard WilkesRichard WilmotRichard WolmanRichard WoodburneRichard WoodmanRichard WrightRichard YeomanRichard YngworthRichard [or Rafe] Larden [or Lardyn or Lurdane]RichardsonRicsige of NorthumbriaRictiovarusRobert AldrichRobert AldrichRobert AmeryRobert AndrewRobert AstonRobert AtkinsonRobert AustenRobert BaconRobert BarcockRobert BarkerRobert BarksdaleRobert BarnesRobert BarnesRobert BartonRobert BateRobert BauldingRobert BennettRobert BestRobert BisselRobert BlomfieldRobert BochinRobert BoeleRobert BowyerRobert BraborneRobert BracherRobert BranstoneRobert Brassey [or Brassie]Robert BrayRobert BrightRobert BromleyRobert BrownRobert BrownRobert ByrcheRobert CambridgeRobert CarterRobert CatlinRobert Catton (Bronde)Robert CausyRobert ChidleyRobert ChooteRobert Clodder (Cloddet)Robert CoddeRobert ColeRobert ColemanRobert CollinsRobert CollinsRobert ColmanRobert CookeRobert CookeRobert CooperRobert CousynRobert CousynRobert CraneRobert CranwellRobert CrowtherRobert DaleRobert DanielRobert DebnamRobert DebnamRobert DrakesRobert DudleyRobert DynesRobert EdgoreRobert FabyanRobert FaireRobert FarrerRobert FerrarRobert FerrarRobert FerrarRobert ForemanRobert FormanRobert FosterRobert FowlerRobert FrankeRobert FullerRobert GardinerRobert GloverRobert GoldstoneRobert GraingerRobert GranceterRobert GrauntRobert HallRobert HarringtonRobert HarrisonRobert HarveyRobert HatchetRobert HawesRobert HempsteadRobert HillesRobert HolgateRobert HolgateRobert HollonRobert HorneRobert HorneRobert HornebyRobert HudsonRobert HunterRobert IngramRobert JohnRobert JohnsonRobert JohnsonRobert KatrenesRobert KedeRobert KendallRobert Kett (Ket)Robert KingRobert KingRobert KitrichRobert LambRobert LambeRobert LangleyRobert LashfordRobert LawesRobert LawrenceRobert LawsonRobert LowsonRobert MainardRobert ManRobert MarshRobert MarshamRobert MasseRobert MaundrelRobert MekynsonRobert MilesRobert MillesRobert MorwynRobert MosseyRobert NectonRobert NormanRobert NottinghamRobert OckhamRobert OkingRobert or William PurcasRobert PackingtonRobert Parfew [or Purfoy]Robert PartrichRobert PhillipsRobert PlatteRobert PooleRobert PottenRobert PrestonRobert PygotRobert ReidRobert ReignoldRobert RidleyRobert RolfeRobert RouseRobert RudstoneRobert SalmonRobert SamuelRobert ScoldingRobert SilkbyRobert SingletonRobert SmalwoodRobert SmithRobert SmithRobert SmittonRobert SouthamRobert SteropRobert StewardRobert StewartRobert StreaterRobert SylkeRobert TailorRobert TestwoodRobert TopleyRobert TunnesRobert TynleyRobert WakefieldRobert WardRobert WardallRobert WarningtonRobert Warton (Perfey)Robert WelshRobert WestRobert WiggeRobert WillantonRobert WilliamsRobert WillysRobert WingfieldRobert WinterRobert WisdomRobert WrightRobert Yould [also Youle or Yowle]Robert [?] GrayRobin CalyRobinsonRogationus and SeagriusRogerRoger ActonRoger AppletonRoger BarrettRoger BernardRoger BeswickeRoger BrownRoger ButcherRoger ClarkeRoger CooRoger DavyRoger GostlowRoger GrasbrokeRoger HackmanRoger HallRoger HollandRoger HurdRoger HutchinsonRoger LaurenceRoger LuptonRoger MatthewRoger NewmanRoger of Howden (Hoveden)Roger of Wendover [Matthæus]Roger SandyRoger SergeantRoger TannerRoger TongeRoger WasteRoger WhaplodeRoger WrinstoneRoger WydouseRogersRogersonRoland BlackadderRoland MessengerRoland SwynborneRoland SwynborneRomanRomanus (St Romanus)Rose AllinRose BateRose FletcherRose NattinghamRose NottinghamRosewellRoughtRowenRowland HarrisonRowland HillRowland LeeRowland MeyrickRowland PhilippsRowland TaylorRoydenRuardus AnchusianusRudolf GwaltherRudolf of FuldaRudolf von Rheinfeld (Rudolf of Swabia)RuffinusRufinianusRufinus of Aquileia
Glossary of People in the 1583 Edition | R
Rædwald (Redwald) of East Anglia

(d. 616x27) [ODNB]

King of the East Angles (late C6/early C7 - 616x627); convert to Christianity

Rædwald was converted in Kent; later, through the influence of his wife, he combined Christianity with other gods. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

Eadwine, when he was young, was persecuted by Æthelfrith, king of Northumbria, and fled to Rædwald. Rædwald, through fear of Æthelfrith and bribery, intended to betray Eadwine. His mind was changed by his wife, and he met Æthelfrith in battle, where Æthelfrith was killed. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

1583 Edition, page 135 | 1583 Edition, page 143
Rægenhere

(d. 616/17) [ODNB sub Rædwald]

Son of Rædwald, king of the East Angles; killed in battle against Æthelfrith of Northumbria

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 162; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 120.

1583 Edition, page 143
R. Bolton

Of Lancashire.

Bolton sent greetings by John Bradford in a letter he sent to his mother and others. 1570, p. 1839,1576, p. 1574, 1583, p. 1656.

1583 Edition, page 1680
R. Lante

Relative of and scholar of Robert Singleton

Lante was willing to testify to the fact that Robert Singleton was not involved in seditious activities. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

1583 Edition, page 1281[Back to Top]
R. Shalcross

Of Lancashire.

Shalcross was sent greetings by John Bradford in a letter he sent to his mother and others. 1570, p. 1839, 1576, p. 1574, 1583, p. 1656.

1583 Edition, page 1680
Radley

Student of Cardinal College, Oxford [Fines]

Thomas Garrard was sheltered in Oxford by Radley and was arrested at his house. 1563, p. 604; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1166; 1583, p. 1194.

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 609; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

1583 Edition, page 1218 | 1583 Edition, page 2164
Rafe Twinge

Gentleman of North Yorkshire

William Ombler, leader of the Yorkshire rebels, was spotted and captured by John Word the younger, James Aslaby, Rafe Twinge and Thomas Constable, who took him to York to be tried. 1570, p. 1501; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

1583 Edition, page 1333
Rafe Whitfield

Cousin of Nicholas Ridley.

Whitfield was sent greetings in Ridley's 'friendly farewell'. 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

He was the possible recipient of a letter from Ridley. See his letter to 'a cousin'. 1563, p. 1295, 1570, p. 1897, 1576, p. 1624, 1583, p. 1725.

1583 Edition, page 1749 | 1583 Edition, page 1795
Rafe Yeton

Before surrendering himself, George Marsh visited Rafe Yeton. He asked him to pray for him and to look after his family. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

[NB: This could be a misprint; possibly the name is really Rafe Heton. The Hetons were a veryimportant protestant family in the Bolton area].

1583 Edition, page 1586
Ragnarr Lodbrók (Ragnarr Hairy Breeches)

Legendary Danish king or chieftain and father of Ívarr the Boneless [ODNB sub Ívarr the Boneless]

Lodbrók's death precipitated an attack by the Danes on King Edmund, resulting in his death. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, p. 114.

1583 Edition, page 137
Rainolde West

Lollard

William Paget supplyed Rainolde West with books by Luther and other German protestants when he was at Cambridge. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

James Bainham asked Rainolde West to accompany him to his burning. 1563, p. 497.

1583 Edition, page 1078
Ralfe Cantrel

Minister. Possibly of Ipswich.

Ralfe Cantrel was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler to have access to his wife. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2090.

[Possibly the Ralph Cantrel who was MA (1542), Fellow of Jesus (1539 - 1540), Fellow of St John's c. 1540. (Venn)]

[Possibly related to Cantrel of Norfolk.]

1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Ralfe Cantrel

Minister, possibly of Ipswich

[Possibly the Ralph Cantrel who was MA (1542), Fellow of Jesus (1539 - 1540), Fellow of St John's c. 1540. (Venn)]

Cantrel was commissioned by Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, to enquire of the vice-chancellor of Cambridge University and others there of the views and behaviour of Nicholas Shaxton. 1563, p. 483.

Ralph Allerton

(d. 1557)

Layman. Martyr. Of Great Bentley, Essex.

Allerton used to pray and read the New Testament to parishioners of Bentley. He was told to quit these actions as he was not a priest. He was later attacked for reading in the parish of Weeley. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2208, 1576, p. 1905, 1583, p. 2013.

Allerton hid himself in barns and woods, away from his home, to avoid apprehension. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2208, 1576, p. 1905, 1583, p. 2013.

After examination by Lord Darcy of Chiche, Allerton was sent to Bonner, who forced him to recant at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2208, 1576, p. 1905, 1583, p. 2013.

Allerton was apprehended by Thomas Tye and sent before Bonner for further examination. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2208, 1576, p. 1905, 1583, p. 2013.

Ralph Allerton's first examination before Bonner, Morton and Tye was on 8 April 1557. Allerton wrote an account of it in his own blood. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2208-10, 1576, p. 1905-07, 1583, p. 2014-15.

He was examined again on 24 April before Bonner, Lord North, Dr Story and others. 1563, p. 1621, 1570, p. 2210-11, 1576, p. 1907-08, 1583, p. 2015-16.

Allerton was examined again on 15 May 1557 and articles were given against him. 1563, pp. 1625-26.

He was examined on 19 May before the bishop of Rochester, Chichester and others. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton was examined again on 4 July, on 7 July by Darbyshire, and on 10 September. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Information against Ralph Allerton was provided by Thomas Tye, John Painter, William Harris, John Barker, John Carter, Thomas Candler, Jeffrey Bestwood, John Richard, and Richard Mere, all of Great Bentley. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton had been said by Tye to have schooled Lawrence Edwards over the baptism of his child. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Ralph Allerton wrote a letter to Lord Darcy of Chiche. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

When charged with reading to the people in the woods Ralph Allerton said that he had not done so, save once, when he was in the company of George Eagles and Richard Roth, when Roth desired him to read something he had upon him. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton was apprehended, examined before Lord Darcy of Chiche, and condemned over a year before his death. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton's answers to the articles against him. 1563, pp. 1628-29, 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton stated that Roth had made his nose bleed, so that he might have something to write with. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton insisted that Agnes Silverside was not a heretic. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Allerton stated that he had left some of his writings in the prison for Roth to read. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Objections ministered to Ralph Allerton. 1570, p. 2013, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, pp. 2017-18.

Allerton was burned at Islington on 17 September 1557. 1570, p. 2013, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, p. 2018.

Ralph Allerton's letter to Agnes Smith (alias Silverside). 1563, pp. 1627-28, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2017.

Ralph Allerton's letter to Richard Roth. 1563, p. 1628, 1570, p. 2213, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2017.

1583 Edition, page 2037
Ralph Bayne

(d. 1559)

Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1554 - 1559) [DNB]

Latimer's adversaries are listed: bishop of Ely (preached against him in King's College); Dr Watson (Master of Christ's College); Dr Norton (Master of Clare); Dr Philo (Master of Michael House); Dr Metcalfe (Master of St John); Dr Blith (of the King's Hall); Dr Bullock (Master of Queen's College); Dr Palmes (Master of St Nicholas hostel); Bayne, Rud and Greenwood of St John's; Brikenden, of St John's also, and said to have been a scholar of Latimer's. 1563, p. 1307, 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Robert Glover believed that after Bayne and Draycot had read his letter to the mayor of Coventry they had decided to attempt to do away with Glover while he was in prison 1570, p. 1888, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he was examined before the bishop of Coventry in Denton's house . 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

Robert Glover was examined and condemned by Draycot and Bayne. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

When friends and family of William Glover tried to have Glover buried in his local church, Bernard, the clerk (whom Foxe believed still to be clerk in 1570), refused his burial. Bernard rode to bishop Raufe Bayne for advice. After two days and one night, Bernard returned with a letter from Bayne which demanded that Glover not be buried in the churchyard. Some of the villagers dragged his body by horse (as it had now begun to stink so badly they could not touch him) and then buried him in a broom field. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

Bayne wrote a letter to the parish of Weme. 1563, p. 1277, 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

Cornelius Bungey was condemned by Ralph Baynes, bishop of Coventry. Articles were raised against Bungey which he answered. 1563, pp. 1282-83, 1570, p. 1890, 1576, p. 1619, 1583, p. 1714.

Philpot's fifth examination was before Bonner, Rochester, Coventry, St Asaph, as well as Story, Curtop, Saverson, Pendleton and others. 1563, pp. 1398-1405, 1570, pp. 1968-72, 1576, pp. 1695-98, 1583, pp. 1803-05.

John Philpot's final examination, on 16 December 1555, was before the bishops of London, Bath, Worcester and Lichfield. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, pp. 1997-98, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

John Colstock, Nicholas Ball, Thomas Flyer, Thomas Pyot, Henry Crimes and Thomas Johnson, among others, were examined in the diocese of Lichfield by Ralph Bayne for his beliefs. 1563, p. 1528, 1570, p. 2098, 1576, p. 1810, 1583, p. 1917.

Bayne persecuted Joan Waste of Derby. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2137, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1951.

He is described by Foxe as the cruel bishop of Coventry. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Draycot and Bayne examined the following but later dismissed them: John Adale, Anthony Afterwhittle, Thomas Arch, Thomas Arnal, John Avines, Henry Birdlim, Eustache Bysacre, Julius Dudley, William Enderby, Richard Foxal, John Frankling, Anthony Jones, Richard Kempe, John Leach, Hugh Lynacres, Thomas Lynacres, William Marler, Hugh Moore, William Mosley, Martin Newman, Isabel Parker, Cicely Preston, John Richardson, John Robinson, Thomas Sailter, William Shene, John Stamford, Thomas Steilbe, Thomas Underdone, Francis Ward, Richard Weaver, Thomas Wilson, and Richard Woodburne. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Robert Aston was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Richard Bayly was examined by Draycot and Bayne and deprived. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

John Borsley the younger was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Agnes Foreman was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield on 12 September 1556. 1563, p. 1547, 1570, p. 2141 , 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1954.

Edward Hawkes was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

William Kaime was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Robert Katrenes was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Joyce Lewes was examined by Draycot and Bayne in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in October 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Robert Mossey was examined and deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Thomas Norris was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Anselm Sele was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Richard Slavy was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Thomas Smith was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

Thomas Stiffe was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

John Waterhouse was examined and forced by Draycot and Bayne to do penance. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

William Taylor and Henry Tecka were deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

A citation to appear before the bishop was delivered to Joyce Lewes' husband, who furiously insisted that the summoner return it, lest he would force him to eat it, which he forced him to do at dagger-point. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.

Joyce Lewes and her husband were commanded to appear before the bishop. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.

Although her husband submitted, Joyce Lewes refused. The bishop gave her one month's respite and returned her to her husband, who was bound to the sum of £100 to return her to submit at the end of one month. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.

John Glover and others pleaded with Joyce Lewes' husband not to send her to the bishop and so forfeit the money but he refused. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.

As Lewes took a drink, she said that she drank to all those who loved the gospel and desired the abolition of papistry. Several of the town's women drank from the same cup and were were examined by the bishop and his chancellor and later forced to do penance. 1563, p. 1619, 1570, p. 2207, 1576, p. 1904, 1583, p. 2012.

Ralph Bayne was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

Ralph Bayne died after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992.

1583 Edition, page 1733 | 1583 Edition, page 1738 | 1583 Edition, page 1739 | 1583 Edition, page 1759 | 1583 Edition, page 1826 | 1583 Edition, page 1940 | 1583 Edition, page 1975 | 1583 Edition, page 1978 | 1583 Edition, page 2036 | 1583 Edition, page 2047 | 1583 Edition, page 2126 | 1583 Edition, page 2142
Ralph Bradford

(d. c. 1537) [Fines]

Scholar and fellow of King's College, Cambridge; detected for transporting New Testaments to London; fled to Ireland, where he was imprisoned for 2 years; DTh Cambridge 1534; chaplain to Bishop Latimer

Ralph Bradford was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088[Back to Top]
Ralph Bradshaw

George Marsh wrote a letter to him and other co-religionists in and around Bolton, Lancs, instructing them on how to behave in the current time of persecution. 1570, p. 1743; 1576, pp. 1488-9; 1583, pp. 1571-72.

1583 Edition, page 1595
Ralph Carlton

Curate of St Matthew's and St Mary at Elms, Ipswich, under Edward VI. Deprived under Mary.

Ralph Carlton was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler to have access to his wife. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2090.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Ralph Cholmley

(by 1517 - 1563)

Probably from London. MP for Mitchell (1547), Bodmin (1553), Boroughbridge (1554), London (1554, 1555, 1558, 1559, 1563). JP Middlesex (1547 - 1563), Surrey (1554 - 1563), London (1553 - 1554). Sergeant-at-law (1559), justice of assize, southern circuit (1559), commr. ecclesiastical laws (1559). Son of Richard Cholmley of Cholmondeley, Cheshire, and brother of Sir Hugh Cholmley. [Not to be confused with the Yorkshire Cholmleys.] (Bindoff)

Ralph Cholmley was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

1583 Edition, page 1994
Ralph Clervis

of St Magnus's parish; charged with 10 others in 1541 for supporting preachers of the new learning [Fines]

Ralph Clervis was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Ralph Crowch

William Wood offered sanctuary in his house to Walter Appleby and his wife, but within a fortnight the bishop of Rochester sent his chief man, Ralph Crowch, to bring them to Rochester, where they were imprisoned and then burned on 18 June 1557. 1583, p. 2145.

Crowch came for William Wood, but took his neighbour instead. 1583, p. 2145.

1583 Edition, page 2169[Back to Top]
Ralph d'Escures

(c. 1068 - 1122) [ODNB]

Monk; abbot of St Martin of Sées (1089 - 1108); bishop of Rochester 1108 - 14)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1114 - 22); in dispute with Thurstan of York over primacy

Under Ralph d'Escures, there was no great move against married priests. 1563, p. 16; 1570, p. 1334; 1576, p. 1138; 1583, p. 1167.

1583 Edition, page 1191
Ralph de Diceto

(d. 1199/1200) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Middlesex 1152; dean of St Paul's 1180; chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1331; 1576, p. 1135; 1583, p. 1164.

1583 Edition, page 1188
Ralph Foxley

Member of jury trying Richard Mekins

Ralph Foxley complained that, although they had been promised guidance from parish clergy, they had received none. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 1226
Ralph Hare

Soldier of Calais; barely literate; recanted, sent back to Calais for penance [Fines]

Ralph Hare was one of those accused of heresy to the privy council by councillors of Calais. Broke, Hare, Cocke and Barber were sent with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

Hare was made to recant and do penance and lost his living in Calais. 1563, pp. 661-63; 1570, p. 1402; 1576, pp. 1195-96; 1583, p. 1225.

William Smith was sentenced to preach a sermon of recantation in the market place in Calais, while Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were to abjure and stand bearing faggots. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

1583 Edition, page 1248
Ralph Hilton

Witness against James Bainham in 1532

At James Bainham's last examination, Ralph Hilton testified against him. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

1583 Edition, page 1053[Back to Top]
Ralph Hopton

Marshal of the Tower of London 1550

While imprisoned in the Tower, Stephen Gardiner asked the lieutenant and marshal of the Tower to make suit to the king's council for an audience. 1563, p. 764; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Ralph Hopton was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, p. 830

1583 Edition, page 1380
Ralph Jackson

(1542? - 1556)

Servingman. Martyr. Of Chipping Ongar.

On 6 June 1556 Darbyshire, Bonner's chancellor, read articles against him (essentially the same as those against Thomas Whittle). He gave answers. 1563, pp. 1523-24, 1570, p. 2095, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, pp. 1914-16.

He was imprisoned at Newgate and burned at Stratford-le-Bow 27 on June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

He signed a letter written with his fellow sufferers that berated Feckenham for preaching against them on 14 June 1556. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1916.

1583 Edition, page 1938
Ralph Morice

(fl. 1522 - 1570) [ODNB]

Principal secretary to Thomas Cranmer c. 1531; protestant reformer; BA Cambridge 1523; MA 1526; imprisoned for a time under Mary; source on martyrs for Foxe

Archbishop Cranmer asked his secretary to write up a book of Cranmer's arguments against the Six Articles to give to the king. Ralph Morice took the book with him when he went by boat to the city. He was caught up in bear-baiting on the river, and the book fell into the water. It was recovered by the bearward, who refused to return it. Morice went to Thomas Cromwell, who recovered the book from the bearward. 1570, p. 1355-56; 1576, p. 1157-58; 1583, p. 1185-86.

Cranmer told his secretary, Ralph Morice, that the letters he had written for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church had never been signed. Gardiner had convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Morice witnessed Sir Anthony Denny report to Thomas Cranmer of the the attempt by Sir Anthony Browne to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1254; 1583, p. 1291.

1583 Edition, page 1209 | 1583 Edition, page 1269 | 1583 Edition, page 1315[Back to Top]
Ralph Morrice

(fl. 1523 - 1570; born.1500?)

Secretary to Archbishop Thomas Cranmer.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Deny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Latimer wrote to Morrice concerning the articles against Latimer. 1563, p. 1314.

Morrice wrote a letter to William Buttes and Anthony Denny defending Richard Turner. Morrice was Turner's patron. 1570, p. 2043-44, 1576, pp. 1762-63, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

Morrice got Moyle to hear one of Turner's sermons in Easter week, his rehearsal sermon in his parish at Westwell. Moyle heard him before noon and after noon on the Wednesday and approved. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

1583 Edition, page 1765 | 1583 Edition, page 1892
Ralph Morrice

(fl. 1523 - 1570; born.1500?)

Secretary to Archbishop Thomas Cranmer.

Cranmer's secretary wrote to Buttes and Deny asking for Dr Lee to join the commission, lest nothing be learned by the commission. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Latimer wrote to Morrice concerning the articles against Latimer. 1563, p. 1314.

Morrice wrote a letter to William Buttes and Anthony Denny defending Richard Turner. Morrice was Turner's patron. 1570, p. 2043-44, 1576, pp. 1762-63, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

Morrice got Moyle to hear one of Turner's sermons in Easter week, his rehearsal sermon in his parish at Westwell. Moyle heard him before noon and after noon on the Wednesday and approved. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

1583 Edition, page 1892
Ralph Noble

Witness against James Bainham in 1532

At James Bainham's last examination, Ralph Noble testified against him. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

1583 Edition, page 1053
Ralph Parkinson

Minister. Of Shakersley, Lancashire.

Ralph Parkinson was sent by Thomas Lelond to search Jeffrey Hurst's home for books. 1570, p. 2280, 1576, p. 1968, 1583, p. 2075.

Parkinson discussed Hurst's books with Lelond. 1570, p. 2280, 1576, p. 1968, 1583, p. 2077.

1583 Edition, page 2100[Back to Top]
Ralph Symonds

of St Mildred's Breadstreet parish; charged in 1541 for not keeping Ladyday

Ralph Symonds was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Ramsey

(d. c. 1541)

Martyred at Salisbury with fellow interlude players Richard Spenser and Hewet

Ramsey was charged with heresy about the sacrament of the altar and burnt at Salisbury. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 156 | 1583 Edition, page 175 | 1583 Edition, page 581 | 1583 Edition, page 1996 | 1583 Edition, page 1226
Ramsy

Arrested at Bocking conventical. [BL Harley 421, fo.133v.]

Ramsy was carried to Canterbury with John Bland. He is described as a former clerk during Bland's trial. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

John Gray went to the defence of Ramsy on 3 December 1555 at Adisham, and was nearly overwhelmed by the mob. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Ramsy was transported with Bland to Canterbury to speak with Masters Hardes (Justice), Drenden, Spilman, and Tutsam. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

Ramsy was bound over to keep the peace. Ramsy's sureties were Thomas Hodgkins and Simon Barrat. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

1583 Edition, page 1690
Randall Tirer

Stationer

Imprisoned in connection with illicit books, October 1554 (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

1583 Edition, page 1497
Ranulf Higden (Ranulf of Chester)

(d. 1364) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk; chronicler. Wrote a history of world, the Polychronicon

Foxe mentions him as a source: 1570, p. 160; 1576, p. 120; 1583, p. 119.

1583 Edition, page 142
Raphael Volaterranus (Raffaele Maffei)

(1451 - 1522) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b.Volterra; Roman humanist, philosopher, theologian. Established an academy in his house; founded Clarisse monastery, Volterra; wrote an encyclopedia in three parts: geology, anthropology, philology

Volaterran regarded the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 11; 1570, pp. 6, 63, 78, 86, 96, 105, 1329; 1576, pp. 5, 38, 53, 60, 69, 75, 1133; 1583, pp. 5, 38, 53, 59, 69, 74, 1162

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Ratramnus of Corbie

Ninth century theologian known, among other works, for his De corpore et sanguine Domini, which emphasised the figurative nature of the elements of the Sacrament (1563, p. 929; 1570, pl. 1590; 1576, p. 1357; 1583, p. 1427

Also referred to as 'Bertram'

1583 Edition, page 1451 | 1583 Edition, page 1742 | 1583 Edition, page 1792
Ratramnus of Corbie [Bertram]

C9 theologian [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer: A Life (New Haven, 1996) pp. 181, 355, 382-83, 391]

Ratramnus lived about 810 under Charlemagne. 1570, p. 1300; 1576, p. 1112; 1583, p. 1138.

Ratramnus was a learned man and wrote on the eucharist. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1394.

1583 Edition, page 1162 | 1583 Edition, page 1418
Rawlins White

(1495? - 1555)

Fisherman, martyr

In the 1563 edition there is only one sentence about Rawlins White; it states that he was burned on 5 March 1555 in Cardiff. 1563, p. 1101.

White was converted to protestantism in the reign of Edward VI and became an itinerant lay preacher. He headed conventicles in Mary's reign in the region around Cardiff. 1570, p. 1726; 1576, pp. 1473-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1556-57.

After being imprisoned for three weeks after sentence was pronounced, White was burned in Cardiff in March 1555. He died with remarkable courage. 1570, pp. 1727-29; 1576, p. 1463 [recte 1475]-1476; 1583, pp. 1558-59.

1583 Edition, page 1580 | 1583 Edition, page 2078 | 1583 Edition, page 2087 | 1583 Edition, page 2123
Rebekah Bennet

of Staplehurst, Kent; wife of John

Rebekah Bennet abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

1583 Edition, page 1302
Reginald fitz Jocelin

(c. 1140 - 1191) [ODNB]

Bishop of Bath (1174 - 91) and archbishop-elect of Canterbury 1191; on his deathbed, requested the monastic habit from Prior Walter of Bath

As archbishop-elect, Reginald became a monk. 1570, p. 1350; 1576, p. 1152; 1583, p. 1181.

1583 Edition, page 1205
Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558)

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 1558) and cardinal. [DNB] Papal legate (1554 - 1557) [Hillerbrand, Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation; T. F. Mayer, Reginald Pole, Prince and Prophet (2000)]

On 7 November 1554, two ambassadors were sent abroad. The rumour was that they were sent to escort Pole to England (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Pole landed at Dover on 21 November 1554 and on the same day an act was passed in parliament repealing the act of attainder passed against him in Henry VIII's reign (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475; cf. the account of this in 1563, p. 1008). Another notice of the act of attainder against Pole being repealed (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

Pole arrived at Lambeth on 24 November 1554 (1570, p. 1647; 1576, p. 1405; 1583, p. 1475).

He arrived at parliament on 27 November 1554 and made an oration there, praising England's previous catholic fidelity, deploring the reformation and extolling papal power (1563, pp. 1008-10; 1570, pp. 1647-49; 1576, pp. 1405-7; 1583, pp. 1476-78).

He pronounced a papal absolution in parliament on 28 November 1554 (1563, pp. 1010-11; 1570, p. 1649; 1576, p. 1407; 1583, pp. 1477-78).

Reginald Pole sent a letter to Pope Julius III on 30 November 1554 announcing the restoration of catholicism in England. 1563, pp. 1013-14 [in Latin, only in this edition, pp. 1012-13] ; 1570, pp. 1650-51; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, pp. 1478-79; also see 1570, p. 1729; 1576, p. 1476; 1583, p. 1559.

He was present at Stephen Gardiner's Paul's Cross sermon of 2 December 1554 (1563, p. 1018; 1570, p. 1651; 1576, p. 1408; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

He absolved convocation on 6 December 1554 for their perjuries, heresies and schisms (1570, p. 1652; 1576, p. 1409; 1583, p. 4179 [recte 1479]).

As legate to Julius III, Pole reconciled England to Rome and absolved the English. 1563, pp. 1083-84; 1570, p. 1707; 1576, p. 1457; 1583, p. 1531.

In an attempt to reinstate catholicism at the University of Cambridge, a commission under the direction of Cardinal Pole ordered the condemning and burning of the bones and books of Phagius and Martin Bucer. Members of the commission were Cuthbert Scott, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole. Ormanet was chosen because he had the trust of Pope Julius III. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

Thomas Causton appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541.

Robert Ferrar appealed his conviction to Pole. 1563, p. 1099; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

The examination of Ridley and Latimer by White (Lincoln) and Brookes (Gloucester) was held on 30 September 1555. White and Brookes received their commission from 'Cardinall Poole'. 1563, pp. 1297-98, 1570, pp. 1903-09, 1576, pp. 1631-39, 1583, pp. 1757-60.

William Stannard, Thomas Freeman and William Adams were condemned to be burned 13 June 1556 but Cardinal Pole sent dispensation for their lives. 1563, pp. 1525-26, 1570, p. 2097, 1576, p. 1798, 1583, p. 1916.

Pole chose Cuthbert Scot, Nicholas Ormanet, Thomas Watson, John Christopherson and Henry Cole to be a persecutors of the University of Cambridge. 1563, p. 1537, 1570, p. 2142, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1956.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

Reginald Pole died the day after Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Not related to David Pole.]

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Reginald Pole

(1500 - 1558) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1515; dean of Exeter (1527 - 37); cardinal 1536; legate 1537

Archbishop of Canterbury (1555 - 58)

In a sermon delivered by Cuthbert Tunstall, Reginald Pole was described as a traitor, sent by the pope to provoke war against England. 1570, p. 1210; 1576, p. 1036; 1583, p. 1063.

Reginald Pole fled to Rome and was created cardinal. While in Rome, he was sent a letter from Bishops Stokesley and Tunstall, urging him to give up his support of the supremacy of the pope. 1563, pp. 613-20; 1570, pp. 1212-16; 1576, pp. 1037-42; 1583, pp. 1065-68.

Cardinal Pole and Paolo Giovio both wrote adversely of Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1083.

Paul III sent Cardinal Pole to the French king to stir him to war against Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon complained of Cardinals Contarini, Sadoleto and Pole working to cover up the corruption in Rome. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Pole urged Adam Damplip to stay in Rome to deliver lectures, but he refused. Pole gave him a French crown when he left. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

The Western rebels in 1549, especially their priests, called for Pole's restoration. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

In a letter to the Lord Protector, Stephen Gardiner referred to Pole as his old master. 1563, p. 741.

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Reinland Eastland

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of London.

Eastland was apprehended in Islington and appeared before Bonner on 14 June 1558. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Articles against him were administered and answers given. 1563, pp. 1559-61, 1570, pp. 2235-36, 1576, p. 2235, 1583, p. 2037.

He was condemned by Bonner. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

He was burned at Smithfield on 27 June 1558. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2039.

1583 Edition, page 2061
Remigius of Auxerre

(d. 908) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Benedictine monk; teacher, scholar

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1300; 1576, p. 1112; 1583, p. 1138.

1583 Edition, page 1162[Back to Top]
Revocatus

(d. 203) [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Perpetua and Felicitas]

Slave of Carthage; martyr

Revocatus was thrown to wild beasts and killed. 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

1583 Edition, page 80
Reynold

Of unknown occupation. Of Chelmsford.

Rumours were raised in Chelmsford that Justice Brown had falsely accused diverse honest men who had kept George Eagles safe in their houses, in order to discredit Eagles. Reynold of Chelmsford witnessed this to be false report. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

1583 Edition, page 2034
Rheticius (Reticius) (St Rheticius)

Bishop of Autun (313 - 34) [Gams]; ecclesiastical writer

Rheticius was one of the bishops of Gaul called by Constantine to attend a synod in Rome in 313 to examine the case of Cæcilian of Carthage. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

1583 Edition, page 126
Rhys ap Glyn

Rhys ap Glyn was one of the JPs of Radnorshire who suppressed a riotous assembly opposing Stephen Green's collation to the prebend of Llanbister. 1563, p. 1086; 1583, p. 1545.

[This is probably a mistake by Foxe. No one of that name was on an Edwardian commission of the peace. Foxe refers to him as 'Rice ap Glin']

1583 Edition, page 1569
Rice Aprice

In a letter Green asked Bartham Calthorp to remember John Grove, an 'honest poor man', along with his 'accomplices' Traiford and Rice Aprice. 1563, p. 1466, 1570, p. 2028, 1576, p. 1747, 1583, p. 1855.

1583 Edition, page 1880[Back to Top]
Rice Gough

Gough alias Morgan and Rice Gough were witnesses against Robert Ferrar. They were probably the same person 1563, p. 1093; 1583, p. 1550.

1583 Edition, page 1574
Rice Gough

Gough alias Morgan and Rice Gough were witnesses against Robert Ferrar. They were probably the same person 1563, p. 1093; 1583, p. 1550.

1583 Edition, page 1574
Richard (William) Pelham (Pelland)

of Calais; examined in 1539 [Fines]

After an exhaustive inquisition for heretics, William Pelham was one of those brought before the commissioners in Calais in 1540, charged and imprisoned. 1563, p. 665; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1227.

1583 Edition, page 1251
Richard Alvey

(d. 1584)

Rector of Thorington, Essex (1539 - 1555 and 1558 - 1565); Canon of Westminster (1552 - 1554 and 1560 - 1574); Master of the Temple (1560 - 1584). In exile at Frankfurt (1555 - 1558) [DNB].

Thomas Wattes declared to Bishop Bonner that he [Wattes] had been taught his religious beliefs by Alvey and that Alvey preached the gospel truly and sincerely. 1563, p. 1163; 1570, p. 1770; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, p. 1595

1583 Edition, page 1619
Richard Arch

Canon of St George's Chapel, Windsor; noted reformer there; attended the Windsor martyrs to their burning in 1543; chaplain to the king by 1548, deprived in 1553; gained a rectory and vicarage under Mary [Fines]

On the morning that Testwood, Filmer and Pearson were to be burnt, Richard Arch said to John Marbeck that he would have to behave as ordered or he would be confined to perpetual imprisonment. Arch was one of the confessors of Testwood, Filmer and Pearson. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1192; 1583, p. 1220.

James Blythe and Richard Arch were confessors to the Windsor martyrs in 1543. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1192; 1583, p. 1220.

1583 Edition, page 1244[Back to Top]
Richard Argentine

(d. 1568)

Doctor of Physic. Persecutor of Protestants. Rector of St Helen with St Clement, Ipswich (1556 - 1568) [DNB]

One night when Matthew Butler was on watch at Cornhill, Argentine came to him with news of Agnes Wardall's return to Ipswich. 1570, p. 2124, 1576, p. 1846, 1583, p. 1940.

John Butler and Argentine conspired against Agnes Wardall. 1570, p. 2124, 1576, p. 1846, 1583, p. 1940.

Foxe recounts Argentine's early days in Ipswich under Henry VIII and Edward VI. 1570, p. 2125, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1941.

He was made a priest after the death of his wife. 1570, p. 2125, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1941.

He persecuted protestants under Mary. Late in Mary's reign he moved to London, where he returned to protestantism. 1570, p. 2125, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1941.

[Alias Sexten.]

1583 Edition, page 1964
Richard Atkin

Weaver. Of Halstead, Essex.

Atkin was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Atkin was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Atkin was one of the prisoners named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971].

1583 Edition, page 1996
Richard Atkins

(1559? - 1581)

Weaver. Of Halsted, Essex. Martyr. Born in Hertfordshire. Catholic until the age of 19, when imprisoned by the inquisition and eventually condemned, tortured and burned for denying the sacrament. (DNB)

Atkins was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Atkins was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Atkins was one of the prisoners named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971].

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

Atkins fled abroad but was arrested for heresy there and condemned. He was martyred in Rome. 1583, p. 2153.

John Young witnessed the death of Richard Atkins. 1583, p. 2153.

[See Report of the Christian Suffering of Richard Atkins by A[nthony] M[unday] (London, 1582). Also BL, Lansdowne Ms.982, fo.13.]

1583 Edition, page 2174
Richard Atkinson

Mayor of Oxford

Together with his two bailiffs, Richard Ivery and William Tovy (or Tovey), Atkinson received a letter from Mary ordering them to take custody of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, p. 999).

Oxford City Archives, A.S.S. fols 86v - 87r confirms that Richard Atkinson was mayor for the municipal year 1553 - 1554.

[NB: Not to be confused with the Provost of King's College, Cambridge, who was also named Richard Atkinson.]

Richard Atkinson

(d. 1556)

Provost of King's College, Cambridge (1553 - 1556) (DNB, Venn)

Atkinson was one of the catholic disputants in the Oxford disputation of 1554 (1563, pp. 936-38; 1570, pp. 1591-93; 1576, pp. 1358-59; 1583, pp. 1428-30).

[NB: Not to be confused with the mayor of Oxford who had the same name.]

1583 Edition, page 1452[Back to Top]
Richard Austen

Brother of John and Thomas Austen.

Richard Austen accused John Bland of being against the queen's proceedings. 1563, p. 1218,1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1665.

Richard Austen claimed to have been involved in rumours about Bland. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1843, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

Richard Austen got the warden [John Austen?] and the warden's son-in-law to put Bland in a side chapel until the mass was over on 3 September 1555. 1563, p. 1220, 1570, p. 1845, 1576, p. 1579, 1583, p. 1666.

1583 Edition, page 1689
Richard Baily

Of Whiteacre.

Richard Baily was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979 | 1583 Edition, page 2061
Richard Bampton

of Boxley, Kent; brother of John of Otham [R. G. A. Lutton in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages, M. Aston and C. Richmond (eds.) (New York, 1997), p. 201]

Richard Bampton abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

1583 Edition, page 1302
Richard Bayfield (alias Somersam)

(d. 1531) [ODNB]

born Hadleigh; Benedictine monk of Bury St Edmund's and protestant martyr

Robert Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy visited Bury Abbey and during the course of their visit converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. When Barnes was arrested, Bayfield went to London, where Maxwell and Stacy kept him secretly and helped him leave the country. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

While abroad, Bayfield met William Tyndale and John Frith and sold their books and those of the German reformers in France and in England. He returned to England, was arrested, tried by Cuthbert Tunstall and abjured. He was told to return to Bury and wear his monk's habit, but fled abroad again. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Upon his return to England, he stayed at the house of Mr Smith, where he was betrayed and arrested. He was imprisoned in Lollards' Tower, but was moved to the Coalhouse to keep him away from another imprisoned suspect, Thomas Patmore. He was severely shackled in an attempt to make him reveal the buyers of his books, but he refused. He was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, pp. 484-88; 1570, pp. 1161-64; 1576, pp. 993-995; 1583, pp. 1021-1023.

Edmund Peerson presented a list of charges against Richard Bayfield, especially concerning Bayfield's praise for Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1020; 1583, p. 1048.

William Smith was charged in London in 1531 with harbouring Richard Bayfield and other good men in his house and reading illicit books. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

About four days before Bayfield was arrested, a boy of Colchester was charged in London with bringing books to him. The boy was imprisoned by Sir Thomas More and died there. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

Bayfield was condemned as a heretic and suffered a lengthy burning. 1563, pp. 488-89; 1570, pp. 1164-65; 1576, pp. 995-96; 1583, pp. 1023-24.

The example of Bayfield inspired John Tewkesbury after he had abjured. 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1026.

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Richard Beckes

of St Mildred's Breadstreet parish; one of 4 charged in 1541 for interrupting divine service [Fines]

Richard Beckes was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Benet

One of the priests associated with the Western Rising in 1549

Richard Benet was one of the priests said to have been the chief inspirers of the rebellion and who were later executed. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

1583 Edition, page 1329
Richard Bertie

(1517 - 1582)

Of Grimsthorpe and Stamford, Lincolnshire. BA (1537). JP Kesteven and Holland, Lincolnshire (by 1564), Lindsey (1573). Sheriff of Lincolnshire (1564 - 1565) (Hasler).

Gardiner sought revenge against Katherine Brandon first through her husband Richard Bertie, by insisting that the sheriff of Lincolnshire bring Richard before him. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

The sheriff took only a bond from Bertie of £2000 for his appearance before him. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie appeared before Bonner and his sergeant Stampford. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Lord Wriothesley, late earl of Southampton, was brought up with Bertie. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Stampford gave a friendly report of Bertie. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie was examined. 1570, p. 2283, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Boner urged Bertie to make Katherine repent and then released him of his bond. 1570, p. 2284, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie devised a plan to send Katherine overseas. 1570, p. 2284, 1576, p. 1971, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie was allowed to travel overseas. 1570, p. 2284, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie went overseas before his wife, who followed him shortly afterwards. 1570, p. 2284, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie took steps to secure his wife's safety until they could be reunited. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Foxe recounts Bertie's journey to meet his wife. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Master Perusell secured the protection of the magistrates for Bertie and Katherine. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

John Mason warned Bertie and Katherine that Lord Paget was on his way under a false pretence and that the duke of Brunswick was nearby in the service of the house of Austria against the French king. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie and his family departed for Windsheim, under Palgrave's dominion. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

The king of Poland offered them assistance, at the request of John a Lasco. 1570, p. 2285, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

They devised with Barlow, former bishop of Chichester, to accompany him. 1570, p. 2286, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

Bertie wrote letters to the earl of Erpach. 1570, p. 2286, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

[Married Katherine, daughter of William, 11th Lord Willoughby, widow of Charles Brandon, first duke of Suffolk, in 1553.]

1583 Edition, page 2102
Richard Best

Richard Best witnessed the death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1740[Back to Top]
Richard Bilby

Draper of St Botolph's Billingsgate; charged in 1541 for saying that Christ was not in the sacrament [Fines]

Richard Bilby was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Bird

Gaoler. Of Ipswich.

Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler asked permission to punish Richard Bird for encouraging his sect with counsel and for openly, with his wife, challenging their authority. This was to be an example to others in the town. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2090.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Richard Blackwel

Richard Blackwel persecuted Joan Waste of Derby. 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1951.

Richard Bonfield

of S Botolph's, Billingsgate; one of 9 presented in 1541 for not being confessed in Lent or receiving at Easter

Richard Bonfield was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Bongeor

Courier. Of Colchester, Essex.

Bongeor was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Richard Bongeor was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

In their letter to Bonner, Robert Brown and Robert Mainard said that they did not have a prisoner by the name of Agnes Bowyer, wife of Richard Bowyer. They explained that the prisoner was in fact Agnes Bongeor, wife of Richard Bongeor. 1563, p. 1632, 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

[Probably related to William Bongeor.]

1583 Edition, page 1996[Back to Top]
Richard Bostocke

Priest at St Botolph's without Aldgate, of London and Tenterden, Kent; charged in 1541 with speaking against auricular confession [Fines]

Richard Bostocke was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1205.

1583 Edition, page 1229
Richard Briesly

Chancellor of Chichester (1555) (Fasti)

Richard Briesly accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

1583 Edition, page 2048
Richard Browne

Son of John Browne, who was martyred at Ashford, Kent, in 1511 [Fines]

Richard Browne was imprisoned at Canterbury at the end of Queen Mary's reign. He had been condemned and was due to be burnt the day after Mary's death but was reprieved. 1570, p. 1481; 1576, p. 1255; 1583, p. 1293.

1583 Edition, page 1317
Richard Bruern

(d. 1565) [Fasti]

Canon of Christ Church, Oxford (1553 - 65)

Richard Bruern was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, p. 841.

Richard Burton

Witness at the deathbed of John Redman

Richard Burton witnessed Redman's statements of his religious belief. 1563, pp. 867-74; 1570, pp. 1538-41; 1576, pp. 1311-14; 1583, pp. 1361-64.

1583 Edition, page 1385[Back to Top]
Richard Butterall

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Butterall was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Richard Bygges

of St Magnus's parish; charged in 1541 for feeding a bitch holy bread and not looking up at the elevation

Richard Bygges was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Caterbanke

Caterbanke accused and gave testimony against John Waterhouse. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Chambers

Of Carlton, near Buckenham in Norfolk.

Richard Chambers was forced to flee Norfolk for fear of persecution for his protestant beliefs. 1563, p. 1678.

Richard Chambers

Witness received by king's commission in 1549

A king's commission examined Edmund Bonner in 1549. Finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, the commissioners received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

1583 Edition, page 1344[Back to Top]
Richard Champion

Priest of Shepton Mallet, Somerset; DTh Cambridge 1537; sent to Calais to preach and instruct by Cranmer [Fines]

Richard Champion and Thomas Garrard were sent to Calais to preach. 1563, p. 658; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

1583 Edition, page 1248
Richard Chapman

of Boxtead. Brother of John; servant of Christopher Ravins of Witham, Essex; called to answer in 1528 [Fines]

Richard Chapman, his brother and his master abjured. He was made to go bareheaded, barefoot and barelegged and kneel upon the cold church steps during the time of the service. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Richard Chepeman

of St Alban's parish; charged in 1541 for eating meat in Lent, working on holy days, nonattendance

Richard Chepeman was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 1226
Richard Cheyney

(1513 - 1579)

Archdeacon of Hereford (1552 - 1557). Bishop of Gloucester (1562 - 1579). [DNB]

Richard Cheyney was one of six clerics - the others were Walter Phillips, James Haddon, John Philpot, John Aylmer and Thomas Young - who refused to subscribe to the articles promulgated in the 1553 convocation (1563, p. 906; 1570, p. 1571; 1576, p 1340; and 1583, p. 1410).

At the convocation, Cheyney argued vigorously against transubstantiation (1563, pp. 907 and 912-14; 1570, pp. 1572 and 1576-76 [recte 1577]; 1576, pp. 1340-41 and pp. 1344-45; 1583, pp. 1411 and 1415-16).

In a marginal note Foxe states that Cheyney was 'M. Cheney the Archdeacon of Hereford now B. of Glocester' (1570, p. 1572; 1576, p 1340; and 1583, p. 1411).

Philpot stated that Cheyney and the dean of Rochester could testify to his writings referred to during his sixth examination. 1563, pp. 1405-12, 1570, pp. 1972-78, 1576, pp. 1698-1702, 1583, pp. 1805-10.

1583 Edition, page 1434 | 1583 Edition, page 1833[Back to Top]
Richard Clerk

Mariner. Of Great Holland, Essex.

Clerk was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Richard Clerk was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

[Not related to John or Walter Clerk.]

1583 Edition, page 1996
Richard Cliffar

Of Aylsham, Norfolk.

Richard Cliffar begged Berry, the commissary of Norwich, to be kind to Thomas Hudson. 1563, p. 1655, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

1583 Edition, page 2059
Richard Cluney

Bonner's summoner. Keeper of Lollards Tower.

Cluney witnessed the degradation of John Hooper and John Rogers on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508. [NB: Described as a bell ringer in 1563, p. 1058, but this was changed to summoner in later editions.]

Bonner's writ for the excommunication of John Tooley was sent to Cluney. 1563, p. 1143; 1570, p. 1757; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1582.

Robert Johnson wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle, confirming Cluney's and Harpsfield's reports. He mentioned that Sir Thomas More's submission was read to him twice to no good effect. 1563, p. 1456, 1570, p. 2018, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

John Harpsfield wrote a letter to Bonner about Whittle's subscription, in which he mentioned Cluney's report. 1563, pp. 1455-56, 1570, pp. 2017-18, 1576, p. 1738, 1583, pp. 1846-47.

Margery Mearing was talking with a friend when she saw Cluney, Bonner's summoner, making his way to her house. Cluney took her away to be examined. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

Cluney took William Living to his own house, robbed him, and then took him to Bonner's coalhouse and put him in the stocks. Cluney eventually brought him meat and then took him to Darbyshire who presented him with a list of names. Cluney took Julian Living to Lollards Tower. 1563, p. 1673, 1570, p. 2265, 1576, p. 1956, 1583, p. 2063.

John Fetty was taken by Richard Tanner and his fellow constables to Sir John Mordaunt who then sent him to Cluney, Bonner's summoner, who sent him to Lollards Tower and put him in the stocks. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2257, 1576, p. 1949, 1583, p. 2056.

The chaplains had Cluney take William Fetty to his father in Lollards Tower. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2256, 1576, p. 1948, 1583, p. 2055.

The child told his father what had happened, at which point Cluney seized the child and returned him to Bonner's house. 1563, p. 1693, 1570, p. 2256, 1576, p. 1948, 1583, p. 2055.

Thomas Green was transferred quickly from Lollards Tower to the coalhouse by Cluney and then put in the stocks. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

After examination, Cluney removed Green to prison again, first to the coalhouse and then the salthouse. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

Cluney delivered Green to Trinian, the porter of Christ's hospital, where he was thrown into the dungeon. 1563, p. 1688, 1570, p. 2263, 1576, p. 1954, 1583, p. 2061.

After Elizabeth Young's sixth examination, Darbyshire called on Cluney to take her away. Cluney took her to the stockhouse, where she was kept in irons, and then to Lollards Tower, where she was kept in stocks and irons. 1570, p. 2273, 1576, p. 1962, 1583, p. 2069.

Alexander Wimshurst was sent to Cluney's house in Paternoster Row, where he was to be carried forward to Lollard's Tower, but Cluney, his wife and maid had no time to lock up Wimshurst as they were extremely busy. When Wimshurst was left alone in Cluney's hall, a woman came to him and told him this was his chance to escape, which he took. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Edward Benet asked Story to help him out of prison, which he did, only to deliver him to Cluney who put him in stocks in the coalhouse for a week. 1570, p. 2279, 1576, p. 1968 [incorrectly numbered 1632], 1583, p. 2075.

[Foxe occasionally refers to him as 'Richard Cloney'.]

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Richard Cluney

Bonner's summoner; keeper of Lollards Tower

Bonner wrote to Richard Cluney on the abolishing of images from churches. 1563, p. 686; 1570, p. 1481; 1576, pp. 1255-56; 1583, p. 1293.

1583 Edition, page 1317 | 1583 Edition, page 1334
Richard Colliar

(d. 1555)

Martyr.

Richard Colliar was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he gave his answers and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He was condemned '26 July' but this is referred to as occurring the day after the condemnation of Bland, Sheterden and Middleton, which was on 25 June. 1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

[or]

he was condemned 16 August 1555. 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

1583 Edition, page 1712
Richard Coren (Curwen)

(d. by 16/3/1543) [Fasti; Lisle Letters]

DTh; archdeacon of Oxford (1535 - 1543); archdeacon of Colchester (1537 - 1543); commissioner for Calais 1540

Richard Coren was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Coren was one of those appointed commissioner for Calais in 1540. Coren preached a sermon there. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1226.

1583 Edition, page 1088 | 1583 Edition, page 1250
Richard Cosen

Owner of the White Hart Tavern, Colchester.

Outspoken catholic. In 1560 he was fined £10 for 'blasphemy'. In 1562 he was arrested for praising the duke of Guise and publicly hoping for the restoration of catholicism in England. [See Mark Byford, 'The Price of Protestantism' in The Reformation in English Towns, 1500-1640, ed. Patrick Collinson and John Craig (Basingstoke, 1998), pp. 158-62.]

The day before she was condemned, Elizabeth Folkes was asked if she believed that there was a catholic church of Christ, to which she replied that she did. Boswell then delivered her to her uncle Holt. Folkes became concerned that people might believe she had recanted her beliefs. She subsequently defied the papists when she met with them at Cosin's house at the White Hart in Colchester, and so was condemned. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

['Cosin's house' refers to Richard Cosen's tavern in Colchester.]

1583 Edition, page 2032[Back to Top]
Richard Cove

Servant of Sir Henry Doyle.

When Alice Driver and Alexander Gouch began singing psalms at their execution, Sir Henry Doyle sent one of his own men, Richard Cove, to bid them be silent. 1563, p. 1672, 1570, p. 2248, 1576, p. 1942, 1583, p. 2049.

1583 Edition, page 2073
Richard Cox

(1500 - 1581)

Chaplain to Henry VIII, Archbishop Cranmer and Bishop Goodricke. Bishop of Ely (1559-1581). Exile during Mary's reign.[DNB]

Richard Cox was committed to the Marshalsea. 1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; and 1583, p. 1465.

A commission was sent to Kent to find out the truth about Cranmer's beliefs and the charges of heresy against him. The commission members were Dr Belhouse, Chauncellor Cox and Hussey the registrar. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1867.

During Careless' first examination, Martin claimed that Cox had refuted some of Careless' arguments. 1563, pp. 1529-35, 1570, pp. 2101-02.

Julins Palmer's first examination was by the mayor, with charges brought by Thomas Thackham (who had been in the teaching post that Palmer had taken). False witnesses against him were Cox, Cately and Downer. Foxe records the articles against him. 1570, pp. 2120-21, 1570, pp. 1842-43, 1583, pp. 1937-38.

Richard Cox was a participant in the Westminster disputation of 1559. 1563, p. 1717, 1583, p. 2119.

[Also referred to as 'D. Cockes']

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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

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Richard Crashfield

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Tailor. Of Wymondham, Norfolk.

Crashfield wrote out his own account of his examinations. 1563, pp. 1616-17, 1570, pp. 2204-06., 1576, pp. 1902-03, 1583, pp. 1010-11.

Crashfield was first examined by Dunning. 1563, p. 1616, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Crashfield was examined by Dr Brydges. 1563, p. 1616, 1570, pp. 2204-05, 1576, pp. 1902-03., 1583, pp. 2010-11.

Crashfield was again examined by Dunning and Brydges, at which time he was asked to speak with Dr Pore. 1563, p. 1617, 1570, p. 2205, 1576, p. 1903, 1583, p. 2011.

Crashfield was condemned by Dunning. 1563, p. 1617, 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1903, 1583, p. 2011.

He was brought by the sheriffs and officers to his execution on 5 August 1557. 1570, p. 2206, 1576, p. 1903, 1583, p. 2011. [Note that 1563 (p. 1615) has the execution taking place on 15 March].

1583 Edition, page 2034
Richard Crispyn

(d. 1551) [Fasti; Emden]

BA Oxford 1514; BTh 1527; DTh 1532; took part in the heresy trial of Thomas Bennet at Exeter; canon and prebendary of Exeter (1541 - 1551); chaplain to the marquis of Exeter; imprisoned in the Tower in 1547, died there

Richard Crispyn was one of those seeking the identity of the person who had posted antipapal papers on the cathedral doors at Exeter in 1531. 1570, p. 1181; 1576, p. 1010; 1583, p. 1038.

1583 Edition, page 1062
Richard Croke

(1489? - 1558) (DNB and Foster)

Richard Croke presented the delegation of doctors sent from Cambridge to participate in the 1554 Oxford disputations with a gift of wine on 13 April 1554 (1563, p. 936; 1570, p. 1592; 1576, p. 1358; and 1583, p. 1429).

[Also referred to as 'Dr. Crooke']

1583 Edition, page 1453
[Richard] Cut

Foxe relates that an apprentice named Cut, dwelling in St Laurence Lane, whilst drinking with a plasterer named Denham discussed Sir Thomas Wyatt's exoneration at his execution of Edward Courtenay and Elizabeth. Cut's words were reported to Stephen Gardiner and Cut was summoned before the Star Chamber, where he was accused of having said that Wyatt was forced by the Privy Council to incriminate Courtenay and Elizabeth in his treason (1570, p. 1588; 1576, p. 1355; and 1583, p. 1425).

[NB: Richard Cutt, a grocer's apprentice, and one Thomas Pender were placed in the pillory on 20 April 1554 for saying that Wyatt had exonerated Elizabeth (City of London Record Office, Repertory 13, fol. 153r and J. G. Nichols, (ed.) The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, Camden Society original series 48 (1850), p. 75).]

1583 Edition, page 1449[Back to Top]
Richard Davies

(d. 1581)

DD (before 1560). Bishop of St David's (DNB).

Foxe refers to Richard Davies' installation at Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

1583 Edition, page 2148
Richard Day

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Essex.

Richard Day was arrested for heresy and burned at Colchester on 26 May 1558. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

[No relation to John Day or George Day.]

1583 Edition, page 2061
Richard de Beaumis

Bishop of London (1108 - 28)

He continued the rebuilding of St Paul's, London, begun under Maurice. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

1583 Edition, page 135
Richard Deane

of Chesham, Buckinghamshire [Fines]

Richard Deane was one of those examined by Bishop Longland, excommunicated and abjured for attending a meeting at John Taylor's house in 1530 during which Nicholas/Richard Field read the gospel in English and preached. 1570, p. 1119; 1576, p. 958; 1583, p. 985.

1583 Edition, page 1009
Richard Denton

(d. 1564)

Smith. Of Wellney, Cambridgeshire.

While in prison, William Wolsey gave Thomas Hodilo six shillings and eight pence to give to Richard Denton. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

Denton gave Wolsey a book of scripture that ultimately brought Wolsey to the stake. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Denton was afraid to burn, so lived quietly during Mary's reign. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

Richard Denton was burned in his own house with two others. 1570, p. 2303.

On 18 April 1564, Denton's house burned down. Denton and two others were killed in the fire. Denton had entered the burning building to try to save his goods. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622, 1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1740 | 1583 Edition, page 2127
Richard Dod

Of Westminster

Richard Dod deposed that he had witnessed William Flower assault a priest in St Margaret's and that he had helped to rescue the priest from Flower. 1563, p. 1138; 1570, p. 1748; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1576.

1583 Edition, page 1600
Richard Donningham

A butcher of Hadleigh, Suffolk

Richard Donningham refused a command to set faggots around Rowland Taylor at the stake, even though he was threatened with prison. 1563, p. 1079; 1570, p. 1703; 1576, p. 1453; 1583, p. 1526.

1583 Edition, page 1550
Richard Ducke

John Bullingham in a letter related how, when he was going into exile in France, Julins Palmer and Richard Ducke escorted him to London. 1563, p. 1540, 1583, p. 1935.

Richard Ducke

Archdeacon of Wiltshire under Henry VIII

Ducke was one of the witnesses of Henry VIII's bill banning heretical books. 1563, pp. 1342-43.

[Back to Top]
Richard Eden

(d. by 9/4/1551) [Fasti]

Archdeacon of Middlesex (1516 - 1551)

Richard Eden, along with other archdeacons in the London diocese, was sent a commission to seek out and deliver any copies of the New Testament in English and anything from a list of proscribed books in 1526. 1563, p. 450; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1018.

1583 Edition, page 1042
Richard Elithorne

Witness at the deathbed of John Redman

Richard Elithorne witnessed Redman's statements of his religious belief. 1563, pp. 867-74; 1570, pp. 1538-41; 1576, pp. 1311-14; 1583, pp. 1361-64.

1583 Edition, page 1385
Richard Estlin

A haberdasher of Coventry

Richard Estlin was sent by the mayor of Coventry - together with Baldwin Clarke, John Careless and Thomas Wilcockes - to the Privy Council on 20 November 1553 for unspecified 'lewde and sedicious behauiour' on All Hallows Day 1553 (1583, p. 1417). He was imprisoned in the Marshalsea.

Estlin is spelt 'Astelyn' in APC.

Richard Astlyn was a participant in the Earl of Suffolk's abortive uprising in early 1554 (see David Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies (Cambridge 1965), pp. 29-30 and 34). Involved with Astlyn were one 'Clerke' (ibid. pp. 29-30), possibly Baldwin Clarke, and William Glover (ibid. pp. 29 and 34.)

Also referred to as 'Astlyn' or 'Astelyn'

1583 Edition, page 1441
Richard Everard

Gentleman

According to Foxe, William Wolsey was brought to death by the procurement of Richard Everard, who mistreated Wolsey and ordered him to produce sureties of good behaviour, which Wolsey refused to do. 1570, pp. 1893-94, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

[No one of this name was a JP in Mary's reign.]

1583 Edition, page 1739
Richard Fetherston

(d. 1540) [ODNB]

Roman Catholic ecclesiastic and martyr; MA Oxford 1505; archdeacon of Brecon 1523; schoolmaster to Princess Mary

Powell, Fetherston and Abell were executed on the same day as the Protestant martyrs Barnes, Garrard and Jerome. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

1583 Edition, page 1225[Back to Top]
Richard Fitzjames

(d. 1522) [ODNB]

BA, MA Oxford; DTh by 1481; treasurer of St Paul's (1483 - 97); chaplain to Henry VII 1489; bishop of Rochester (1497 - 1503); bishop of Chichester (1503 - 06); bishop of London (1506 - 22)

Richard Fitzjames sentenced Thomas Austy, alias Cornwell, to wear a faggot embroidered on his sleeve. 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1014; 1583, p. 1042.

Thomas Patmore had been preferred to the living of Much Hadham by Bishop Fitzjames and continued there peacably for sixteen years until John Stokesley became bishop of London. 1583, p. 1044.

1583 Edition, page 1066
Richard FitzRalph (Armachanus)

(before 1300 - 1360) [ODNB]

Theologian; MA Oxford 1325; BTh 1328; DTh 1331; chancellor of the University of Oxford (1332 - 34); dean of Lichfield cathedral (1335 - 46); archbishop of Armagh (1347 - 60); conducted a campaign against the mendicant friars

Armachanus is included by Foxe in a list of early Lollards. 1570, p. 1428; 1576, p. 1217; 1583, p. 1247.

1583 Edition, page 1271
Richard Flemyng

(d. 1431) [ODNB; Emden]

MA Oxford 1403; BTh by 1414; DTh; under suspicion for a proposition savouring of heresy 1409; one of 12 appointed by the university to examine the works of Wyclif in 1411; representative of Oxford University, and unofficially of Henry V, at the council of Constance in 1417; papal chamberlain 1417; bishop of Lincoln 1419

Richard Flemyng suffered a cruel death. 1563, p. 454.

Richard Fletcher

(d. 1596)

Fellow of Corpus Christ College, Cambridge (1569); DD (1581). (DNB;Venn). Vicar of Cranbrook. Bishop of Bristol (1589 - 1593), Worcester (1593 - 1595), London (1595 -1596). See Patrick Collinson, Godly People: Essays on English Protestantism and Puritanism (London, 1983), pp. 11, 112, 130, 399, 400 n.30, 405, 417-22.]

Testimony of the Allins' imprisonment was given to Foxe by Richard Fletcher and John Webbe 1570, p. 2165, 1576, p. 1870, 1583, p. 1979.

1583 Edition, page 2003
Richard Foster

Yeoman usher of the Crown; accused with Bilney and Arthur; abjured in 1527; ate flesh on Sundays, denied the real presence [Brigden, London, pp. 126-27; Fines]

Richard Foster, along with many others, abjured. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1048.

1583 Edition, page 1072[Back to Top]
Richard Foxal

Of Lichfield.

Richard Foxal was examined by Draycot and Bayne and then later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Foxe

Priest of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; spoke against mass, images, pilgrimages, candles [Fines]

Thomas Topley had been converted by Richard Foxe and Miles Coverdale; he left his monastery and became a secular priest. 1570, pp. 1189-90; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, pp. 1046-47.

Many in Steeple Bumpstead were detected to the bishop of London by Richard Foxe, their priest. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1070
Richard Foxford

LLD (1530). Chancellor of London. (Fasti)

Richard Foxford died suddenly. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

1583 Edition, page 2125
Richard Foxford

(d. by 20/8/1533) [Fasti]

DCnCL; prebendary of Wenlocksbarn in the diocese of London (1530-33)

The trial of Richard Bayfield began before Richard Foxford, the bishop of London's official. 1563, p. 486; 1570, p. 1162; 1576, p. 994; 1583, p. 1022.

Foxford read out the articles and answers at James Bainham's abjuration. He presided over Bainham's examination as a relapse and his condemnation. 1563, pp. 498-500; 1570, pp. 1169-71; 1576, pp. 1000-02; 1583, pp. 1028-29.

Foxford interrogated Thomas Patmore. 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1044.

Patmore's release from prison was ordered by the king. The king gave him a commission to the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Canterbury and Secretary Cromwell to investigate the dealings of Stokesley and Foxford towards Patmore. 1583, p. 1045.

Foxford died, suddenly and unpleasantly, while sitting in his chair. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

1583 Edition, page 1046 | 1583 Edition, page 1068 | 1583 Edition, page 1079
Richard Gallis (Galias)

Law student of Bernard's Inn, Holborne; Eton and King's (BA 1537); withstood a curate in 1541; later landlord of the Garter in Windsor; mayor, JP [Fines]

Richard Gallis was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard George

Husband of Agnes and then Christian George.

Husbandman. Of West Barfield, Essex. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard George was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester. In the indenture he is described as 'labourer'.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Richard George was imprisoned during Mary's reign and released upon Elizabeth's accession. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

He had another 'wife' who burned with Agnes George at 'Postern in Colchester' [however, Agnes is burned at Stratford-le-Bow]. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard George's first wife was called Agnes George and was burned at Stratford-le-Bow. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

His second wife, Christian, was burned at Colchester. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

He was imprisoned with his third wife and released upon the death of Mary. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

1583 Edition, page 1940
Richard George

Husband of Agnes and then Christian George.

Husbandman. Of West Barfield, Essex. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard George was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester. In the indenture he is described as 'labourer'.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Richard George was imprisoned during Mary's reign and released upon Elizabeth's accession. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

He had another 'wife' who burned with Agnes George at 'Postern in Colchester' [however, Agnes is burned at Stratford-le-Bow]. 1563, p. 1525, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard George's first wife was called Agnes George and was burned at Stratford-le-Bow. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

His second wife, Christian, was burned at Colchester. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

He was imprisoned with his third wife and released upon the death of Mary. 1563, p. 1658, 1570, p. 2234, 1576, p. 1929, 1583, p. 2037.

1583 Edition, page 2061
Richard George

Labourer. Of West Begholt, Essex.

Richard George was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

[Not related to the Georges of Colchester.]

1583 Edition, page 1996[Back to Top]
Richard Gibson

(d. 1557)

Prisoner in the Compter in the Poultry. Martyr. Of London.

Richard Gibson was sent for by a promoter called Robin Caly. 1563, p. 1640, 1570, p. 2224, 1576, p. 1920, 1583, p. 2026.

Caly acted impiously and cruelly towards Gibson as he transferred him from prison. 1563, p. 1641, 1570, p. 2224, 1576, p. 1920, 1583, p. 2026.

Gibson was imprisoned in the Compter in the Poultry from May to November 1557. 1563, p. 1640, 1570, p. 2224, 1576, p. 1920, 1583, p. 2026.

Articles were brought against him, he gave answers and his articles were proponed. 1563, pp. 1640-42, 1644-45 1570, pp. 2223-24, 1576, pp. 1919-20, 1583, pp. 2026-28 [2028 incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Witnesses against Richard Gibson were William Wood, John Babington, Thomas Hawes, Thomas Cornish, Richard Lawkenor, Nicholas Grove, and Owen Claydon. 1563, p. 1642.

The interrogatories against Gibson are given. 1563, pp. 1642-43, 1570, pp. 2222-23, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [2028 incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Gibson was condemned on 6 November 1557. 1563, p. 1643, 1570, p. 2223, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [2028 incorrectly numbered as 2034].

He was burned at Smithfield on 18 November 1557. 1563, p. 1643, 1570, p. 2223, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [2028 incorrectly numbered as 2034].

[Richard Gibson was imprisoned in the Poultry (1563, p. 1640). Bradford spoke of Gibson as being thousands of pounds in debt. (ECL 260, fo.204r). Foxe states that Gibson was a prisoner for two years (1563, p. 1640); this would mean that Gibson was imprisoned in 1555. Gibson, on 27 October 1556, spoke of 'my long imprisonment' (BL, Harley 425, fo.122r, printed in Strype, EM, III, 2, p. 46).

In February 1555, Bradford listed 'John' Gibson among the freewillers he admonished to receive the truth of predestination (BL, Add. Ms.19400, fo.33r). Later that spring, Bradford spoke of having talks with Gibson and hoping for his conversion (ECL 260, fo.204r).

On 25 April 1556, John Careless stated, during his examination, that Gibson had worked, along with Henry Hart and John Kemp, to convert William Tyms and six other martyrs to freewill theology (1563, p. 1630).

On 22 June 1556, Gibson write a letter to a group of freewillers, including John Jackson, Stephen Gratwick and Henry Wickham, defending himself against charges of apostacy and also maintaining that the elect were predestined to salvation. (ECL 260, fo.72r).

In October 1556, Gibson made a very cautiously worded recantation to Bonner (BL, Harley 425, fo.122r; printed in Strype, EM, III, 2, pp. 46-47). Gibson, probably at this time, answered articles Bonner submitted to him; at first very cagily (Strype, ibid., pp. 47-52) but then, doubtless under increased pressure, Gibson made fully orthodox answers to Bonner's articles (Harley 425, fo. 99r; printed in Strype, loc.op. cit., pp. 53-56). Gibson must, however, have recanted the recantation, for he remained in prison.

On 6 April 1557 he taunted with nine interrogatories of his own, denouncing catholic teaching and practice while also admonishing Bonner on the proper conduct of a bishop (1563, pp. 1644-45). (This was probably an indication that Bonner had continued to pressure Gibson through the winter of 1556/57.) Bonner then ministered another set of articles to Gibson on 8 May 1557 (1563, pp. 1640-41).

Gibson was examined on 5 and 6 November 1557 and was condemned on 6 November (1563, pp. 1641-43). He was burned on 18 November 1557 (1563, p. 1644).

Note that his maternal grandfather was Sir William Bryly, the lord mayor of London in 1524/25. Richard Gibson's father, also named Richard, was a royal sergeant-at-arms, master of the Merchant Taylors, swordbearer and bailiff of Southwark and an MP for New Romney in 1529 (Bindoff under Richard Gibson (by 1480 - 1534).

Henry Machyn identifies Richard Gibson as the son of 'segantt Gybson, sergantt of armes, and of the reywelles (revels) and of the kinges tentes' (The Diary of Henry Machyn, ed. JG Nichols, Camden Society, Original Series 42 (London, 1848), pp. 157-58).]

1583 Edition, page 2049
Richard Gill

Heard witness statements in 1532

Richard Gill was present at the last examination of James Bainham. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

1583 Edition, page 1053
Richard Goodrich

(ante 1508 - 1562) [ODNB]

Native of Lincolnshire; lawyer and administrator; cousin of Thomas

JP and sewer commissioner Lincolnshire; MP Great Grimsby (1542, 1545, 1547); included in commissions to root out heresy and committee to revise ecclesiastical laws

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

1583 Edition, page 1381
Richard Goodrick [or Goodrich]

(d. 1562)

Of Jesus College (Venn). Ecclesiastical commissioner. (DNB)

Matthew Parker, Edmund Grindall and Richard Goodrick requested that the body of Peter Martyr's wife be buried honourably. 1563, p. 1559., 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

[Nephew of Thomas Goodrich, bishop of Ely.]

1583 Edition, page 1992
Richard Grafton

(d. 1573)

Protestant printer. Of London. [See E. G. Duff, A Century of the English Book Trade: Short Notices of All Printers, Stationers, Book-binders, and Others Connected with it from the Issue of the First Dated Book in 1457 to the Incorporation of the Company of Stationers in 1557 (London, 1948), p. 59.]

Richard Grafton was exempted from Mary's coronation pardon, 1 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1395; 1583, p. 1466).

Richard Waterson was examined by Story where he was told that £40 would release him from punishment. This was reduced to £10 but eventually a warrant was made to Richard Grafton who was forced to watch the beating of Gye upon a cross at Bridewell. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

1583 Edition, page 1490 | 1583 Edition, page 2167
Richard Grafton

(c. 1511 - 1573) [ODNB]

London publisher and printer; historian

With Edward Whitchurch printed the Great Bible 1539; Grafton and Whitchurch held the sole right to publish church service books 1543; imprisoned 1541 and 1543; printer to Prince Edward 1545; king's printer (1547 - 53); MP London (1553 - 54, 1557; MP Coventry 1563

Richard Grafton was printing English bibles in London when Bonner became bishop there. Bonner was friendly towards him. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Grafton and Whitchurch printed both the 'Matthew' Bible and the Great Bible. After Cromwell's death, the king was persuaded against the Great Bible, and Grafton was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1191.

Richard Grafton was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1215 | 1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Gratwick

Prisoner in Newgate.

Henry Adlington went to Newgate to visit a prisoner there called Gratwick, but was apprehended and brought before John Story. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard Gratwick wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1939
Richard Gratwick

Prisoner in Newgate.

Henry Adlington went to Newgate to visit a prisoner there called Gratwick, but was apprehended and brought before John Story. 1563, p. 1524, 1570, p. 2096, 1576, p. 1808, 1583, p. 1915.

Richard Gratwick wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1998[Back to Top]
Richard Gravell

Gravell struck Robert Ferrar on the head, killing him, as the bishop was burning. 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

1583 Edition, page 1579
Richard Grenville

(d. 1550) [ODNB sub Sir Richard Grenville]

Knight marshal of Calais; supported protestants

Richard Grenville was commissioned by Henry VIII to look into preaching in Calais. 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Lord Grey, Sir George Carew and Sir Richard Grenville were the members of the council of Calais who were more favourable to the accused heretics of the town. For a time they were out of favour with the king, but later were in greater favour than before. 1563, p. 668; 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1228.

1583 Edition, page 1248 | 1583 Edition, page 1252
Richard Gresham

(c. 1485 - 1549) [ODNB]

Mercer; merchant adventurer; mayor of London (1537 - 38); sheriff of London (1531 - 32)

Richard Gresham attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. The mayor and sheriffs of London were required to be present by the bishop's letter and by statute. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

John Tewkesbury was sentenced as a relapsed heretic and handed over to the sheriffs, Edward Altham and Richard Gresham, to be burnt. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1025.

Gresham was present at the condemnation of James Bainham in 1532, after which Bainham was delivered to him. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1002; 1583, p. 1029.

Sir Richard Gresham was named in a commission from Henry VIII to Edmund Bonner as one who was required to execute the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 1047 | 1583 Edition, page 1226[Back to Top]
Richard Grey

Brother of Thomas, marquess of Dorset

Richard Grey was present at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

1583 Edition, page 1047
Richard Grivel

Heard witness statements in 1532

Richard Grivel was present at the last examination of James Bainham. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1001; 1583, p. 1029.

1583 Edition, page 1053
Richard Gwent

(d. 1543) [ODNB; Fasti]

BCL Oxford 1518; BCnL 1519; DCnL 1523; DCL 1525; in Wolsey's service; chaplain to king; dean of arches and master of the prerogative 1532; archdeacon of London (1534 - 43); extreme pluralist

The archdeacon of London was named in a commission from Henry VIII to Edmund Bonner as one who was required to execute the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1202.

Gwent was one of those who examined Ralph Hare and Thomas Broke of Calais. 1563, pp. 659-60.

Edmund Bonner wrote to Richard Gwent to execute the king's writ relating to setting bibles in English in all churches. 1563, pp. 624-25.

1583 Edition, page 1226
Richard Hampden

Servant of Stephen Gardiner

Hampden was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, p. 835.

Richard Haward

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Richard Haward refused the pax at mass in St Laurence and was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have watched the elevation of the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Richard Hawtrey

Sheriff of Coventry in 1555.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he had spoken with the sheriff [John Parker or Richard Hawtrey] before he was imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, p. 1886-89, 1576, p. 1615-1619, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

1583 Edition, page 1733
Richard Hedil (Hedley)

of Colchester; then Ipswich. Troubled in 1528; fled Ipswich in 1556 having sold heretical books there [Fines]

Richard Hedil, along with many others, abjured. 1570, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1048.

1583 Edition, page 1072
Richard Hedley

Bookseller. Of Ipswich.

Richard Hedley was a seller of protestant books during Mary's reign. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

He fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2113
Richard Hegham

(fl. 1485)

Of Coventry.

Richard Hegham was accused of heresy. 1563, p. 1739.

Richard Hilmin

(fl. 1485)

Of Coventry.

Richard Hilmin was accused of heresy. 1563, p. 1739.

[Back to Top]
Richard Hooke

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of unnknown occupation and origin.

Richard Hooke was burned at Chichester around the time of Bradford's martyrdom. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

1583 Edition, page 1712
Richard Hopkins

Sheriff of Coventry (1554 - 1555)

Richard Hopkins received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, p. 1831, 1576, pp. 1566-67, 1583, p. 1648.

1583 Edition, page 1672
Richard Hover

Apprentice with Nicholas Nottingham. Of Ipswich.

Richard Hover fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2113
Richard Howborough

Richard Hawborough visited John Davis in prison in an attempt to persuade him to avoid burning. He burned one of Davis's fingers for some considerable time before being convinced that Davis felt no pain. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

1583 Edition, page 2097
Richard Howndon

Woolpacker of London; burnt on Tower Hill 20 January 1430. [See James Gairdner, Lollardy and the Reformation in England, an Historical Survey, 3 vols. (London, 1908), 1, pp. 159, 161].

Richard Howndon was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

1583 Edition, page 1041[Back to Top]
Richard Hunne

(d. 1514)

Priest. Murdered in prison. [DNB; Bridgen, London, pp. 98-103]

According to Robert Smith, during his examination by Bonner and others, Hunne suffered greatly when imprisoned by Bonner and others for his beliefs. Smith claimed that Hunne suffered having red-hot pokers thrust up his nose before he was hanged. Smith then accused Bonner and his fellow examiners of telling the people that Hunne had committed suicide by hanging himself. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

1583 Edition, page 1716
Richard Hunne

(d. 1514) [ODNB]

Wealthy merchant tailor of the parish of St Margaret New Fish St, London; son-in-law of Thomas Vincent, leading member of the city's Lollard community; alleged murder victim; hanged or strangled in Lollard's Tower

According to Simon Fish's Supplication for the Beggars, Richard Hunne was charged with heresy because he brought an action of praemunire against a priest. 1563, p. ; 1570, p. ; 1576, p. ; 1583, p. 64.

Richard Hunne was one of those Sir Thomas More in his The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

In his will, Hunne left provision for the repair of the conduit in Fleet Street. 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1041.

1583 Edition, page 1040 | 1583 Edition, page 1041 | 1583 Edition, page 1065
Richard II

(1367 - 1400) [ODNB]

Prince of Wales 1376; king of England 1377; deposed, died in Pontefract castle in 1400

Richard II is given as an example of a king wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

1583 Edition, page 1213[Back to Top]
Richard Ivery

(d. 1570)

Bailiff of Oxford

Together with the mayor of Oxford, Richard Atkinson, and his fellow bailiff, William Tovy (printed as 'Tony'), Richard Ivery received a letter from Mary ordering them to take custody of Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer (1563, p. 999).

[Oxford City Archives, A.S.S., fols. 86v - 87r confirm that Ivery and Tovey were bailiffs for the municipal year 1553 - 1554.]

[Ivery?s will is Oxfordshire Archives, MS Wills Oxon. 185, fol. 124.]

Richard Johnson (alias Collins)

Weaver originally of Salisbury diocese, but moved to Colchester; charged in 1528, imprisoned 1534 at Fulham, starved; sent to Colchester, escaped [Fines]

Richard Johnson and Alice his wife had been persecuted for a long time in Salisbury. They were charged before John Stokesley in 1531 with possessing Wyclif's Wicket. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

Richard Johnson and his wife were imprisoned at Fulham with Edward Freese. 1563, p. 494; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1026.

1583 Edition, page 1050 | 1583 Edition, page 1071
Richard Jolley

Mariner. Of Colchester, Essex.

Jolley was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Richard Jolley was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1996
Richard Jones

(1534? - 1577 or later)

MP (1555, 1559). Second son of Sir Thomas Jones [Bindoff, Commons].

Richard Jones visited Robert Ferrar and commiserated with him over the pain he would suffer while burning. Ferrar told Jones that if he stirred while burning, then Jones should give no credit to Ferrar's doctrines. 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

1583 Edition, page 1579[Back to Top]
Richard Jugworth

Dominican friar; professor of divinity at Cambridge

Richard Jugworth was called as a witness in the examination of Thomas Bilney. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 998.

1583 Edition, page 1022
Richard Jurdian

Priest.

Richard Jurdian was examined and deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Kempe

Richard Kempe was examined by Draycot and Bayne and then later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Kitchen

Curate of Leigh, Essex; charged in London 1529 [Fines]

Richard Kitchen was charged in 1529 with holding heretical opinions. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1185; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1041.

1583 Edition, page 1065
Richard Lathomus

Lathomus was described as an interpreter of terms in a letter sent from Amsterdam by Driander to his friend Edmund Crispin, a physician in Oxford. In Louane, Lathomus disputed with Stephen Gardiner concerning the pope's supremacy. 1570, p. 1959, 1576, p. 1686, 1583, p. 1794.

1583 Edition, page 1818[Back to Top]
Richard Lawkenor

Of London.

Richard Lawkenor was a witness against Richard Gibson. 1563, p. 1642.

Richard le Grant (Grand)

(d. 1231) [ODNB; Fasti]

Chancellor of Lincoln (1220 - 29); archbishop of Canterbury (1229 - 31); provided to office by the pope, having quashed the election of Walter of Eynsham

Foxe says that in Richard le Grant's time priests were allowed to have wives and that their wives and children had the right to inherit property. 1570, p. 1335; 1576, p. 1138; 1583, p. 1167.

1583 Edition, page 1191
Richard Liell

Doctor of law

Richard Liell was a witness in 1551 to the sentence against Stephen Gardiner and his appellation. 1563, p. 867.

Richard Long

Persecutor of protestants.

Richard Long drowned himself after the death of Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

Richard Longman

Merchant Tailor

Richard Longman testified to John Tooley's denouncing the pope from the gallows. 1563, pp. 1144-45; 1570, p. 1758; 1576, p. 1501; 1583, p. 1585.

1583 Edition, page 1609[Back to Top]
Richard Loveit

Gentleman. Of Nottingham.

Richard Loveit was a witness to the discovery of infants' bones at Lenton Abbey in the eighth year of Elizabeth's reign. 1570, pp. 2131-32, 1576, p. 1853, 1583, p. 1947.

1583 Edition, page 1971
Richard Lush

(d. 1557?)

Possibly a martyr. Of Chew Stoke, Somerset.

The certificate for his condemnation was discovered by Foxe in Gilbert Bourne's register (Bath and Wells). 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Articles were brought against Lush. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

Foxe did not know whether Lush died in prison or at the stake. 1570, p. 2197, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

1583 Edition, page 2028
Richard Manerd

of St Alban's parish; charged in 1541 with disturbing a service by reading the New Testament [Fines]

Richard Manerd was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Marsh

Richard Marsh was collated rector of St Pancras, Soper Lane by Archbishop Cranmer in 1539 and was deprived for marriage by 25 March 1554 [CAL, Dean and chapter of Canterbury register V1, fol. 23r].

Foxe relates that on Easter day 1554 the priest celebrating mass took the pyx from the sepulchre and found that the host was missing. One Marsh, who had been expelled from the living a little before because he was married, was suspected of being the culprit. This could not be proved, but Marsh was brought before the mayor on a charge of cohabiting with his wife, from whom he was officially divorced. Marsh protested that the queen was doing him a wrong to take both his living and his wife from him. He and his wife were imprisoned, despite his having been ill (1563, p. 1001; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1398; 1583, p. 1469).

1583 Edition, page 1493
Richard Marshall

(1518 - 1563)

DD (1552) [Foster]. Commissary and dean of Christ Church, Oxford (1553 - 1559) [Diarmaid MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer; A Life (Yale, 1996), p. 585] (deprived). Prebend of Winchester (1554 - 1561). Canon of St Paul's. Deprived (1561). (Fasti; Emden)

William Tresham exhorted the students of Christ Church, Oxford, to attend mass while Marshall was dean (1563, p. 1007).

Richard Marshall was a witness against Cranmer. 1570, p. 2056, 1576, p. 1772, 1583, p. 1879.

Peter Martyr's wife was reburied in Richard Marshall's dunghill after Cardinal Pole ordered him to oversee the exhumation of her body. 1563, p. 1559, 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

1583 Edition, page 1791 | 1583 Edition, page 1903 | 1583 Edition, page 1992
Richard Marshall

DTh; Dominican prior of Newcastle 1537 [www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43325]

Richard Marshall, preaching at St Andrews, said that the Lord's Prayer should be directed only to God and not to saints. 1570, p. 1450; 1576, p. 1237; 1583, p. 1273.

1583 Edition, page 1297
Richard Martin

Public notary in 1531

Richard Martin was present and agreed to the pronouncement of sentence against Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 489; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p.996 ; 1583, p. 1024.

1583 Edition, page 1048
Richard Master

(d. 1534) [ODNB sub Elizabeth Barton]

Parson of Aldington, Kent; reported Elizabeth Barton (Joan of Kent) to Archbishop Warham; became one of her chief followers; indicted for high treason, reprieved

Foxe says that Richard Master was executed with Elizabeth Barton. 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1055.

1583 Edition, page 1079[Back to Top]
Richard Mawoly

[Probably 'Maudly' or 'Maude'.]

Doctor of divinity

Mawoly was one of the witnesses of Henry VIII's bill banning heretical books. 1563, pp. 1342-43.

Richard Mekins

(d. 1541) [Fines]

Child, not yet 15, of London; recanted at the stake, so hanged

Edmund Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

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Richard Mere

Of Great Bentley.

Richard Mere was one of the cosignatories of a supplication against William Mount, his wife and their daughter, Rose, to Lord Darcy of Chiche, who then delivered the supplication to John Kingston. 1563, p. 1604, 1570, p. 2198, 1576, p. 1897, 1583, p. 2005.

Information against Ralph Allerton was provided by Thomas Tye, John Painter, William Harris, John Barker, John Carter, Thomas Candler, Jeffrey Bestwood, John Richard, and Richard Mere, all of Great Bentley. 1563, p. 1626, 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

1583 Edition, page 2029 | 1583 Edition, page 2040[Back to Top]
Richard Millar

of St Giles without Cripplegate; charged with 7 others in 1541 for insulting the sacraments and ceremonies of the church [Fines]

Richard Millar was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Mitch

(fl. 1542 - 1576)

LLD (1557). Fellow of St John's (1542 - 1553). Migrated to Trinity Hall and was fellow there until 1561. Amd. advocate at Doctors' Commons and of the court of Arches (1559). (DNB)

Scot called Mitch and others before him at Peterhouse to testify against the doctrine of Bucer and Phagius on 17 January 1557. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

When the commission found no witnesses to support Bucer and Phagius, they called aside DrsYoung, Sedgwick, Bullock, Taylor, Maptide, Hunter, Parker, Redman, as well as Brown, Gogman, Rud, Johnson, Mitch, Raven and Carre. They were all commanded to give witness against Bucer and Phagius. 1563, p. 1538, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1956.

John Hullier appeared before Shaxton, Young, Segewick, Scot, Mitch and others on Palm Sunday eve at Great St Mary's. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

As Edwin Sandys took his seat in the university, Mitch conspired to have him seized from his chair but Sandys began his oration to justify his sermon. 1583, p. 2087.

Mitch and twenty followers came to drag Sandys from his seat. 1583, p. 2087.

[At the accession of Mary he organised an attack on the house of Dr Sandys, the vice-chancellor, who had exhibited sympathy for Lady Jane Grey. He eventually went abroad and was described in 1576 as a recusant who had fled England. (DNB)]

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Richard Mitchell

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Richard Mitchell was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Richard Morison

(c. 1510 - 1556) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Humanist; royal propagandist; diplomat.

BA Oxford 1529; MP 1539; MP Wareham 1547; JP Middlesex 1547; king's visitor; ambassador to Charles V (1550 - 53); protestant exile

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

1583 Edition, page 1397
Richard Morrice

Taylor of Weme, Shropshire.

Richard Morrice tried unsuccessfully to bury the body of William Glover secretly at night. 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

1583 Edition, page 1739
Richard Nele

Priest

Richard Nele was a deponent against Thomas Bilney, testifying that Bilney had preached against images at Willesden. 1570, p. 1149; 1576, p. 983; 1583, p. 1010.

1583 Edition, page 1034
Richard Neville

(d. 1552) [Hasted, Kent, IV, p. 634]

Of South Leverton, Nottinghamshire. Steward of Thomas Cranmer. [See DNB,under Neville, Thomas and Neille, Alexander and Hasler under Neville,Alexander].

Richard Neville, noting that Sir Thomas Seymour was hoping to see Cranmer, brought him to the archbishop at dinner. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1758, 1583, p. 1865.

1583 Edition, page 1889
Richard Nichols

(d. 1556)

Weaver. Martyr. Of Colchester.

Richard Nichols was delivered to John Kingstone, bachelor of civil law, and then commissory to Gardiner, by the earl of Oxford on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1517, 1570, p. 2089, 1576, p. 1802, 1583, p. 1909.

Articles were brought against him and he gave answers. 1563, p. 1517, 1570, pp. 2089-90, 1576, pp. 1802-03, 1583, p. 1909.

He was burned at Colchester on 28 April 1556. 1563, p. 1517, 1570, p. 2089, 1576, p. 1802, 1583, p. 1909.

1583 Edition, page 1933[Back to Top]
Richard Nix

(c. 1447 - 1535) [ODNB]

Bishop of Exeter (1487 - 92); bishop of Bath and Wells (1492 - 94); bishop of Durham (1494 - 1501); bishop of Norwich (1501 - 35)

At the burning of Peke in Ipswich in 1515, Dr Redding, on behalf of the bishop of Norwich, promised 40 days' pardon for anyone who threw wood onto the fire. 1570, p. 1292; 1576, p. 1106; 1583, pp. 1131-32.

Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur were examined in the house of the bishop of Norwich. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Two years after his abjuration, Thomas Bilney returned to Norfolk and preached openly. Richard Nix obtained a writ for his burning. 1563, p. 481; 1570, p. 1146; 1576, p. 981; 1583, p. 1008.

The priors of Pentney Priory and Westacre Priory assured Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, that Nicholas Shaxton had not preached heresy at Westacre. 1563 p. 483.

After Bilney's burning, and the decision not to prosecute Nicholas Shaxton, Nix was afraid that he had burnt the wrong man. 1563, p. 484; 1570, pp. 1149-50; 1576, p. 984; 1583, p. 1011.

1583 Edition, page 1022 | 1583 Edition, page 1035 | 1583 Edition, page 1045 | 1583 Edition, page 1156
Richard of Dover

(d. 1184) [ODNB]

Monk of Canterbury, chaplain to Archbishop Theobald

Archbishop of Canterbury (1173 - 84); disputed with Roger, archbishop of York, over primacy

Foxe says that in Richard's time priests were allowed to have wives and that their wives and children had the right to inherit property. 1570, p. 1335; 1576, p. 1138; 1583, p. 1167.

1583 Edition, page 1191[Back to Top]
Richard Pace

(1483? - 1536) [ODNB]

Diplomat, humanist, and administrator; dean of Exeter (1522 - 36); dean of St Paul's (1518 - 36); archdeacon of Colchester 1519; dean of Salisbury (c. 1529x31 - 36); imprisoned for a period in the late 1520s

Richard Pace was known at home and abroad for his learning. He was resident ambassador to Venice, and before the battle of Pavia used his own credit in Venice to pay off the soldiers of the duke of Bourbon when sufficient funds failed to arrive in time from Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 963; 1583, p. 989.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. The king, having been informed of his condition, sent for him to return, and he made a full recovery. However, Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years. His mental condition was even worse than before, and he never fully recovered. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

1583 Edition, page 1013
Richard Parson

Richard Parson was one of the witnesses against Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 1093; 1583, p. 1550.

1583 Edition, page 1574
Richard Pate

or Pates (d. 1565)

Bishop of Worcester (1554–59) (DNB)

Henrician act of attainder against him reversed in Parliament in 1555 (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

One of John Rogers's examiners on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86).

1583 Edition, page 1505 | 1583 Edition, page 1507 | 1583 Edition, page 1631 | 1583 Edition, page 1823
Richard Pates

(d. 1565)

Bishop of Worcester (1555 - 1559). (DNB; Fasti)

A Henrician act of attainder against Richard Pates was reversed in parliament in 1555 (1570, p. 1654; 1576, p. 1411; 1583, p. 1481).

He was one of John Rogers' examiners on 22 January 1555 (1563, pp. 1023-26; 1570, pp. 1657-59; 1576, pp. 1414-15; 1583, pp. 1484-86).

Pates was present at John Bradford's first examination on 22 January 1555. 1563, p. 1187; 1570, p. 1784; 1576, p. 1523; 1583, p. 1607.

Richard Pates was imprisoned in the Tower after the death of Mary and later died. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

[Also referred to as 'Pate'.]

1583 Edition, page 2126
Richard Pates

Law student of Thavies Inn; charged in 1541 with Gallis for vexing a curate; later prominent lawyer in Wales [Fines]

Richard Pates was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Peche

(d. 1182) [ODNB]

Almost certainly the son of Bishop Robert Peche

Archdeacon of Coventry c. 1140; bishop of Coventry (1161 - 82); kept a low profile in the Becket controversy

Richard Peche was the son of a priest. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

1583 Edition, page 1178
Richard Pecksal [or Pexall]

Sheriff. Of Winchester. Son-in-law of Paulet, first marquess of Winchester. (Bindoff) Hereditary master of the buckhounds. (CSPD)

Thomas Benbridge was condemned and then taken to the place of martyrdom by Richard Pecksal, the sheriff, to whom Benbridge gave his jerkin. 1563, p. 1668, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1940, 1583, p. 2046.

The sheriff, Pecksal, took Benbridge from the stake, from whence he was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, p. 1668, 1570, p. 2246, 1576, p. 1940, 1583, p. 2046.

1583 Edition, page 2071[Back to Top]
Richard Philips

of S Botolph's, Billingsgate; one of 9 presented in 1541 for not being confessed in Lent or receiving at Easter

Richard Philips was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Richard Pointer

One of four members of the jury which acquitted Sir Nicholas Throckmorton and confessed their fault, submitted to the authorities and were therefore exempted from punishment (1570, p. 1645; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473). Foxe had earlier characterised these four jurors as 'weakelyngs' (1570, p. 1644; 1576, p. 1403; 1583, p. 1473).

Foxe calls this juror 'Master Poynter'. Susan Brigden gives his name as Richard Pointer and states that he was a draper (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), pp. 553-54 and 627).

1583 Edition, page 1498
Richard Pond

A bailiff of Brentwood

Richard Pond fastened William Hunter to the stake with a chain. 1570, p. 1715; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

1583 Edition, page 1562
Richard Potto

(d. 1558)

Inn-keeper of the Cock Inn, Chelmsford.

Richard Potto tried to persuade George Eagles to ask the queen's forgiveness. 1570, p. 2203, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2009.

When Eagles was on the ladder, Potto again troubled him, begging him to ask forgiveness, but the sheriff pushed him away. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

After the death of George Eagles, Potto fell into dispute with some of his neighbours and then fell ill early in Elizabeth's reign. He lay in his bed, foaming at the mouth, unable to speak or comprehend anything for three or four days, after which he died. 1563, 1615, 1570, p. 2003, 2303, 1576, p. 1901, 1583, p. 2010.

1583 Edition, page 2034 | 1583 Edition, page 2124 | 1583 Edition, page 2127
Richard Randall

Richard Randall was a witness to Bland's altercation with John Austen on Sunday 3 December (1555) when Thomas Austen accused him of heresy. The witnesses to Bland's altercation with John Austen that day included: Edmond Mores, Richard Randall, John Hils, William Forstall, and Thomas Gooding. 1563, p. 1219, 1570, p. 1844, 1576, p. 1578, 1583, p. 1666.

1583 Edition, page 1690
Richard Rawson

(d. 1543) [Emden; Fasti]

BCnL Cambridge; DCL Bologna; DCnL 1500; archdeacon of Essex (1503 - 1543); dean of Tamworth (1522 - 25); canon of Windsor; king's clerk and chaplain by 1509; master in chancery 1509

Richard Rawson, along with other archdeacons in the London diocese, was sent a commission to seek out and deliver any copies of the New Testament in English and anything from a list of proscribed books in 1526. 1563, p. 450; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1018.

Robert Testwood was at dinner with Richard Rawson at Windsor when he got into an argument with Master Ely. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1183; 1583, p. 1211.

1583 Edition, page 1042 | 1583 Edition, page 1235
Richard Rayburne

Father of John Rayburne

Richard Rayburne was a witness against John and Cecily Eaton and against his own son, John Rayburne, when called before John Longland in 1530. 1570, p. 1119; 1576, p. 958; 1583, p. 985.

1583 Edition, page 1009[Back to Top]
Richard Reynold and John Preste

Sheriffs of London in July 1533 [PRO:List of Sheriffs]

John Frith was turned over to Sir Stephen Pecocke, mayor of London, and the sheriffs of London by John Stokesley, bishop of London, to be burnt. 1563, p. 504; 1570, p. 1178; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

1583 Edition, page 1060
Richard Reynolds

(d. 1535) [ODNB]

Bridgettine monk of Syon Abbey; BA Cambridge 1506; MA 1509; BTh 1513; associate of Elizabeth Barton; denied the royal supremacy; executed in his habit for treason with 3 Carthusian priors and John Hale

Richard Reynolds and John Hale were executed with John Houghton, Robert Lawrence, and Augustine Webster. 1570, p. 1217; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Reynolds is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

1583 Edition, page 1093 | 1583 Edition, page 1225
Richard Rich

(1496/7 - 1567) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Solicitor-general (1533 - 36); JP Essex, Hertfordshire (1528 - death); privy councillor (1540 - 58); MP Colchester 1529, MP Essex 1536, 1539, 1542, 1545; speaker of the House of Commons 1536

Lord chancellor (1547 - 51); 1st Baron Rich 1547

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. Rich then sent her to the Tower. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Rich and Sir John Baker went to Anne Askew in the Tower and tried to get her to incriminate others. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Sir Anthony Knyvet had his jailer rack Anne Askew. When Knyvet refused to have the racking continued, Richard Rich and Thomas Wriothesley racked her themselves. She refused to give any information, but was released by Knyvet. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1239.

Richard Rich was a signatory to a letter from the council to the bishops, instructing them to administer communion in two kinds. 1570, p. 1491; 1576, p. 1264; 1583, p. 1301.

He was a signatory to a letter from the council to Edmund Bonner, instructing that he cease to allow private masses in St Paul's. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich spoke to the assembled justices of the peace, urging them to work assiduously to keep order in the realm and especially to further the king's religious reforms. 1570, p. 1493; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Lord Rich was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 821-22.

Lord Rich was one of the signatories to the proclamation against Edward Seymour calling for his removal. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1318; 1583, p. 1368.

After Edmund Bonner was sentenced to prison and deprived of his bishopric, the king appointed Lord Rich, Henry marquess of Dorset, Thomas Goodrich, Lord Wentworth, Sir Anthony Wingfield, Sir William Herbert, Nicholas Wotton, Edward Montague, Sir John Baker, Judge Hales, John Gosnold, John Oliver and Griffith Leyson to examine his documents. They confirmed the sentence against him. 1563, p. 725; 1570, p. 1519; 1576, pp. 1287-88; 1583, p. 1330.

The king sent Richard Lord Rich, Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir William Petre to his sister, Lady Mary, to ensure she and her household complied with the new laws on religion. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

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Richard Richman

Servant to Stephen Green, shoemaker. Of Ipswich.

Richard Richman and his wife fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2113
Richard Roberts

Gentleman of the bishop of London's chamber

Edmund Bonner was due to appear before the king's commissioners for the fifth time on 19 September. Robert Johnson came to report that the bishop was too ill to attend in the morning, and Richard Roberts later accompanied him to report that Bonner would not be able to attend at all that day. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Gilbert Bourne, John Harpsfield, Robert Cousyn, John Wakelyng and Richard Rogers witnessed Edmund Bonner's first appellation to the king in September 1549. 1570, p. 1515; 1576, p. 1284; 1583, pp. 1325-26.

1583 Edition, page 1347
Richard Roth

(d. 1557)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Essex.

When charged with reading to the people in the woods John Allerton said that he had not done so, save once, when he was in the company of George Eagles and Richard Roth, when Roth desired him to read something he had upon him. 1570, p. 2212, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2016.

Richard Roth was examined by Bonner on 4 July 1557. 1570, pp. 2214-15, 1576, pp. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

He was examined again on 9 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

Articles were brought against him on 10 September 1557. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

Roth was questioned by Bonner and answered. 1563, p. 1630, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1911, 1583, p. 2019.

Allerton stated that he left some of his writings in the prison for Roth to read. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

John Allerton stated that Roth had made his nose bleed, so that he might have something to write with. 1570, p. 2211, 1576, p. 1908, 1583, p. 2016.

Roth was burned at Islington on 17 September 1557. 1570, p. 2013, 1576, p. 1910, 1583, p. 2018.

John Allerton wrote a letter to Richard Roth. 1563, p. 1628, 1570, p. 2213, 1576, p. 1909, 1583, p. 2017.

Roth wrote a letter to certain brethren condemned in Colchester. 1563, p. 1631, 1570, p. 2215, 1576, p. 1912, 1583, p. 2020.

1583 Edition, page 1998 | 1583 Edition, page 2037 | 1583 Edition, page 2043[Back to Top]
Richard Sampson

(d. 1554) [ODNB]

Chancellor and vicar-general to Wolsey in Tournai (1513 - 17); ambassador at the imperial court (1522 - 25); dean of Windsor 1523; supported the king's divorce; dean of Lichfield 1533; bishop of Chichester 1536; bishop of Coventry and Lichfield 1543

Henry VIII and Queen Catherine were summoned to appear before the papal legates by Richard Sampson. 1570, p. 1194; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Sampson was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Sampson attended a synod in 1537 with other bishops and learned men and with Thomas Cromwell as vicar-general. Sampson favoured retaining the seven sacraments. 1563, p. 594; 1570, p. 1351; 1576, p. 1153; 1583, p. 1182.

The musicians at Windsor College petitioned Sampson to have Robert Testwood join them, but Testwood's religious views were deemed too radical. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

Letters were sent to Sampson, among others, accusing Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber of Calais of heresy. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1402; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

John Butler and William Smith were brought for examination before John Clerk, Richard Sampson and William Rugg. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

1583 Edition, page 1074 | 1583 Edition, page 1088 | 1583 Edition, page 1206 | 1583 Edition, page 1235 | 1583 Edition, page 1248 | 1583 Edition, page 1250 | 1583 Edition, page 1281
Richard Scot

Richard Scot was George Marsh's keeper when Marsh was detained at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1735; 1576, p. 1481; 1583, p. 1569.

1583 Edition, page 1588
Richard Seman

Witness against Thomas Bilney

Richard Seman testified that Bilney had preached heresy in Ipswich. 1570, p. 1149; 1576, p. 983; 1583, p. 1010.

1583 Edition, page 1034
Richard Sharp

(d. 1557)

Weaver. Martyr. Of Bristol.

Richard Sharp was brought before Dalby, chancellor of Bristol, on 9 March 1556 and persuaded to recant. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

Sharp made his recantation in church on 29 March 1556. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

He later retracted his recantation and was arrested by the constables. He was taken to Newgate. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

He was examined by the chancellor and condemned. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

He was burned at Bristol on 7 May 1557. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

[May have been confused with Edward Sharp and so not actually exist. See K.G. Powell, The Marian Martyrs and the Reformation in Bristol (Bristol, 1972), p. 14.]

1583 Edition, page 2076[Back to Top]
Richard Sharples

Parson of Mile End, Colchester

Margaret Bowgas was charged in London in 1532 with holding heretical opinions. She disputed with Richard Sharples and finally submitted to Foxford. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

1583 Edition, page 1070
Richard Sheriff

Richard Sheriff was servant to Tyrrell of Essex. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He offered to find William Tyms for Tyrrell. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Sheriff and two constables (Edward Hedge and John James) brought Tyms before Tyrrell. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

1583 Edition, page 1920
Richard Shipper

Bursar of Magdalen College, Oxford. [No one of that name is listed in Foster.]

Shipper, the bursar, invited Palmer to dinner. Unbeknown to Palmer, the other guests included Friar John, Richard Smith and Dr Tresham. 1570, p. 2119 [no names given other than the friar's], 1576, p. 1842, 1583, p. 1936.

Julins Palmer's mother lived in Esham. Shipper and his brother told her of his approach on the way to Reading. He had gone to request some of his legacy. She refused and cursed him. 1570, p. 2120, 1576, p. 1842, 1583, p. 1936.

Richard Shipper was one of those who witnessed Julins Palmer's second examination and made notes. 1576, p. 1844 [recte 1832], 1583, p. 1938.

1583 Edition, page 1962
Richard Slavy

Married priest. Of unknown parish.

Richard Slavy was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Smart

(by 1507 - 1560)

Of Ipswich. MP for Ipswich (1545, 1555). Bailiff (1547 - 1548, 1551 - 1552, 1558 - 1559), JP (1547 - 1548, 1551 - 1553, 1554 - 1555, 1557 - 1560). (Bindoff)

Smart was Foxe's source for the account of Peter Moone and Agnes Moone. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Smart denounced Agnes Moone to Hopton. 1570, p. 2126, 1576, p. 1847, 1583, p. 1942.

Sir Henry Doyle, the sheriff of Ipswich, was offended by Driver's and Gouch's psalm singing at their execution. He asked the bailiffs to ask them to be silent. Richard Smart, one of the bailiffs, bade them do so to no avail. 1563, p. 1672, 1570, p. 2248, 1576, p. 1942, 1583, p. 2049.

1583 Edition, page 1966 | 1583 Edition, page 2073
Richard Smith

(1500 - 1563)

1st Regius Professor of Divinity (1535 - 1548, 1554 - 1556, 1559 - 1560) (DNB)

According to Foxe, Richard Smith forced Hooper to leave Oxford University because of his evangelical convictions (1563, p. 1049; 1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1429; 1583, p. 1502).

Foxe prints a letter of Smith's, written in Edward VI's reign, to Cranmer, in which Smith offered to write in defence of clerical marriage and declared that it would be against his conscience to write against Cranmer's treatise on the Eucharist and the Reformed doctrine of Edward VI (1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1370; 1583, p. 1441).

Richard Smith was appointed as one of the official disputants in the Oxford Disputations of 1554 (1563, p. 932).

According to an account of the Oxford disputation of 1554, which was only printed in 1563, Anthony Smith was appointed to debate with Cranmer on Monday 16 April 1554 (1563, p. 933). Almost certainly Richard Smith was meant.

Cranmer, during his disputation on 16 April 1554, when pressed on alleged inaccuracies in his translations, countered that some translation had appeared in a work of Smith's. Queried about this by Weston, Smith refused to answer (1563, p. 951; 1570, p. 1602; 1576, p. 1367; 1583, p. 1437).

Smith is mentioned in a brief account of the Oxford Disputations, as disputing with Ridley (1563, p. 934; 1570, p. 1606; 1576, p. 1371; 1583, p. 1441).

Richard Smith was Ridley's main opponent during the Disputations; he also debated sporadically with Latimer and participated briefly in Cranmer's debate with John Harpsfield (1563, pp. 932-34, 958-59, 963-67, 974-75, 978, 981-85 and 988; 1570, pp. 1606, 1612-15, 1617, 1620-22, 1624-27 and 1629; 1576, pp. 1372, 1375-78, 1380, 1382-84 and 1386-88; 1583, pp. 1442-43, 1446-48, 1450-54, 1456-58 and 1461).

He was one of those who examined Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed on 18 February 1555 (1563, p. 1104). He volunteered to rebut the joint confession of Thomas Causton and Thomas Higbed, but Bonner would not let him speak, ordering John Harpsfield to answer them instead (1563, p. 1107; 1570, p. 1719; 1576, p. 1468; 1583, p. 1541).

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Richard Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; he, his brother, mother and 2 sisters were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Richard Smith, his mother, brother and sisters, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Richard Smyth (Smith)

(1499/1500 - 1563) [ODNB; Foster]

Theologian; BA Oxford 1527; MA 1530; BTh 1533; DTh 1536; regius professor of divinity (1535 - 48, 1554 - 56, 1559 - 60); in exile under Edward VI and under Elizabeth; vice-chancellor of the university of Douai in Brabant; died there

Richard Smyth was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Richard Smyth preached a sermon when John Mallory came into St Mary's church in Oxford to do his penance. During the sermon, cries of 'fire' produced panic in the congregation. 1563, p. 621; 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1208.

In 1539 Richard Smyth and George Cotes ran the divinity schools at Oxford. 1563, p. 574.

Smyth witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

The Lord Protector noted that Stephen Gardiner had not criticised Smyth's book. 1563, p. 735; 1583, p. 1344.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions in the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

In a later letter to the Lord Protector, Gardiner criticised Smyth's recantation. 1563, p. 739; 1583, p. 1347.

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Richard Spenser

(d. c. 1541)

Former priest martyred at Salisbury with fellow interlude players Ramsey and Hewet

Spenser had married and left the priesthood. He was charged with heresy about the sacrament of the altar and burnt at Salisbury. 1563, p. 617; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 1226
Richard Spurge

(d. 1556)

Shearman. Martyr. Of Essex. Probably related to Thomas Spurge [brother?]

Richard Spurge was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in the Marshalsea for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death Spurge and some of his fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath, after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor, on behalf of all of them. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, pp. 1788-89, 1583, p. 1895.

On 16 January 1555 Read was sent to the Marshalsea to examine Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, George Ambrose and John Cavel. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Read was told during his examination of 16 January 1555 that the Spurges, Ambrose and Cavel had been complained of by the parson of the church in Bocking. The priest had complained to Lord Rich, who had taken the complaint further. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Under examination by Read, Spurge stated that he had not gone to church because they did not practice true doctrine there. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Spurge was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned around 24 April 1556 at Smithfield. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Richard Spurge was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

1583 Edition, page 1919 | 1583 Edition, page 1948
Richard Stokesley

(1448 - 1528)

Bishop of Winchester. Lord Privy Seal to Henry VII and Henry VIII. [DNB]

Henry VIII appointed Richard Stokesley (Bishop of London), Stephen Gardiner (Bishop of Winchester), Richard Sampson (Bishop of Chichester), William Repps (Bishop of Norwich), Thomas Goodrich (Bishop of Ely), Hugh Latimer (Bishop of Worcester), Nicholas Shaxton (Bishop of Salisbury) and William Barlow (Bishop of St David's) to compose a book of ecclesiastical institutions called the Bishops' Book. 1563, p. 1472.

Bonner began the final examination of John Philpot with the prayer that Stokesley used when sentencing a heretic. 1563, p. 1442, 1570, p. 1997, 1576, p. 1719, 1583, p. 1827.

1583 Edition, page 1851 | 1583 Edition, page 1885
Richard Taverner

(1505? - 1575) [ODNB]

Translator and evangelical reformer; transferred from Cambridge to Cardinal College, Oxford; BA Oxford 1527; accused of heresy 1529; MA Oxford 1530; Cromwell was his patron; MP Liverpool 1547; licence to preach 1552, although not ordained; temporarily in the Tower 1541

Richard Taverner was one of the scholars imprisoned at Cardinal College for attending an illegal assembly. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

William Ettis and his wife were charged in London in 1541 with causing Richard Taverner, who was not a priest, to preach against the king's injunctions. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1021 | 1583 Edition, page 1228[Back to Top]
Richard Taylor

Priest ; fellow of Whittington college, London

Richard Taylor was one of three priests who denounced Alexander Seton in London in 1541. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

1583 Edition, page 1229
Richard Thornden

(d. 1558)

Suffragan Bishop of Dover (1545-1558) [ODNB]

Richard Thornden is described by Foxe as one who was occupied with dispatching the godly during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1383, 1570, p. 1952, 1576, p. 1679, 1583, p. 1786.

On 13 June 1555 John Bland was brought before Thornden. 1563, p. 1229, 1570, pp. 1851-52, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, p. 1672.

Bland asked that the bishop of Dover and Master Collins be present at the disputation over the sacrament between Harspfield and Bland. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

On 20 June, Bland was reexamined, his articles read by the bishop of Dover and Bland's answers made. 1563, p. 1229.

Bland referred to Thornden's library as a source for texts for any discussion of scripture. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Thornden stated that Bland had preached many heresies. Faucet wais present during this discussion. 1563, p. 1225, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, p. 1670.

Bland asked that Richard Thornden, bishop of Dover, and Robert Collins, commissary, be present at the disputation over the sacrament between Nicholas Harspfield and Bland. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Cyriac Pettit was present during the disputation between Bland and Nicholas Harpsfield on 21 May 1555. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

On 28 May Nicholas Harpsfield had the mayor's sergeant bring Bland and Master Collins (comissary) before him, in Thornden's house. 1563, pp. 1220-21, 1570, pp. 1845-46, 1576, pp. 1579-80, 1583, p. 1667.

On 13 June [1555] Bland was brought before Richard Thornden, Robert Collins and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1229, 1570, pp. 1851-52, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, p. 1672.

Thornden asked Bland if he knew of Oecolompadius and Zwingli, to which Bland responded that he had seen 'parte of their doinges'. 1563, p. 1226, 1570, p. 1850, 1576, p. 1583, 1583, p. 1671.

On 20 June Bland was reexamined and his articles read by Richard Thornden. Bland's answers were made and condemnation given. 1563, pp. 1229-30, 1570, p. 1852, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, pp. 1672-73.

Bland was condemned by Dover. 1563, p. 1230, 1570, p. 1852, 1576, p. 1582, 1583, pp. 1672-73.

Bland, Sheterden and Middleton were condemned on 25 June 1555. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

He examined and condemned John Frankesh. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

He examined and condemned Humphrey Middleton. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

He took part in the last examination of Nicholas Sheterden and condemned him on 25 June 1555. 1570, p. 1856, 1576, p. 1588, 1583, pp. 1675-76.

Thornden examined and condemned William Cokar. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He examined Richard Colliar. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He condemned Colliar on either 26 June, 26 July (1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678) or16 August 1555 (1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688).

He examined and condemned William Hopper. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He condemned Hopper on 26 June or 26 July 1555 (1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678) or 16 July 1555 (1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688).

He examined and condemned Henry Laurence. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He condemned Laurence on 26 June or 26 July (1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678) or 2 August 1555 (1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688).

He examined and condemned William Sterne. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

Thornden was referred to by William Sterne as 'Dick of Dover'. 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

Thornden examined and condemned Richard Wright. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

George Catmer, Robert Streater, George Brodbridge, Anthony Burwarde and James Tutty, martyrs, were examined by the bishop of Dover. 1563, p. 1273, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

John Web was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield and Thornden. 1563, pp. 1386-87, 1570, pp. 1959-60, 1576, p. 1687, 1583, p. 1794.

A mass was said at Canterbury by Thornden after the death of Edward VI. 1563, p. 1474 [recte 1472], 1570, p. 2046, 1576, p. 1764, 1583, p. 1871.

John Newman was apprehended in Kent and examined there by Thornden and others at Tenterden. 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, pp. 1686-87, p. 1950.

Newman was brought before Bonner and condemned with Denley and Packingham. Newman wrote a letter to Thornden about his conduct and doctrine. 1570, p. 2134, 1576, p. 1856, 1583, p. 1950.

Thornden is described as a great persecutor. 1563, p. 1546, 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1860, 1583, p. 1954.

Thornden condemned John Philpot of Tenterden, William Hay of Hythe, Thomas Hudson of Selling, Matthew Bradbridge of Tenterden, Thomas Stephens of Biddenden, Nicholas Final of Tenterden, William Lowick of Cranbrooke, and William Prowting of Thornham. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].]

Joan Bradbridge, Walter Apelbye of Maidstone, Petronyll, his wife, Edmund Allin of Frittenden, Katherine,his wife, Joan Mannings, wife of Maidstone, Elizabeth, a blind maiden were all examined by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1570, 1570, p. 2161, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1976.

Edward Benden petitioned the wealthy men of Staplehurst to write to Thornden, bishop of Dover, asking that his wife, Alice Benden, be released. 1570, p. 2167, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1980.

Benden told Thornden that his wife was being manipulated by her brother, Roger Hall, who gave her money, comforted her, and persuaded her not to attend mass. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

Benden told Thornden that she would not be shriven by her parish priest if sent home. 1570, p. 2167, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1980.

Thornden released her, telling her to go to church 'when thou wilt'. 1570, p. 2167, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1980.

Thornden sent Alice Benden to 'Monday's Hole' prison. Her brother had great difficulty in finding where she was imprisoned but eventually found her five weeks after she had been moved. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

On 25 March 1557 Alice Benden was called before Thornden, who asked her to relent. She refused, telling him that his treatment of her was not of God. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

Thornden sent her to Westgate, where she was cleaned up, but her skin was so poor and her body so weak, that she could hardly walk and her skin peeled away. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

She remained at Westgate until the end of April, when she was brought before Thornden and condemned. She was then sent to the Castle. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

Martin Bradbridge was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

Nicholas Final was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

William Hay was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

Thomas Hudson was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

Stephen Kempe was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

William Lowick was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 2155, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

John Philpot of Tenterden was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2154, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

Matthew Plaise was examined by Thornden, Nicholas Harpsfield and Collins. 1570, pp. 2169-71, 1576, pp. 1873-75, 1583, pp. 1982-83.

William Prowting was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1604, 1570, p. 2198, 1576, p. 1897, 1583, p. 2005.

Thomas Stephens was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

William Waterman was condemned by Richard Thornden and Nicholas Harpsfield. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1974 [incorrectly numbered as 1970].

Joan Bradbridge had two children, Patience and Charity. She asked Thornden to protect them after her death but he refused. 1570, p. 2169, 1576, p. 1873, 1583, p. 1981.

Thornden was taken with a palsy whilst watching a game of bowls at Bourne. 1563, p. 1706, 1570, p. 2298, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2101.

Thornden died in the pulpit after giving pardon and remission of sins to his congregation. 1563, p. 1705.

[Referred to as 'Thorton' and 'Dick of Dover'.]

1583 Edition, page 1691 | 1583 Edition, page 1698 | 1583 Edition, page 1710 | 1583 Edition, page 1712 | 1583 Edition, page 1732 | 1583 Edition, page 1811 | 1583 Edition, page 1818 | 1583 Edition, page 1895 | 1583 Edition, page 1974 | 1583 Edition, page 1978 | 1583 Edition, page 1994 | 1583 Edition, page 2002 | 1583 Edition, page 2004 | 1583 Edition, page 2006 | 1583 Edition, page 2123
Richard Thorpe

Soldier of Calais

Richard Thorpe and John Ford accused John Butler of speaking heresy. 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

1583 Edition, page 1250
Richard Tracy

Son of William; gentleman of Toddington, Gloucestershire; BA Oxford 1515; MP 1529; his books were ordered to be burnt in 1546; wrote to Crome in 1546 urging him not to recant; imprisoned in the Tower 1551-52 [Fines]

In his will, William Tracy named his wife Margaret and his son Richard as executors and left them the residue of his goods. 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

Richard Tracy was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

1583 Edition, page 1067 | 1583 Edition, page 1270
Richard Turner

Curate to Ralph Morrice, Cranmer's secretary. [MacCulloch, Thomas Cranmer (1996)]

Richard Turner was a minister in Kent and curate to Morrice. Complaints were made about his preaching. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, pp. 1761-62, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

A letter to Denny and Buttes was written by Moryce. Ralph Morrice was Turner's patron. 1570, pp. 2043-44, 1576, pp. 1762-63, 1583, pp. 1868-70.

Complaints about Richard Turner's sermons were made to Sir John Baker, Sir Christopher Hales, Sir Thomas Moyles. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Morrice got Moyle to hear one of Turner's sermons in Easter week, his rehearsal sermon in his parish at Westwell. Moyle heard him before noon and after noon on the Wednesday and approved. 1570, p. 2043, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Turner was told to recant the doctrine he had heard and taught in other countries. 1570, p. 2044, 1576, p. 1762, 1583, p. 1869.

Moyles appealed for Turner's release. 1570, p. 2044, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1869.

Buttes made suit to the king for Turner's release. He was retained as a loyal subject. 1570, p. 2045, 1576, p. 1763, 1583, p. 1870.

1583 Edition, page 1753 | 1583 Edition, page 1892
Richard Turner

(d. c. 1565) of Staffs; Magdalen College, Oxford: BA 1525; MA 1529; BTh 1536. Cantarist at Windsor 1536. Marian exile in Germany, died there [Fines]

Richard Turner suggested to his friend John Marbeck that he produce a biblical concordance in English. 1570, p. 1393; 1576, p. 1188; 1583, p. 1217.

1583 Edition, page 1241
Richard Ward

Bailiff of Derby.

Richard Ward persecuted Joan Waste of Derby. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2137, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1951.

1583 Edition, page 1465 | 1583 Edition, page 1485 | 1583 Edition, page 1975[Back to Top]
Richard Waterson

(d. 1563)

Stationer. Of London. [See E. G. Duff, A Century of the English Book Trade: Short Notices of All Printers, Stationers, Book-binders, and Others Connected with it from the Issue of the First Dated Book in 1457 to the Incorporation of the Company of Stationers in 1557 (London, 1948), p. 166.]

William Gye bought a Bible and service book from Richard Waterson, who dwelt with Master Duixile in St Paul's Churchyard. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

Richard Waterson was apprehended by Robin Caly, John Hill and John Avales and sent before Bonner. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

Richard Waterson was examined by Story where he was told that £40 would release him from punishment. This was reduced to £10 but eventually a warrant was made to Richard Grafton who was forced to watch the beating of Gye upon a cross at Bridewell. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

1583 Edition, page 2167
Richard Weaver

Of Lichfield.

Richard Weaver was examined by Draycot and Bayne and later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Webbe

Weaver.

Richard Webbe was denounced to Bishop Bonner by the earl of Oxford and Sir Philip Paris on 1 May 1555. Webbe recanted on 17 May 1555. 1563, p. 1166; 1570, p. 1777; 1576, p. 1518; 1583, p. 1601

1583 Edition, page 1625
Richard Weston

JP, MP (1553, 1554, 1555). Justice of the Common Pleas (1559 - 1572) [Bindoff, (Commons].

Richard Weston was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. These commissioners sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Richard Weston was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971]

In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that Richard Weston was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

1583 Edition, page 1618 | 1583 Edition, page 1995[Back to Top]
Richard Whalley

(1498/9 - 1583) [ODNB]

Administrator, chamberlain of the household of the duke of Somerset

Sir Thomas Smith, Richard Whalley and Thomas Fisher were imprisoned with Edward Seymour in the Tower. 1570, p. 1548; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

1583 Edition, page 1394
Richard White

Of Marlborough.

Richard White was one of those who witnessed Julins Palmer's second examination and made notes. 1570, p. 2121, 1576, p. 1844 [recte 1832], 1583, p. 1938.

1583 Edition, page 1962
Richard White

Haberdasher of St Olave's in the Old Jewry; charged in 1541 for saying that Christ was not in the host, but in heaven [Fines]

Richard White was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Richard Wilkes

Present at John Redman's deathbed

Richard Wilkes took notes on the communication he had with John Redman. He and others discussed matters of religion with Redman. 1563, pp. 867-74; 1570, pp. 1537-41; 1576, pp. 1310-14; 1583, pp. 1360-64.

1583 Edition, page 1384
Richard Wilmot

(b. 1540?)

Apprentice to a draper in Bow Lane. Of London but born in Cambridgeshire.

Richard Wilmot was tormented and scourged around the time of the death of Anne Askew. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

One day in July [year not filled in in text], a Welshman called Lewes (described as one of the guard) entered the shop where Wilmot was apprentice. Lewes was asked what the news at court was, to which he responded that Crome had appeared before the council and was to appear at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot told Lewes that he was sorry to hear the news of Dr Crome. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1951, 1583, p. 2058.

Lewes told Wilmot that there had been troubles since the Bible was translated into English, that Crome was a heretic and then falsely accused Cromwell of biblical translation. 1563, p. 1682, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Foxe recounts Wilmot's conversation with Lewes. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot told Lewes that Crome preached nothing but the truth. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Master Daubney's servant, Thomas Fairfax, openly agreed with what Wilmot was saying. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Thomas Fairfax and Richard Wilmot were ordered to appear before the lord mayor. Smart, the swordbearer, was sent as messenger to them. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

The mayor and Chomley examined Wilmot and Fairfax. 1563, p. 1683, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Roger Cholmley accused Wilmot of being Crome's son. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot and Cholmley discussed one of Crome's sermons. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

Wilmot said that Lord Rich was his godfather and had baptised him. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1952, 1583, p. 2058.

The wardens of the Drapers' company were sent to speak to Wilmot and Fairfax when in prison and to make suit to the mayor. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2060, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2058.

The mayor went with Wilmot and Fairfax to the council, where they were examined by Winchester and Sir Anthony Brown. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

It was decided that Wilmot and Fairfax be tied to a cart and whipped three market days through the city. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

Wilmot and Fairfax appeared in the Drapers' hall with their masters present, and Master Brooke [master of the Drapers] promised £100 from the company for the boys' protection from the death sentence. 1563, p. 1684, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

Wilmot and Fairfax underwent a scourging, during which Brook was particularly brutal. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

Wilmot and Fairfax never returned to full health. 1563, p. 1685, 1570, p. 2260, 1576, p. 1953, 1583, p. 2060.

1583 Edition, page 2082[Back to Top]
Richard Wolman

(d. 1537) [ODNB]

BCL Cambridge 1503; DCL abroad; DCnL 1512; admitted College of Advocates 1514; vicar-general of Bath and Wells 1518; archdeacon of Sudbury (1522 - 37); king's chaplain 1526; dean of Wells (1529 - 37)

Richard Wolman was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088 | 1583 Edition, page 1281
Richard Woodburne

Of Lichfield.

Richard Woodburne was examined by Draycot and Bayne and later dismissed. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Richard Woodman

(at least 1524 - 1557)

Ironmaker. Martyr. Of Warbleton, Sussex. Imprisoned with John Philpot.

Woodman is mentioned by Story at Philpot's first examination as a 'fellow' of Philpot, loving scripture. 1563, p. 1390; 1570, p. 1962; 1576, p. 1689; 1583, p. 1796.

Woodman was apprehended for challenging Fairebank [once a married priest, of Warbleton] for preaching differently under Mary from what he had preached under Edward VI. 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, pp. 1983-84.

He was brought before John Ashbornham, Master Tonston, Master Culpepper, and Master Roberts [all JPs for Sussex] who sent him to the King's Bench. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He remained in the King's Bench for over 18 months (from June 1557), from whence he was transferred by Story to Bonner's coalhouse, where he remained for one month before examination. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He answered courageously at his examinations. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He was released from Bonner on 18 December only to be re-apprehended, thanks to his father, brother, kinsfolk and friends. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He remained in the coalhouse for another eight weeks. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

He was examined a further six times, making a total of 32 examinations before he was condemned. 1563, p. 1573, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Foxe records Woodman's account of his appearance before the sheriffs on 15 March 1556 and before the bishop of Chichester at Blackfriars, followed by his examinations. 1563, pp. 1574-76, 1570, pp. 2171-74, 1576, pp. 1875-77, 1583, pp. 1984-85.

Woodman's own brother delivered him to the authorities. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman was married with children. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's neighbours were Cardillar and James Gage. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Gage and his men arrived at Woodman's house late at night to seize him, having already seized two of his children. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman hid in a secret place in his house, after which his wife let the men who were searching for him enter. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman was found. He tried to escape but fell into a hole and was captured by 'Parker the Wild'. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

John Fauconer berated Woodman, saying that he was no angel (an accusation had been made by parishioners that he had said he was an angel). 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's brother-in-law George Beching was worried that Woodman might have thought that he had betrayed him, but Woodman told him that he did not suspect him. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

A pewterer from Lewes turned against Woodman. 1563, p. 1574, 1570, p. 2171, 1576, p. 1875, 1583, p. 1984.

Woodman's first examination before Christopherson, Story, Cooke and others took place on 14 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1573-79, 1570, p. 2174-78, 1576, pp. 1877-81, 1583, pp. 1986-89.

After his first examination, Woodman was taken by the sheriffs to Cooke's house, from whence he was taken to the sheriff's prison in Southwark. 1563, pp. 1579-82, 1570, p. 2178, 1576, p. 1881, 1583, p. 1992.

Woodman's second examination before Christopherson and two of his chaplains, as well as Story, took place on 27 April 1557. 1563, pp. 1582-87, 1570, pp. 2178-82, 1576, pp. 1881-84, 1583, pp. 2089-92.

Woodman's third examination was before Alban Langdale and Master James Gage at Montague's house, beside St Mary Overy's, Southwark, on 12 May 1557. Gage, the sheriff, was also present. 1563, pp. 1582-87, 1570, p. 2182-88, 1576, pp. 1884-89, 1583, pp. 1992-97.

Woodman's fourth examination took place before White (Winchester), Griffith (Rochester), a certain doctor and others on 25 May 1557. 1563, pp. 1596-99, 1570, pp. 2188-90, 1576, pp. 1889-90, 1583, pp. 1997-99.

Woodman's fifth examination took place before Winchester, Nicholas Harpsfield, Langdale, a fat-headed priest, and many others at St Mary Overy's church on 15 June 1557. 1563, pp. 1599-1601, 1570, pp. 2190-92, 1576, pp. 1890-92, 1583, pp. 1999-2000.

The sixth and last examination of Woodman took place before Chichester, Roper, Nicholas Harpsfield, the fat priest, Winchester and others. 1563, 1599-1601, 1570, p. 2192-94, 1576, p. 1892-93, 1583, pp. 2000-02.

Woodman wrote a letter to Mistress Roberts of Hawkhurst. 1563, pp. 1571-72, 1570, pp. 2194-95, 1576, pp. 1893-95, 1583, pp. 2002-03.

He was burned at Lewes on 22 June 1557. 1563, p. 1602, 1570, p. 2195, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2003.

1583 Edition, page 1820 | 1583 Edition, page 2007 | 1583 Edition, page 2097
Richard Wright

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of Ashford, Kent.

Richard Wright was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Thornden, bishop of Dover, Faucet and Robert Collins; he gave answers and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

He was condemned '26 July' but this is referred to as occuring the day after the condemnation of Bland, Sheterden and Middleton, which was on 25 June. 1570, p. 1859,1576, p. 1591, 1583, p. 1678.

[or]

he was condemned 16 August 1555. 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

Wright sang a psalm after his condemnation and was rebuked for doing so. 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

1583 Edition, page 1702 | 1583 Edition, page 1712
Richard Yeoman

(1497? - 1557)

Minister. Martyr. Of Hadleigh, Suffolk. [See John Craig, Reformation, Politics and Polemics: The Growth of Protestantism in East Anglian Market Towns 1500-1610 (Aldershot, 2001), pp. 163, 172, 173.]

Richard Yeoman was Rowland Taylor's curate. When Taylor departed, he left Yeoman in charge. But Yeoman was driven away and later burned at Norwich. 1563, p. 1067; 1570, p. 1699; 1576, p. 1447; 1583, p. 1520.

Richard Yeoman took over Taylor's cure at the departure of Taylor. 1563, p. 1661, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2045.

As soon as Master Newall took over the benefice he set a catholic curate in Richard Yeoman's place. 1563, p. 1697, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2045.

Yeoman fled to Kent, where he sustained himself and his wife and children by selling laces, pins and points from village to village. 1563, p. 1697, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2045.

Master Moyle, justice of Kent, set Richard Yeoman in the stocks at Fulham. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2046.

Yeoman returned to Hadleigh and resided secretly in the Guildhall. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2046.

Yeoman's wife begged bread and meat for her family, while her husband spent his time devoutly and also carding wool for his wife to spin. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2046.

Newall found out where Yeoman was hiding and took the bailiff's deputies and servants to seize him. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2046.

Richard Yeoman was set in the stocks after his capture. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2046.

Yeoman met with John Dale in the cage, who had been there for three or four days and remained there until Sir Henry Doyle, a justice, came to Hadleigh. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Newall urged Doyle to take Dale and Yeoman to prison. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Doyle believed that Dale and Yeoman should not be punished for more than a day or two. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Doyle believed that Dale should be released immediately. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Doyle submitted to Newall's requests eventually and signed the writ for Dale and Yeoman to be taken to Bury jail. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2244, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

After Dale, a weaver, died, Yeoman was removed to Norwich prison. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Yeoman was burned at Norwich on 10 July 1557. He was tormented at the stake. 1563, p. 1698, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

1583 Edition, page 1544 | 1583 Edition, page 2069 | 1583 Edition, page 2169
Richard Yngworth

Bishop of Dover (1537 - 1545) [Fasti]

A conspiracy against Cranmer was discovered through some letters found, including one by the suffragen of Dover and one by Barbar, civilian, maintained in Cranmer's household as a counsellor in matters of law. 1570, p. 2042, 1576, p. 1761, 1583, p. 1868.

Cranmer spoke with Dover and Barber. Barber said that hanging was too good for villains. They asked for Cranmer's forgiveness. 1570, pp. 2042-43, 1576, p. 1760, 1583, p. 1868.

1583 Edition, page 1892
Richard [or Rafe] Larden [or Lardyn or Lurdane]

(d. 1562)

Of Colchester.

Richard Larden betrayed George Eagles to the authorities. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

He was arrested on a felony in 1561 and brought before the sessions at Colchester. He was condemned to be hanged. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

At the bar he said his condemnation was just, as he now knew Eagles to have been an honest man. 1563, p. 1615, 1570, p. 2204, 1576, p. 1902, 1583, p. 2010.

Lardyn was attached, arraigned and hanged for felony. 1570, p. 2299, 1576, p. 1990. 1583, p. 2100.

[Nephew of Benjamin Clere. See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Fate, Faction and Fiction in Foxe's Book of Martyrs', Historical Journal, 43.3 (2000), pp. 610-11.]

1583 Edition, page 2033 | 1583 Edition, page 2124 | 1583 Edition, page 2175[Back to Top]
Richardson

In a letter Green asked Fleetwood to remember Wittrance and Cooke. He also stated: 'M Fernham and M Bell, with M Hussey (as I hope) will dispatch Palmer and Richardson with his companions'. 1563, p. 1466, 1570, p. 2028, 1576, p. 1747, 1583, p. 1855.

1583 Edition, page 1879
Ricsige of Northumbria

C9 king of Northumbria under the Danes

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 150; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

1583 Edition, page 134
Rictiovarus

Early C4 prefect of Amiens; persecutor of Christians in Gaul

Rictiovarus was an enthusiastic persecutor of Christians throughout Gaul. 1570, pp. 111-12; 1576, pp. 79-80; 1583, p. 79.

1583 Edition, page 102
Robert Aldrich

(d.1556)

Bishop of Carlisle, 1537-1556 [DNB, Fasti]

Aldrich was one of the examiners of John Rogers on 28 January 1555. 1563, pp. 1026-28; 1570, pp. 1659-60; 1576, pp. 1416-77; 1583, pp. 1486-87.

[Foxe refers to him as 'Aldris', 'Aldrise' and 'Aldresse'.]

1583 Edition, page 1508
Robert Aldrich

(1488/9 - 1556) [ODNB]

Bishop of Carlisle (1537 - 56)

Robert Aldrich was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088[Back to Top]
Robert Amery

Sheriff of Chester

George Marsh was delivered into the custody of Amry and his fellow sheriff, John Cooper, after being condemned to death. 1563, p. 1121; 1570, p. 1738; 1576, p. 1477 [recte 1483], 1583, p. 1566.

Amry and Cooper escorted Marsh to his execution on 24 April 1555. One of them would not permit Marsh to speak to the crowd. 1563, pp. 1121-22; 1570, p. 1738; 1576, p. 1484; 1583, p. 1567.

1583 Edition, page 1590
Robert Andrew

of St Martin's in Wood Street, London; presented in 1541 for receiving heretics in his house and holding disputations of heresy there [Fines]

Robert Andrew was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Robert Aston

Priest.

Robert Aston was deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Robert Atkinson

Of Richmond, Yorkshire.

Robert Atkinson witnessed the martyrdom of one Snel. 1570, [unnumbered sheet at beginning of volume 1], 1576, 2008, 1583, p. 2150.

1583 Edition, page 2173
Robert Austen

Of Cartham, Kent

Austen testified to the accuracy of the story of Thomas Nightingale's sudden death. 1570, p. 1731; 1576, p. 1478; 1583, p. 1561.

1583 Edition, page 1585[Back to Top]
Robert Bacon

Of Beccles, Suffolk.

Robert Bacon tormented Thomas Spicer, John Denny and Edmund Poole when they were at the stake. 1563, p. 1521, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1793, 1583, p. 1912.

1583 Edition, page 1936
Robert Barcock

Carpenter. Of Winston, Suffolk.

Barcock was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Robert Barcock was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1996
Robert Barker

Minister of Bury St Edmunds under Edward VI. Deprived under Mary.

Robert Barker was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler to have access to his wife. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2090.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Barksdale

'Head man' (so described) of the parish of Keevil, Wiltshire.

John Maundrel, William Coberley and John Spicer exhorted Barksdale and his fellow parishoners not to worship the host carried at the church in Keevil. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

1583 Edition, page 1918
Robert Barnes

(1495 - 1540) [DNB; Venn]

Prior of the Augustine friars. Martyr.

Barnes, prior of the Augustine friars, licensed Latimer to preach to the friars. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583, p. 1735.

Articles were gathered out of Barnes' sermon against Master Tyrell, fellow of King's Hall. 1570, p. 1904, 1576, p. 1631, 1583,p. 1735.

1583 Edition, page 1759[Back to Top]
Robert Barnes

(c. 1495 - 1540) [ODNB]

Religious reformer; martyr of King's Lynn, Norfolk.

Augustinian friar; scholar of Cambridge and Louvain; prior of Augustinians, Cambridge; B.D. Cambridge 1522-23 ; BTh 1523

Arrested in 1526, abjured. Escaped to Wittenberg and became a good friend of Martin Luther; returned in 1531-32 and 1534; became royal chaplain in 1535

Robert Barnes went from Louvain to Cambridge. He became prior and master of the house of the Augustinians. 1563, p. 589; 1570, p. 1363; 1576, p. 1163; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was converted at Cambridge by Thomas Bilney, Thomas Arthur and others. 1563, p. 482.

Barnes preached his first sermon after his conversion at St Edward's church, Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and was immediately accused of heresy by two fellows of King's Hall. His supporters met frequently at the White Horse tavern. 1563, p. 601; 1570, p. 1364; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1192.

Barnes was supported at Cambridge by William Paget and Gardiner. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

Robert Barnes often visited Bury Abbey to see his friend Edmund Rougham, who had been his fellow student at Louvain. While there, Barnes, Lawrence Maxwell and John Stacy converted Richard Bayfield. Bayfield was imprisoned in the abbey, whipped and stocked. Barnes and Edmund Rougham eventually secured his release, and he went with Barnes to Cambridge. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

Barnes preached repentance and had his books burned. 1570, p. 39; 1576, p. 32; 1583, p. 32.

Barnes was arrested and taken to London, where he was examined by Cardinal Wolsey. At the urging of Stephen Gardiner and Edward Fox, he abjured. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Thomas Wolsey charged Barnes with heresy and made him bear a faggot. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 993.

Barnes performed his penance with four Stilliard men. He was then imprisoned in the Fleet for half a year. Afterwards he was committed to the Augustinian house in London as a free prisoner. Further complaints to the cardinal resulted in an order that Barnes be sent to Northampton to be burnt. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

In Northampton Barnes left a suicide note and a pile of clothes on the river-bank and fled to London, from whence he escaped to Antwerp. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

From Antwerp Barnes went to Germany and found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

The king of Denmark sent Barnes as ambassador to Henry VIII with a delegation from Luebeck. Barnes flourished during the time that Anne Boleyn was queen. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

Barnes and William Barlow informed Thomas Cromwell of the arrest of Thomas Frebarne for obtaining pork in Lent for his pregnant wife and asked him to send for the mayor. 1570, p. 1354; 1576, p. 1156; 1583, p. 1185.

Robert Barnes was sent on an embassy to the duke of Cleves by Henry VIII to help negotiate his marriage with Anne of Cleves. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

After the fall of Cromwell and Stephen Gardiner's return from France, Barnes and other preachers were arrested. He was examined, and he, Garrard and Jerome were appointed to preach sermons. Gardiner was present at Barnes' sermon, and Barnes was sent for and imprisoned in the Tower. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

King Henry commanded that Robert Barnes, Thomas Garrard and William Jerome recant the doctrine they had been preaching. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes first recanted in his sermon and then continued the sermon contrary to his recantation. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1170; 1583, p. 1198.

Barnes, Garrard and Jerome were committed to the Tower. They were brought together to Smithfield and burnt. 1563, pp. 611-12; 1570, pp. 1371-72; 1576, p. 1170-71; 1583, p. 1199-1200.

Barnes was one of the authors whose books were banned by the proclamation of 1546. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1427; 1576, p. 1216; 1583, p. 1246.

1583 Edition, page 55 | 1583 Edition, page 1017 | 1583 Edition, page 1022 | 1583 Edition, page 1037 | 1583 Edition, page 1045 | 1583 Edition, page 1058 | 1583 Edition, page 1078 | 1583 Edition, page 1100 | 1583 Edition, page 1145 | 1583 Edition, page 1209 | 1583 Edition, page 1216 | 1583 Edition, page 1221 | 1583 Edition, page 1226 | 1583 Edition, page 1270
Robert Barton

(1525-80)

Gentleman of Smithhills Hall, Deane, Lancashire

Barton ordered his servants to apprehend George Marsh. Marsh surrendered to Barton, and Barton ordered him to surrender himself to the Earl of Derby the next day. 1570, pp. 1731-32; 1576, pp. 1478-79; 1583, pp. 1561-62.

[NB: Robert Barton was regarded, in 1564, as being hostile to the Elizabethan settlement; see Bindoff, Commons sub 'Barton, Andrew' and 'Barton, Ralph'].

1583 Edition, page 1585[Back to Top]
Robert Bate

(d. c. 1531) [Fines]

of Rowhedge or Donyland, nr Colchester

Robert Bate was imprisoned at Fulham with Edward Freese. 1563, p. 494; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1026.

Robert's wife Rose made supplications to the king on behalf of her husband. She was directed to get a letter from Mr Selyard to the bishop on her husband's behalf, but the letter asked for information against him. He escaped from prison but died shortly after. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

1583 Edition, page 1050
Robert Baulding

Possibly a constable. Of Mendlesham, Suffolk.

Robert Baulding was struck by lightning at the taking of William Seaman and died of his injuries. 1570, p. 2300, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

1583 Edition, page 2059 | 1583 Edition, page 2125
Robert Bennett

Lawyer of Windsor; held prohibited books; Sir Thomas Cardine worked for his release [Fines]

Robert Bennett was persecuted with Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Ward and Thomas Vachell were appointed commissioners to search for books at Windsor. Robert Bennett, Henry Filmer, John Marbeck and Robert Testwood were found to be holding books contrary to the Six Articles. Bennett and Filmer were sent to the bishop of London's jail. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Filmer, Pearson, Marbeck and Testwood were imprisoned in Windsor. Bennett was ill with a pestilence and had a large sore. He was left behind in the bishop of London's jail and so escaped being burnt. 1570, p. 1395; 1576, p. 1190; 1583, p. 1218.

William Symonds, although differing greatly from Robert Bennett in religion, was a good friend of his. At Bennett's wife's request, Symonds got from Capon a letter to Gardiner for the deliverance of Bennett. Members of the privy chamber obtained a discharge from prison for Bennett from the king. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

1583 Edition, page 1235 | 1583 Edition, page 1238[Back to Top]
Robert Best

Weaver of St Botolph, Colchester. Charged in 1528 [Fines]

Robert Best, along with many others, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1048.

1583 Edition, page 1072
Robert Bissel

Of Whiteacre.

Robert Bissel was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield in September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Robert Blomfield

Constable of Little Stonham, Suffolk. Bailiff to Sir John Jerningham.

Robert Blomfield met with Edward Golding the under-sheriff to discuss William Brown's sermon. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

Golding and Blomfield examined certain men of the town about Brown's sermon. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

Brown was taken at night and should have been taken before the council the following day, but Blomfield fell sick and could not take him. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

After Brown's death, Blomfield's son became sick, as did his wife who later died. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

Blomfield then remarried a rich widow but he became very sick and died. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

When Blomfield died he was ninescore pounds in debt. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

Shortly before he died Blomfield threatened a man named Simon Harlston. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

1583 Edition, page 2089 | 1583 Edition, page 2125
Robert Bochin

One of the priests associated with the Western Rising in 1549

Robert Bochin was one of the priests said to have been the chief inspirers of the rebellion and who were later executed. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

1583 Edition, page 1329[Back to Top]
Robert Boele

Of Little Stonham, Suffolk.

Robert Boele was forced to flee his hometown for fear of persecution. 1563, p. 1676, 1570, p. 2268, 1576, p. 1958, 1583, p. 2065.

1583 Edition, page 2089
Robert Bowyer

(by 1511 - 1576)

Tanner and mayor of Reading 1547 - 1548, 1553 - 1554, 1558 - 1559, 1570 - 1571 [Bindoff, Commons].

Bowyer interrogated John Bolton on suspicion that Bolton had attached a libel denouncing the mass to the church door at Reading and sent Bolton to prison when Bolton declared that the mass was against the word of God (1563, p. 1017).

Melvin wrote a letter to his brethren in Reading whilst imprisoned in Newgate which referred to John Bolton, Downer, Gately, Radley (now vicar of St Lawrence), Bowyer (a tanner) and Julins Palmer (who was indicted by Thackham). 1583, p. 2140.

1583 Edition, page 2164
Robert Braborne

Clothier of Farnham

Braborne was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 841-42.

Robert Bracher

(fl. 1554 - 1566)

Collated vicar of Aveley, Essex in 1552, deprived as a married priest in early 1554 [Guildhall Library MS 9531/12, fols. 213r and 462r].

He was inducted into the benefices of Kettlebaston and Wenham Combust in 1555 and Stradbrooke in 1566 [R. Freeman Bullen, 'Catalogue of Beneficed Clergy in Suffolk, 1551-1631,' Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History 22 (1936), p. 297].

Bracher was one of those responsible for ejecting Rowland Taylor's family from his house after his execution. A 'false pretensed Protestant' under Edward VI, a catholic under Mary and a protestant in Elizabeth's reign, Bracher preached in Hadleigh in 1554 against justification by faith and in defence of transubstantiation and auricular confession. His preaching drew a letter of rebuttal from the imprisoned Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-4; 1576, p. 1454; 1583, p. 1527.

He swore the oath of supremacy at South Weald, Essex [LPL Cart. Misc. XIII/2/57, fol. 3v].

[NB: In the 1570 edition, Foxe also stated that Bracher now called himself Henry Bradshaw and served first in St Denis in Fenchurch Street and then in the queen's chapel. 1570, pp. 1703-04. Foxe did not repeat this statement in the 1576 or 1583 editions].

1583 Edition, page 1551
Robert Branstone

Brother and servant to William Branstone. Of Ipswich.

Robert Branstone was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Robert Brassey [or Brassie]

(1509? - 1558)

DD (1557), Provost of King's College, Cambridge (1556 - 1558). Vice-chancellor of university (1557 - 1558). V icar of Preston, Lancs. (1541 - 1558)(Venn)

Brassey interrogated George Marsh at Lathom House. The earl of Derby was confident that Brassey would convert Marsh. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

He examined Marsh again, more informally, with John Sherburne. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Together with Sherburne, he presented Marsh with four articles to subscribe to and exhorted him to recant. 1570, p. 1733; 1576, p. 1480; 1583, p. 1563.

Brassey objected to interference in King's College affairs from Cardinal Pole's commissioners. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

Brassey exempted himself from being deemed present when the commissioners were sent on a visitation to Cambridge in 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Cuthbert Scott had an altercation with Brassey on 11 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey again excused himself at St Mary's church on 12 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

He was called before Ormaneto, who told him he was wicked and in danger of excommunication. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

The provost of King's College made a protestation to the queen's commissioners on 14 January 1557, to which Scot declared that he knew not why he was making his protestation. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

Brassey's examination took place before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1540, 1570, p. 2145, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1958.

[Foxe calls him Master of King's. This is a mistake, as the head of the college was the provost.]

[Christopher Haigh has described Brassey as 'a gentle Catholic of the old school' in Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire (Cambridge, 1975) p. 184.]

1583 Edition, page 1586 | 1583 Edition, page 1980
Robert Bray

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Bray was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Possibly a relation of Margaret Bray.]

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Bright

of Maidstone, Kent; admitted to holding unorthodox views for 14 years; abjured; witness against two Kent martyrs [Thomson]

Robert Bright abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

Bright was a witness against John Browne and Edward Walker. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, p. 1276.

1583 Edition, page 1301
Robert Bromley

Grocer and yeoman sergeant of the sheriff of London

Bromley was present at John Tooley's execution. He requested that Tooley hand him one of the prayers which Tooley read before he was executed. Tooley handed him a prayer headed 'Beware of Antichrist'. For this offence Bromley had to seek a pardon from Bishop Bonner. 1570, p. 1756; 1576, p. 1500; 1583, p. 1584.

Bromley described Tooley's execution to one John Burton and gave Burton a copy of Tooley's prayer. 1563, pp. 1145-46.

Bromley's deposition of 3 May 1555, describing his giving Burton a copy of Tooley's prayer, and expressing penitence for it, is printed in 1563, p. 1146.

1583 Edition, page 1608[Back to Top]
Robert Brown

(d. 1568)

Baker, then later a grocer. Alderman of Colchester (1540 - 1568), Bailiff of Colchester (1557). [Mark Byford, 'The Price of Protestantism' in The Reformation in English Towns, 1500-1640,ed. by Patrick Collinson and John Craig (Basingstoke, 1998), p. 125 and Laquita Higgs, Godliness and Governance in Tudor Colchester (Michigan, 1998), p. 288.]

Robert Brown and Robert Mainard wrote to Bonner thanking him for the letter they had received via Edward Cosin. They also referred to the planned execution of William Bongeor, Robert Purcas, Thomas Benold, Agnes Silverside, Ellen Ewring (wife of John Ewring), and Elizabeth Folkes on 2 September 1557. 1563, p. 1632, 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

In their letter to Bonner, Robert Brown and Robert Mainard said that they did not have a prisoner by the name of Agnes Bowyer, wife of Richard Bowyer. They explained that the prisoner was in fact Agnes Bongeor, wife of Richard Bongeor. 1563, p. 1632, 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

Edward Cosin delivered the writ ordering the burning of ten martyrs in Colchester to Robert Brown and Robert Mainard. They subsequently appointed the executions to take place on 2 August 1557. 1563, p. 1632, 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

[Pace Higgs, he is not to be confused with Robert Brown a Colchester MP.]

1583 Edition, page 2031
Robert Brown

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Brown was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Byrche

(d. by February 1535) [Emden]

BCL Oxford 1514; studied at Padua; DCnCL by 1527; college of advocates, London 1527

Robert Byrche was present and agreed to the pronouncement of sentence against Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 489; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p.996 ; 1583, p. 1024.

1583 Edition, page 1048
Robert Cambridge

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Cambridge refused the pax and was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have watched the elevation of the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Carter

Carter was one of the witnesses of Henry VIII's bill banning heretical books. 1563, pp. 1342-43.

[Back to Top]
Robert Catlin

Spoonmaker of Birbrook, Essex. He was troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Robert Catlin, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Robert Catton (Bronde)

Benedictine prior of Norwich (1504/05 - 29); abbot of St Albans (1529 - 38) [Fasti]

The abbey of St Albans was given to Robert Catton when it was taken from Thomas Wolsey. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 968; 1583, p. 994.

1583 Edition, page 1018
Robert Causy

of St Thomas the Apostle; presented in 1541 with 12 others for showing little reverence at mass

Robert Causy was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Robert Chidley

of the Inner Temple; attorney to Anne of Cleves [R. M. Fisher, 'Reform, Repression and Unrest at the Inns of Court, 1518-1558', The Historical Journal, vol. 20, no. 4. (December, 1977), p. 790]

Robert Chidley was named in a commission from Henry VIII to Edmund Bonner as one who was required to execute the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1202.

1583 Edition, page 1226
Robert Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his mother, 3 brothers and sister were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Robert Choote, his mother, brothers and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071[Back to Top]
Robert Clodder (Cloddet)

of Calais [Fines]

After an exhaustive inquisition for heretics, Robert Clodder was one of those brought before the commissioners in Calais in 1540, charged and imprisoned. 1563, p. 665; 1570, p. 1404; 1576, p. 1197; 1583, p. 1227.

1583 Edition, page 1251
Robert Codde

Last prior of Pentney Priory, Norfolk (1526 - 37) [VCH: Norfolk, vol. 2 (1906), pp. 388-91]

The priors of Pentney Priory and Westacre Priory assured Richard Nix, bishop of Norwich, that Nicholas Shaxton had not preached heresy at Westacre. 1563 p. 483.

Robert Cole

(fl. 1550 - 1586)

Originally of Feversham, later of London. Freewiller. Vicar of St Mary-le-Bow (1559 - at least 1586). [See W. H. Frere, ed. Registrum Matthei Parker diocesis Cantuariensis, AS 1559-1575 (3 vols, London, 1928-33), II, p. 768.] Rector of All Hallow's, Bread Steet (1569 - resigned before 1586). [See PRO E 334/8, fo.171r.]

Robert Cole was a leader of the protestant London congregation during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1701.

He and his wife and children fled Feversham, Kent, for fear of persecution. 1563, p. 1679.

He was nearly apprehended by Cyriac Petit in Kent. 1563, p,1701.

He is described as staying in Grace Street, London, before fleeing overseas in the spring of 1556. 1563, p. 1605. [John Bale includes Cole in a list of English exiles compiled in 1557. See John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 742.]

Bradford wrote a letter to his friends N. S. and R. C. 1570, p. 1840, 1576, p. 1575, 1583, p. 1657.

[Denied Predestinarianism. Involved in Bocking conventicle. (See Champlin Buriage, The Early English Dissenters, 2 vols. (Cambridge, 1912), vol. 2, p. 1.) Acted as a messenger between John Bradford and others. (See ECL Ms 262, fos.143r-v, ECL Ms 260, fo.143r.) Converted from freewill during spring of February 1555. (See Thomas S. Freeman, 'Dissenters from a Dissenting Church: The Challenge of the Freewillers, 1550-1558' in The Beginnings of English Protestantism, ed. P. Marshall and A. Ryrie (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 134-35, 137, 142. Author with John Ledley of a collection of orthodox prayers, STC 17776.]

1583 Edition, page 1681
Robert Coleman

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Coleman fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2113
Robert Collins

Commissary of Canterbury diocese. [BCL 1522 Foster

Foxe states that Collins was the cardinal's factor before coming to England 1563, p. 1229, 1570, pp. 1851-52, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, p. 1672.

Robert Collins demanded that Bland return the following day but Bland did not appear, due to urgent business. Bland wrote a letter regarding this. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland asked that Richard Thornden, bishop of Dover, and Robert Collins, commissary, be present at the disputation over the sacrament between Nicholas Harspfield and Bland. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

On 28 May Nicholas Harpsfield had the mayor's sergeant bring John Bland before him, and Robert Collins, in Thornden's house. Foxe reports the talk between Harspfield, Collins and Bland. 1563, pp. 1220-21, 1570, pp. 1845-46, 1576, pp. 1579-80, 1583, p. 1667.

Around 28 June Bland returned to Collins, where he proceeded against Bland before Master Cockes of Sturray and Markes the apparitor. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland remained in the castle of Canterbury until 2 March, when he was taken to the chapter house of Christ Church (Canterbury), to the suffragen of Canterbury, Master Collins, Master Mylles and others, then to Master Oxenden, Master Petit, Master Webbe and Master Hardes (these were all justices). 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

Bland and Collins argued over abiding by the laws of the realm and of the sacrament. 1563, pp. 1224-25, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, pp. 1582-83, 1583, pp. 1669-70.

Nicholas Sheterden discussed eucharistic doctrine with the archdeacon Nicholas Harpsfield and Robert Collins. 1563, pp. 1231-32, 1570, p. 1853, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, pp. 1673-74.

William Cokar was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Richard Colliar was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Anthony Burwarde was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield and Thornden, 3 August. 1563, p. 1273.

William Hopper was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Henry Lawrence was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

William Sterne was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

John Newman was examined before Thornden, Collins and others. 1583, pp. 1686-87.

Richard Wright was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Thornden, bishop of Dover, Faucet and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Collins took part in the examination of John Lomas, Agnes Snotten, Anne Albright, Joan Sole, and Joan Catmer. 1563, p. 1470, 1570, p. 2032, 1576, p. 1751, 1583, p. 1859.

John Newman was examined by Thornden and others, among whom was Robert Collins. 1570, pp. 2134-35, 1576, pp. 1856-57, 1583, pp. 1950-51.

Talk took place between Sir John Baker, Collins and Edmund Allin. 1570, pp. 2165-66, 1576, pp. 1870-71, 1583, pp. 1979-80.

Matthew Plaise was examined by Thornden, Nicholas Harpsfield and Collins. 1570, pp. 2169-71, 1576, pp. 1873-75, 1583, pp. 1982-83.

1583 Edition, page 1155 | 1583 Edition, page 2003 | 1583 Edition, page 2006
Robert Collins

Commissary of Canterbury diocese. [BCL 1522 Foster

Foxe states that Collins was the cardinal's factor before coming to England 1563, p. 1229, 1570, pp. 1851-52, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, p. 1672.

Robert Collins demanded that Bland return the following day but Bland did not appear, due to urgent business. Bland wrote a letter regarding this. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland asked that Richard Thornden, bishop of Dover, and Robert Collins, commissary, be present at the disputation over the sacrament between Nicholas Harspfield and Bland. 1563, p. 1222, 1570, p. 1846, 1576, p. 1580, 1583, p. 1668.

On 28 May Nicholas Harpsfield had the mayor's sergeant bring John Bland before him, and Robert Collins, in Thornden's house. Foxe reports the talk between Harspfield, Collins and Bland. 1563, pp. 1220-21, 1570, pp. 1845-46, 1576, pp. 1579-80, 1583, p. 1667.

Around 28 June Bland returned to Collins, where he proceeded against Bland before Master Cockes of Sturray and Markes the apparitor. 1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

Bland remained in the castle of Canterbury until 2 March, when he was taken to the chapter house of Christ Church (Canterbury), to the suffragen of Canterbury, Master Collins, Master Mylles and others, then to Master Oxenden, Master Petit, Master Webbe and Master Hardes (these were all justices). 1563, p. 1224, 1570, p. 1848, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1669.

Bland and Collins argued over abiding by the laws of the realm and of the sacrament. 1563, pp. 1224-25, 1570, p. 1849, 1576, pp. 1582-83, 1583, pp. 1669-70.

Nicholas Sheterden discussed eucharistic doctrine with the archdeacon Nicholas Harpsfield and Robert Collins. 1563, pp. 1231-32, 1570, p. 1853, 1576, pp. 1585-86, 1583, pp. 1673-74.

Richard Colliar was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Anthony Burwarde was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield and Thornden, 3 August. 1563, p. 1273.

William Hopper was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Henry Lawrence was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

William Sterne was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet, and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1688.

John Newman was examined before Thornden, Collins and others. 1583, pp. 1686-87.

Richard Wright was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Thornden, bishop of Dover, Faucet and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

William Cokar was examined before Nicholas Harpsfield, Richard Thornden, Faucet and Robert Collins; he answered and was condemned. 1563, p. 1249, 1570, p. 1867, 1576, p. 1598, 1583, p. 1688.

Collins took part in the examination of John Lomas, Agnes Snotten, Anne Albright, Joan Sole, and Joan Catmer. 1563, p. 1470, 1570, p. 2032, 1576, p. 1751, 1583, p. 1859.

John Newman was examined by Thornden and others, among whom was Robert Collins. 1570, pp. 2134-35, 1576, pp. 1856-57, 1583, pp. 1950-51.

Talk took place between Sir John Baker, Collins and Edmund Allin. 1570, pp. 2165-66, 1576, pp. 1870-71, 1583, pp. 1979-80.

Matthew Plaise was examined by Thornden, Nicholas Harpsfield and Collins. 1570, pp. 2169-71, 1576, pp. 1873-75, 1583, pp. 1982-83.

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Robert Colman

Laborer. Of Walton, Essex.

Colman was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Robert Colman was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1996
Robert Cooke

Robert Cooke accused and gave testimony against John Waterhouse. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979[Back to Top]
Robert Cooke

of St Michael at Queenhythe; presented in 1541 for reasoning in scripture [Fines]

Robert Cooke was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Robert Cooper

(d. 1558) [Fines]

Priest; tutor of Matthew Parker; chaplain to Edward VI

Robert Cooper was charged in London in 1531 for saying that blessing with a shoe sole was as good as a bishop's blessing. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

1583 Edition, page 1067
Robert Cousyn

Prebend of Holbourn [St. Paul's] (1545 - 1554), Prebend of Mora [St. Paul's] (1554 - 1559), Treasurer of St. Paul's (1558 - 1559). Deprived of his offices in 1559 [Fasti].

Cousyn witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

[Foxe refers to him as Robert 'Cosin'.]

1583 Edition, page 1532
Robert Cousyn

MA; prebendary of Holbourn (1545 - 54) prebendary of Mora (1554, deprived 1559); treasurer of St Paul's, London (1558, deprived 1559) [Fasti]

Gilbert Bourne, John Harpsfield, Robert Cousyn, John Wakelyng and Richard Rogers witnessed Edmund Bonner's first appellation to the king in September 1549. 1563, p. 722; 1570, p. 1515; 1576, p. 1284; 1583, pp. 1325-26.

1583 Edition, page 1350
Robert Crane

Robert Crane witnessed the deaths of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1740[Back to Top]
Robert Cranwell

Gentleman.

Robert Cranwell, an elderly gentleman, traveled with Katherine Brandon and her daughter and others of her household when they went overseas. 1570, p. 2284, 1576, p. 1972, 1583, p. 2078.

1583 Edition, page 2103
Robert Crowther

(fl. 1485)

Of Coventry.

Robert Crowther was accused of heresy. 1563, p. 1739.

Robert Dale

Yorkshire rebel in 1549

William Ombler, Thomas Dale, Henry Barton and Robert Dale took Matthew White, Clopton, Savage and Berry, murdered them, stripped their bodies and left them in a field. 1570, p. 1500; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

1583 Edition, page 1333
Robert Daniel

of St Michael's in Wood Street; one of 6 charged in 1541 as sacramentaries [Fines]

Robert Daniel was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Robert Debnam

Weaver. Originally of Debham, Essex.

Debnam was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Robert Debnam was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

He wrote a confession of faith and signed a submission agreeing to catholic teaching on the eucharist. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

1583 Edition, page 1996[Back to Top]
Robert Debnam

(d. 1532) of East Bergholt, Suffolk [Fines]

Hanged at Cattawade Causey

Robert Debnam was involved in the burning of the rood of Dovercourt in 1532. He was charged with felony and hanged.1563, p. 496; 1570, pp. 1172-73; 1576, p. 1003; 1583, pp. 1030-31.

1583 Edition, page 1054
Robert Drakes

(d. 1556)

Priest. Martyr. Of Thundersley, Essex.

Robert Drakes was made a deacon by Rowland Taylor, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

In third year of Edward's reign, Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley admitted Drakes to minister the sacraments. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was presented to the benefice of Thundersley by Lord Rich, at the suit of Master Causton and Master Treheron. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was sent up to London by Lord Rich, Tyrrell and others for examination. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He remained in either the Marshalsea or the King's Bench for around one year, until the death of Gardiner. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was examined by Richard Read, the lord chancellor, on 22 March 1556. 1563, p. 1505 [note that 1563 says 21 March], 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1789, 1583, p. 1895.

After Gardiner's death some of Drakes' fellow prisoners sent a petition to Heath after he replaced Gardiner as lord chancellor on behalf of them all. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was condemned by Bonner on 28 March 1556. 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

He was burned 24 April 1556 at Smithfield with William Tyms, Richard Spurge, Thomas Spurge, John Cavel, and George Ambrose. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Drakes was one of the recipients of a letter by John Careless to his condemned brethren in Newgate. 1563, pp. 1449-50, 1570, pp. 2105-06, 1576, pp. 1817-18, 1583, pp. 1923-24.

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Robert Dudley

(1532? - 1588)

Fifth son of the Duke of Northumberland. Earl of Leicester (1564–88). (DNB)

Put in Tower 26 July 1553 (1570, p. 1634; 1576, p. 1394; 1583, p. 1465).

1583 Edition, page 1489[Back to Top]
Robert Dynes

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of Essex.

Articles against Robert Dynes were ministered by Thomas Darbyshire on 22 June 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

Dynes gave answers to the articles. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

He appeared before Darbyshire on 11 July 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

Dynes's sentence was read by Darbyshire in the presence of Edward Hastings and Thomas Cornwallis. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

He was burned at Brentford on 14 July 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

1583 Edition, page 2066
Robert Edgore

Robert Edgore went mad because he executed his duties as a parish clerk against his conscience. He was held in chains and bonds for many years after. 1570, p. 2303, 1576, p. 1994, 1583, p. 2103.

1583 Edition, page 2127
Robert Fabyan

(d. 1513) [ODNB]

Chronicler; freeman in Drapers' Company 1476-7; auditor of the city of London's accounts 1486-7

Sheriff (1493); master of the Drapers' Company (1495 - 56, 1501 - 02); alderman (1494 - 1503); wrote Newe Cronycles

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 146, 149, 160, 169, 1304; 1576, pp. 108, 111, 120, 128, 1116; 1583, pp. 107, 110, 118, 126, 1141.

1583 Edition, page 130 | 1583 Edition, page 133 | 1583 Edition, page 142 | 1583 Edition, page 149 | 1583 Edition, page 155 | 1583 Edition, page 1165
Robert Faire

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; charged in 1528 [Fines]

Robert Faire, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Robert Farrer

Haberdasher. Of London.

Robert Farrer frequently visited the Rose tavern in London. 1570, p. 2295, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

He talked with Laurence Sheriff in the Rose tavern and suggested to Sheriff that Elizabeth had been involved in Wyatt's rebellion. Sheriff complained to Bonner about Farrer before Mordaunt, Sir John Baker, Darbyshire, Story, Harpsfield, and others. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

Robert Farrer had two daughters, one of whom was delivered to Sir Roger Cholmley for a sum of money, to be at his commandment, the other sold to Sir William Godolphin, who took her to Boulogne as his lackey, dressed in men's clothing. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

Foxe describes Farrer's character. 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1988, 1583, p. 2294.

[Not related to Robert Farrer the bishop.]

1583 Edition, page 2121[Back to Top]
Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr (DNB).

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

[Not related to Robert Farrer, haberdasher.]

1583 Edition, page 2123 | 1583 Edition, page 2159
Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555)

Bishop of St David's (1547 - 1554) and martyr. [DNB]

Foxe gives a brief summary of Ferrar's career. Foxe calls him a double martyr because of the tribulations he endured in the reigns of both Edward VI and Mary. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

Articles accusing Ferrar of various offences were sent to the privy council in 1551 by Hugh Rawlins and Thomas Lee. 1563, pp. 1055-58; 1583, pp. 1544-46. [These articles were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's answers to these articles are given in 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50). [These answers were summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.] Ferrar's exceptions to the witnesses against him and 'matters justificatory' against him are given in 1563, pp. 1093-96; 1583, pp. 1550-52. [These are summarised in 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.]

Ferrar sent letters to the lord chancellor Thomas Goodrich defending himself and denouncing George Constantine and his other enemies. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-80 [recte 1474]; 1583, pp. 1555-56.

Ferrar was imprisoned throughout the remainder of Edward VI's reign. 1563, p. 1098; 1583, p. 1553. [In 1570, p. 1722 and 1576, pp. 1470-71, Foxe states that Ferrar 'was deteined in custody under sureties' which is much closer to being correct. For proof that Ferrar was not imprisoned during Edward VI's reign, see Andrew J. Brown, Robert Ferrar (London, 1997), pp. 216-18.]

Ferrar was imprisoned under Mary. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1722-23; 1576, p. 1471; 1583, p. 1553.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper sent Ferrar, John Philpot, John Bradford and Rowland Taylor a letter discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Ferrar was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against the proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, p. 1639; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71.

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Ferrar and his fellow prisoners, John Bradford, John Philpot and Rowland Taylor. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1426; 1583, p. 1500.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Ferrar was brought before Stephen Gardiner at St Mary Ovary's on 30 January 1555. He was not examined and was sent back to prison (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

He was one of the authors of a petition to Philip and Mary asking that they allow protestant ministers to defend the Edwardian religious reforms in public debate (1570, p. 1656; 1576, p. 1413; 1583, p. 1483).

Ferrar was sent to Carmarthen on 14 February 1555 for trial and execution. 1563, p. 1732; 1570, pp. 1705 and 1722-23; 1576, pp. 1456 and 1471; 1583, pp. 1529 and 1553-54.

Ferrar's hearings and trial in Carmarthen, from 26 February to 11 March 1555, are recounted. 1563, pp. 1098-99; 1570, pp. 1723-24; 1576, pp. 1471-72; 1583, pp. 1554-55.

Ferrar was condemned and degraded on 13 March 1555. 1563, pp. 1099-1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

Ferrar would have taken the sacrament if not for John Bradford's intervention. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

The night before he was transferred to Newgate he had a dream about the chain for burning him. He was transferred on the Saturday night / Sunday morning and burned at Smithfield the following Monday. 1563, p. 1174, 1570, p. 1781, 1576, p. 1521, 1583, p. 1604.

Ferrar was executed in Carmarthen on 30 March 1555. 1563, p. 1100; 1570, p. 1724; 1576, p. 1472; 1583, p. 1555.

He was mentioned in Bradford's letter to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar had been martyred. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Robert Ferrar was examined before the bishops of Durham and Worcester, Sir Richard Southwell and Gilbert Bourne. 1563, p. 1732, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

Dr Leyson refused to let him speak at the stake. 1563, p. 1736, 1570, p. 2296, 1576, p. 1990, 1583, p. 2136.

[Also referred to as 'Farrer' and as 'Robert Menaven'. 'Menaven' is an abbreviation for the Latin name of Ferrar's diocese of St David's; as is the custom, Ferrar's signature was in Latin with his first name and the name of his diocese.]

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Robert Ferrar

(d. 1555) [ODNB]

Bishop of St David's (1548 - 53) and protestant martyr

Those suspected of heresy at Oxford at the time of the trial of Thomas Garrard and Anthony Dalaber included John Clerk, Henry Sumner, William Bettes, John Taverner, Radley, Nicholas Udall, John Diet, William Eden, John Langport, John Salisbury and Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 610; 1570, p. 1369; 1576, p. 1168; 1583, p. 1197.

George Constantine troubled Robert Ferrar during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

1583 Edition, page 1043 | 1583 Edition, page 1221
Robert Foreman

of Queen's College, Cambridge; rector of All Hallows, Honey Lane, London

Thomas Bilney requested, and was granted, two nights to spend consulting with his friends, Mr Doncaster and 'Mr Farmar', when considering whether to recant. His friends convinced him to do so. 1563, pp. 479-80; 1570, p. 1141; 1576, p. 977; 1583, p. 1003.

1583 Edition, page 1027
Robert Forman

Dean of Glasgow (1505 - 30) [Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Robert Forman was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

1583 Edition, page 999
Robert Foster

(d. 1539/40) [Fines]

Gentleman of Stirling; martyr, burnt at Edinburgh

A summons was directed from David Beaton and George Crichton upon Thomas Forret, John Beveridge, John Kelowe, Duncan Sympson and Robert Foster, along with three or four others from Stirling. They were condemned for heresy without any opportunity to recant and burnt together on the castle hill in Edinburgh. 1570, p. 1442; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1266.

1583 Edition, page 1290 | 1583 Edition, page 1299[Back to Top]
Robert Fowler

Vice-treasurer and councillor of Calais [Lisle Letters]

Robert Fowler was one of the Calais councillors who persecuted the protestants there. All of those councillors eventually were imprisoned or died miserably. 1563, p. 668; 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1199; 1583, p. 1228.

1583 Edition, page 1252
Robert Franke

of Tenterden, Kent

Robert Franke abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

1583 Edition, page 1302
Robert Fuller

Abbot of Waltham (1526 - 23 March 1540); last abbot of the last abbey to be surrendered; officiated at the funeral of Queen Jane Seymour in 1537 [VCH: Essex, vol. 2 (1907), pp. 166-72]

Abbot of Westminster (1500 - 32)

Robert Fuller assisted at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

1583 Edition, page 1047
Robert Gardiner

of Dedham, Essex [Fines]

Robert Gardiner was involved in the burning of the rood of Dovercourt in 1532. He was sought, but escaped.1563, p. 496; 1570, pp. 1172-73; 1576, p. 1003; 1583, pp. 1030-31.

1583 Edition, page 1054
Robert Glover

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Of Baxterley, Warwickshire; lived in Mancetter, Warwickshire. Married a niece of Latimer's. [DNB]

Laurence Saunders sent John and Robert Glover a farewell letter on the morning Saunders was burned. 1570, p. 1674; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, p. 1502.

Robert Glover was too ill to avoid being apprehended. 1563, p. 1773, 1570, p. 2275, 1576, p. 1964, 1583, p. 2071.

Robert Glover wrote a letter to his wife. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he was examined before bishop of Gloucester in Denton's house . 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that he spoke with the sheriff [John Parker or Richard Hawtrey] before he was imprisoned. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that, while he was imprisoned, Hopkins and Dudley spoke to Glover about liberty of conscience. 1563, pp. 1273-80, 1570, pp. 1886-89, 1576, pp. 1615-19, 1583, pp. 1710-12.

In the letter to his wife, Glover stated that William Brasburge, Katherine Phines and Nicholas Hopkins visited him in prison.1563, p. 1276, 1570, p. 1887, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1711.

Glover wrote a letter to to the mayor of Coventry. 1563, p. 1280, 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1615, 1583, p. 1712.

Glover believed that when the bishop of Lichfield and Coventry and the chancellor had read his letter to the mayor of Coventry they had decided to try to do away with Glover while he was in prison. 1570, p. 1888, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

He was sent to Lichfield and received by Telphcot, the chancellor's man sent from Coventry. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Telphcot and the bishop's servant, named Persey, were cruel to Glover. Persey became his jailor. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

The chancellor and a prebendary named Temsey visited him in prison. 1570, p. 1889, 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Telphcot and the jailor spoke to Glover in prison. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

The chancellor and Temsey visited Glover and urged him to repent. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Robert Glover was examined and condemned by Draycot and Bayne. 1563, p. 1281, 1570, p. 1889., 1576, p. 1618, 1583, p. 1712.

Robert Glover was burned at Coventry with Cornelius Bungey on 19 September 1555. 1563, pp. 1278, 1282, 1570, p. 1891, 1576, p. 1619, 1583, p. 1713.

Information of Robert Glover's death was given to Foxe by Augustine Bernher. 1570, p. 1890, 1576, p. 1619, 1583, p. 1713.

He wrote a letter to his wife [BL, Harley Ms. 416, fos.8r-13r. Printed in 1563, pp. 1273-77 et seq.].

[Brother of John Glover.]

1583 Edition, page 1526 | 1583 Edition, page 1733 | 1583 Edition, page 1738 | 1583 Edition, page 2095
Robert Goldstone

Glazier of London [Fines]

Robert Goldstone was charged in London in 1531 with speaking against images. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1186; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

1583 Edition, page 1067
Robert Grainger

of St Thomas the Apostle; presented in 1541 with 12 others for showing little reverence at mass

Robert Grainger was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228[Back to Top]
Robert Granceter

Merchant; accused with Sir Thomas Dingley of going to foreign princes and persuading them to wage war against Henry VIII [Catholic Encyclopedia sub Thomas Dingley]

François I of France and Emperor Charles V retained Robert Granceter and refused to hand him over to Henry VIII. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1087.

1583 Edition, page 1111
Robert Graunt

(d. 1558)

Baker. Churchwarden of St Margaret's, Westminster (1522 - 1524); Deputy Churchwarden (1546 - 1548) [Gervase Rosser, Medieval Westminster 1200-1540 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 379-80].

Robert Graunt deposed that he had witnessed William Flower assault a priest in St Margaret's and was injured attempting to capture Flower. 1563, p. 1138; 1570, p. 1748; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1576.

1583 Edition, page 1600
Robert Hall

Man-at-arms at the court of Henry VIII

Underhill related to Foxe the conversation he overheard between young Prince Edward and his councillors, in which the prince questioned the story of St George. Among others who overheard was Robert Hall. 1583, p. 1395.

1583 Edition, page 1419
Robert Harrington

(dead by 1610)

Prebend of Brownswood [St. Paul's] (1561 - 1610) [Fasti]

Husband of Lucy Harrington (1) and Joan Saunders (2)

Leader, with his wife Lucy, of the 'sustainers' of protestants under Mary [Fines].

Laurence Saunders sent letters to Robert Harrington from prison. 1570, pp. 1672-73; 1576; p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

Robert Harrington received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, pp. 1836-37, 1576, pp. 1571-72, 1583, p. 1653.

He received a letter from John Philpot. 1570, pp. 2008-09, 1576, pp. 1729-30, 1583, pp. 1836-37.

He arrived in Frankfurt, with his wife Joan Saunders and her son, by 15 November 1555. He maintained his household in Frankfurt until at least June 1557. He had married Joan Saunders by 18 June 1556 [Garrett, Marian Exiles].

[He is referred to in Bradford's correspondence as 'N'.]

1583 Edition, page 1525 | 1583 Edition, page 1677 | 1583 Edition, page 1860
Robert Harrison

(c. 1450 - 1511) of Halden, Kent; martyr

Robert Harrison, Agnes Grebill and William Carder were condemned to burn for heresy in 1511 in Kent. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, p. 1277.

1583 Edition, page 1300
Robert Harvey

(d. 1541) Commissary in Calais 1539, replacing John Butler; convicted of treason; hanged, drawn and quartered in Calais

Robert Harvey called a poor labouring man in Calais a heretic and said that he would die a vile death. Harvey himself was executed for treason within six months. 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1229.

1583 Edition, page 1253
Robert Hatchet

Shoemaker of Coventry [Thomson]; confessed 1511; lent books to others; martyred for teaching his children 4 April 1519

Robert Hatchet, with others accused of teaching their children, was brought back to Coventry on Palm Sunday and condemned for relapse. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

1583 Edition, page 996
Robert Hawes

of West Wycombe, Buckinghamshire [Fines]

Robert Hawes was one of those examined by Bishop Longland, excommunicated and abjured for attending a meeting at John Taylor's house in 1530 during which Nicholas/Richard Field read the gospel in English and preached. 1570, p. 1119; 1576, p. 958; 1583, p. 985.

1583 Edition, page 1009[Back to Top]
Robert Hempstead

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

Robert Hempstead and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Robert Hilles

of Tenterden, Kent; abjured 1511; in Maidstone conventicles[thomson]; penance of bearing faggot; witness against Kent martyrs [N. P. Tanner in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages, M. Aston and C. Richmond (eds.) (New York, 1997); Thomson]

Robert Hilles abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

Hilles was a witness against William Carder. 1570, p. 1454; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, p. 1276.

1583 Edition, page 1300
Robert Holgate

(1481? - 1555)

Archbishop of York (1545 - 1554) (DNB)

Committed to the Tower, 4 October 1553 (1570, p. 1635; 1576, p. 1396; 1583, p. 1466).

1583 Edition, page 1490
Robert Holgate

(1481/2 - 1555) [ODNB]

BTh Cambridge 1524; DTh 1537; prior of St Catherine's-without-Lincoln 1529; master of the Gilbertines (1534 - 39); bishop of Llandaff (1537 - 45); archbishop of York (1545 - 1554); deprived for marriage

Robert Holgate was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088 | 1583 Edition, page 1269[Back to Top]
Robert Hollon

Brother-in-law of Elizabeth Lawson. Of Bedfield, Suffolk.

Robert Holland's wife, Elizabeth Lawson's sister, was forced to flee her home town for fear of persecution. 1563, p. 1696, 1570, p. 2275, 1576, p. 1964, 1583, p. 2071.

1583 Edition, page 2095
Robert Horne

(1519 - 1580)

DD (1549). Dean of Winchester (1561). Dean of Durham (1551 - 1553: deprived. Restored 1559). Bishop of Winchester (1561 - 1580) (DNB; Garrett, Marian Exiles (Cambridge, 1938). Protestant exile under Mary. [Fines])

Robert Horn's exile is mentioned in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Foxe refers to Horne's installation as bishop of Winchester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

1583 Edition, page 2142 | 1583 Edition, page 2148
Robert Horne

(1519 - 1580)

DD (1549). Dean of Winchester (1561). Dean of Durham (1551 - 1553: deprived. Restored 1559). Bishop of Winchester (1561 - 1580) (DNB; Garrett, Marian Exiles (Cambridge, 1938). Protestant exile under Mary. [Fines])

Robert Horn's exile is mentioned in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

Foxe refers to Horne's installation as bishop of Winchester after Elizabeth's accession. 1583, p. 2128.

1583 Edition, page 1652
Robert Horneby

Gentleman. Servant and groom to Elizabeth during Mary's reign.

Robert Horneby was examined by the privy council about his religion in April 1555, and was then imprisoned in the Marshalsea. 1583, p. 1561.

Horneby was committed to the Marshalsea for refusing to attend mass. 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1975, 1583, p. 2082.

He was delivered from condemnation by Dr Martin. 1570, p. 2288, 1576, p. 1975, 1583, p. 2082.

[Horneby fled into exile, appearing in Frankfurt by 1577 (Garrett, Marian Exiles).]

[See C. S. Knighton, Calendar of State Papers Domestic, Mary I, no.816 and Acts of the Privy Council 5, p. 119.]

1583 Edition, page 1585 | 1583 Edition, page 2106
Robert Hudson

of St Sepulchres [Brigden, London, pp. 193-4]

Robert Hudson was charged in London in 1531 for offering the boy bishop a dog 'for devotion'. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1188; 1576, p. 1017; 1583, p. 1046.

1583 Edition, page 1070
Robert Hunter

Brother of William Hunter

Robert Hunter supplied Foxe with the account of his brother's martyrdom which was used in 1570 and all subsequent editions 1570, p. 1712; 1576, p. 1462; 1583, p. 1536.

Robert Hunter witnessed his brother's condemnation on 9 February 1555. 1570, p. 1714; 1576, p. 1463; 1583, p. 1537.

At his brother's execution, Robert refused to attempt to persuade William to recant; instead he encouraged him. William at the stake gave Robert his psalter. 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1464; 1583, p. 1538.

Robert Hunter was imprisoned in the stocks and interrogated by Anthony Browne after his brother's death. 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

1583 Edition, page 1560
Robert Ingram

John Hooper spent the night before his execution in Robert Ingram's house. 1563, pp. 1059 and 1060; 1570, pp. 1681 and 1682; 1576, pp. 1435 and 1436; 1583, pp. 1508 and 1509.

[See Caroline Litzenberger, The English Reformation and the Laity (Cambridge, 1997), p. 84, for Gloucester city records noting expenses paid for feeding Hooper's escort at Agnes Ingram's house].

1583 Edition, page 1532
Robert John

Robert John witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

1583 Edition, page 1261[Back to Top]
Robert Johnson

(d. 1558)

Prebend of Rochester (1541), Worcester (1544 - 1548), Hereford (1551 - 1558), York (1556 - 1558). Chancellor of Worcester diocese(1544 - 1558) (DNB)

In 1546 Davis, who often read an English Testament, was complained of by Alice Johnson, his mistress. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

Alice Johnson consulted with Thomas Parton and Alice Brook (wife of Nicholas Brook, organ maker) and with certain canons, including Robert Johnson, chancellor to Heath. It was decided that Alice Brook's son, Oliver (a school fellow of Davis) feign friendship with him and so gain access to his writings. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

Oliver gained access to Davis's English books and writings against the Six Articles, which were then brought before the canons and Robert Johnson. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

He was condemned by Robert Johnson, but his judges agreed with John Bourne that John Davis had suffered enough. 1570, p. 2277, 1583, p. 2073.

[He and Henry Joliffe refused to subscribe to the Articles of Religion propounded by John Hooper, bishop of Gloucester in 1552. He and Jolliffe held a public disputation with Hooper and with Harley.]

1583 Edition, page 1822 | 1583 Edition, page 1869 | 1583 Edition, page 2064 | 1583 Edition, page 2097
Robert Johnson

Registrar to Edmund Bonner, bishop of London

Bonner was due to appear before the king's commissioners for the fifth time on 19 September. Robert Johnson came to report that the bishop was too ill to attend. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. 1563, p. 716; 1570, p. 1514; 1576, p. 1283; 1583, p. 1325.

1583 Edition, page 1347[Back to Top]
Robert Katrenes

Of Lichfield.

Robert Katrenes was examined and forced by Bayne and Draycot to do penance in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield on September 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Robert Kede

Of unknown occupation. Of Exeter.

Kede suffered greatly throughout his life for his religious doctrine. 1570, p. 2252, 1576, p. 1945, 1583, p. 2052.

[Father of John and William Kede.]

1583 Edition, page 2075
Robert Kendall

Robert Kendall witnessed the death of Wolsey and Pygot. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1740
Robert Kett (Ket)

(c. 1492 - 1549) [ODNB]

Wealthy tanner of Wymondham in Norfolk; led a rebellion in 1549; captured, found guilty of treason; executed at Norwich; hanged from the walls of Norwich castle

His brother William (d. 1549) was also a leader of the rebellion. Captured and tried with Robert; hanged from the steeple of Wymondham church

They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 1500; 1576, p. 1271; 1583, p. 1308.

1583 Edition, page 1332 | 1583 Edition, page 1348[Back to Top]
Robert King

(d. 1557)

Bishop of Oxford. Second son of William King of Tame. (DNB)

Robert King died before Queen Mary. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

1583 Edition, page 1551 | 1583 Edition, page 2125
Robert King

(d. 1532) of Dedham, Essex [Fines]

Hanged at Burchet in Dedham

Robert King was involved in the burning of the rood of Dovercourt in 1532. He was charged with felony and hanged.1563, p. 496; 1570, pp. 1172-73; 1576, p. 1003; 1583, pp. 1030-31.

1583 Edition, page 1054
Robert Kitrich

Constable of Bedfield, Suffolk.

Elizabeth Lawson was apprehended in 1556 by Robert Kitrich and Thomas Elas, the two constables of the town. 1563, p. 1677, 1570, p. 2274, 1576, p. 1963, 1583, p. 2070.

She was laid in a dungeon and then carried to Norwich, then to Bury St Edmunds, where she was condemned. 1563, p. 1677, 1570, p. 2274, 1576, p. 1963, 1583, p. 2070.

1583 Edition, page 2094
Robert Lamb

Harpist [Fines]

Robert Lamb was charged in London in 1531 for singing a song commending Luther. 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1016; 1583, p. 1044.

1583 Edition, page 1068[Back to Top]
Robert Lambe

(d. 1544) [Fines]

Merchant of Perth; hung horns and a tail on the image of St Francis; Scottish martyr; hanged at Perth

Spense, a friar in Perth, preached the necessity of prayer to saints and was publicly challenged by Robert Lambe. Lambe was attacked by the people, especially the women, but managed to escape. 1570, p. 1443; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, pp. 1266-67.

Lambe and others were arrested and charged with gathering in illegal assemblies to hear scripture. He, William Anderson and James Raveleson were also charged with hanging horns and a tail on the image of St Francis and of eating a goose on All Hallows' Eve. He and the others were executed. 1570, pp. 1443-44; 1576, pp. 1230-31; 1583, p. 1267.

1583 Edition, page 1290
Robert Langley

George Marsh wrote to Robert Langley from prison, thanking him for Langley's offer to supply him with necessities. Marsh promised to send Langley an account of his imprisonment and examinations at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1744; 1576, p. 1490; 1583, pp. 1572-73.

1583 Edition, page 1596
Robert Lashford

Father of Joan Lashford [alias Warne, Warren].

Robert Lashford was a cutler of All Hallows parish, Thamis Street, London. 1563, p. 1468, 1570, p. 2030, 1576, p. 1600, 1583, p. 1689.

1583 Edition, page 1882
Robert Lawes

Constable of Aylsham, Norfolk.

Thomas Hudson's neighbour, John Crouch, went to the constables, Robert Marsham and Robert Lawes, to expose Hudson, and Berry commanded a watch to be made for Hudson. Hudson was eventually caught on 22 April 1558. 1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

1583 Edition, page 2059
Robert Lawrence

(d. 1535) [ODNB sub John Houghton]

Prior of the Charterhouse of Beauvale, Nottinghamshire, and Catholic martyr

John Houghton, Robert Lawrence and Augustine Webster, Carthusian priors, were hanged, drawn and quartered for refusing to swear the oath of supremacy. 1570, p. 1217; 1576, p. 1042; 1583, p. 1069.

Lawrence is one of the Catholic martyrs written of by Nicholas Harpsfield. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1201.

1583 Edition, page 1093 | 1583 Edition, page 1225
Robert Lawson

(d. 1556)

Linen weaver. Martyr. Of Suffolk.

Robert Lawson was apprehended by Robert Kereth, at the commandment of Sir John Tyrrel. 1563, p. 1529, 1570, p. 2099, 1576, p. 1811, 1583, p. 1918.

He was taken to the Eye dungeon and then to Bury to be burned.1563, p. 1529, 1570, p. 2099, 1576, p. 1811, 1583, p. 1918.

1583 Edition, page 1941
Robert Lowson

Vicar of Ecclesgreig, Aberdeenshire

Robert Lowson demanded tithes from David Straiton, who threw the tithe fish from the boat, allowing some to fall into the sea. Lowson accused him to the authorities of saying that tithes should not be paid. 1570, p. 1117; 1576, p. 956; 1583, p. 982.

1583 Edition, page 1006
Robert Mainard

Bailiff of Colchester (1557). [Mark Byford, 'The Price of Protestantism' in The Reformation in English Towns, 1500-1640, ed. Patrick Collinson and John Craig (Basingstoke, 1998), p. 125 and Laquita Higgs, Godliness and Governance in Tudor Colchester (Michigan, 1998), p. 288.]

Ellen Ewring was returned to her husband after being indicted for heresy in Colchester. She remained at home for a brief period but then met with Robert Mainard, the bailiff of Colchester, who kissed her and welcomed her home. She told him she knew he had given her a Judas kiss, and she was arrested again and sent to the Mote-hall. 1570, p. 2159, 1576, p. 1865, 1583, p. 1974.

Edward Cosin delivered to Robert Brown and Robert Mainard the writ ordering the burning of ten martyrs in Colchester. They subsequently appointed the executions to take place on 2 August 1557. 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

Robert Brown and Robert Mainard wrote to Bonner thanking him for the letter they had received via Edward Cosin. They also referred to the planned execution of William Bongeor, Robert Purcas, Thomas Benold, Agnes Silverside, Ellen Ewring (wife of John Ewring), and Elizabeth Folkes on 2 September 1557. 1563, p. 1632, 1570, p. 2201, 1576, p. 1899, 1583, p. 2008.

Mainard would often sleep through judgements against prisoners. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

1583 Edition, page 2031
Robert Man

Serving man of Great Cornard, Suffolk [Fines]

Robert Man was charged in London in 1531 for speaking against the pope. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1187; 1576, p. 1015; 1583, p. 1043.

1583 Edition, page 1067[Back to Top]
Robert Marsh

Robert Marsh was ordered to bring George Marsh to Robert Barton. 1570, p. 1711; 1576, p. 1478; 1583, p. 1561.

1583 Edition, page 1585
Robert Marsham

Constable of Aylsham, Norfolk.

Thomas Hudson's neighbour, John Crouch, went to the constables, Robert Marsham and Robert Lawes, to expose Hudson, and Berry commanded a watch to be made for Hudson. Hudson was eventually caught on 22 April 1558. 1563, p. 1657, 1570, p. 2233, 1576, p. 1928, 1583, p. 2036.

1583 Edition, page 2059
Robert Masse

Servant of Stephen Gardiner

Masse was a deponent in the case of Gardiner. 1563, p. 845.

Robert Maundrel

Farmer. Of Rowde, Wiltshire.

Robert Maundrel was the father of John Maundrel, the martyr. 1570, p. 2073, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1894.

1583 Edition, page 1918
Robert Mekynson

Robert Mekynson escorted George Marsh into the presence of the earl of Derby at Lathom House. 1570, p. 1732; 1576, p. 1479; 1583, p. 1562.

1583 Edition, page 1586[Back to Top]
Robert Miles

(d. 1557)

[Alias Plummer.]

Martyr. Shearman. Of Bury St Edmunds.

Robert Miles was examined by Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and Dr Spenser, his chancellor, as well as Sir Edward Walgrave. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

Articles were brought against him and answers made. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

He was burned at Bury St Edmunds in early August 1557. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1941, 1583, p. 2047.

1583 Edition, page 2071
Robert Milles

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of London.

Articles against Robert Milles were administered by Thomas Darbyshire on 20 June 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2240, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2042.

Milles gave answers to the articles. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

He appeared before Darbyshire on 11 July 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

Sentence was read by Darbyshire in the presence of Edward Hastings and Thomas Cornwallis. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

Milles was burned at Brentford on 14 July 1558. 1563, p. 1669, 1570, p. 2241, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

[Brother of John Milles.]

1583 Edition, page 2066
Robert Morwyn

(1486? - 1558)

President of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. [DNB]

Julins Palmer made a great search for books, including Morwyn's verses touching Winchester's epitaph. 1570, p. 2119, 1576, p. 1842 [recte 1831], 1583, p. 1936.

Morwyn was one of the cardinal's visitors who had a commission to have the bones of Peter Martyr's wife dug up and burned. 1563, pp. 1558 [recte 1570]-1559 [recte 1571].

1583 Edition, page 1960
Robert Mossey

Robert Mossey was examined and deprived by Draycot and Bayne in 1556. 1563, p. 1548, 1570, p. 2141, 1576, p. 1861, 1583, p. 1955.

1583 Edition, page 1979
Robert Necton

Book agent from Norwich; [S. Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989) pp. 115, 122, 196; Fines] of St Katherine's; bought Lutheran books; arrested in 1528; named to More in 1530

Robert Necton, along with many others, abjured. 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1048.

More said that Necton had been betrayed by George Constantine. He was imprisoned in Newgate and was thought to have died in prison. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

1583 Edition, page 1043 | 1583 Edition, page 1072
Robert Norman

of St Giles without Cripplegate; charged in 1541 for not coming to confession [Fines]

Robert Norman was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Robert Nottingham

Of unknown occupation. Of Suffolk.

Two of Robert Nottingham's servants were said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Probably related to the other Ipswich Nottinghams]

1583 Edition, page 2113 | 1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Ockham

b. Newbury; lawyer

Robert Ockham was one of the persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson in 1543. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1183; 1583, p. 1211.

When Filmer, Pearson, Testwood and John Marbeck were put on trial, Robert Ockham stood in for the clerk of the peace and read the indictments. 1570, p. 1395; 1576, p. 1190; 1583, p. 1218.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. He also took a letter from Capon requesting the deliverance of Robert Bennett. He was delayed by Sir Thomas Cardine and then arrested and kept at the lodging of the earl of Bedford. His messages were examined by members of the privy council, who found indictments against them. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

After the secret indictments against members of the privy council were discovered and the king's pardon granted, John London, William Symonds and Robert Ockham were brought before the council and found guilty of perjury. They were sentenced to ride backwards on horses, wearing papers, and to stand in the pillories of Windsor, Reading and Newbury. 1570, p. 1399; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1221.

1583 Edition, page 1235 | 1583 Edition, page 1242 | 1583 Edition, page 1245
Robert Oking

(d. in or before 1559) [ODNB]

Clergyman; DCL 1534; commissary to John Capon, bishop of Bangor, in 1534; archdeacon of Salisbury (1546 - 54)

Robert Oking was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Oking was one of the persecutors of Robert Testwood, Henry Filmer and Anthony Pearson. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

John Marbeck's fourth examination was conducted by John Capon, John Skip, Thomas Goodrich, Robert Oking and William May. 1570, pp. 1393-94; 1576, pp. 1188-89; 1583, pp. 1216-17.

John Marbeck's fifth examination was before Robert Oking and Knight. 1570, p. 1394; 1576, p. 1189; 1583, p. 1217.

1583 Edition, page 1088 | 1583 Edition, page 1235 | 1583 Edition, page 1240[Back to Top]
Robert or William Purcas

(b. 1537?)

Martyr. Fuller. Of Bocking, Essex.

Purcas's deposition was recorded by John Boswell and sent to Bonner. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

Purcas was imprisoned for not taking confession and for denying transubstantiation. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

He was imprisoned in the Mote-hall in Colchester. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

He was examined before Chedsey, John Kingston, John Boswell, the two bailiffs of Colchester (Robert Brown and Robert Mainard) and several others on 23 June 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

He was burned by the town wall in Colchester on 2 August 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

1583 Edition, page 2031
Robert Packington

(d. 1536) [Fines]

Mercer of Cheapside, London. Shot on his way to mass

Robert Singleton was accused of murdering Robert Packington and of stirring up sedition, but he was in fact persecuted because he preached the gospel to the people. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

Robert Packington was shot dead on his way to mass. John Incent, dean of St Paul's, confessed on his deathbed to having hired an Italian to murder Packington. 1563, p. 526; 1570, p. 1291; 1576, p. 1105; 1583, p. 1131.

1583 Edition, page 1154 | 1583 Edition, page 1281
Robert Parfew [or Purfoy]

(d. 1557)

Bishop of St Asaph and then Hereford. (DNB)

Robert Parfew died before Queen Mary. 1570, p. 2301, 1576, p. 1992, 1583, p. 2101.

1583 Edition, page 2125
Robert Partrich

Robert Partrich fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2113[Back to Top]
Robert Phillips

(1499x1502 - in or after 1553) [ODNB]

Musician; gentleman of the royal chapel, Windsor

Robert Phillips was singing in Windsor chapel when Robert Testwood joined in, altering the words and gravely upsetting Phillips. 1570, p. 1388; 1576, p. 1184; 1583, p. 1212.

1583 Edition, page 1236
Robert Platte

of St Benet Fink; presented with his wife in 1541 for reasoning in scripture and refusing to use the rosary [Fines]

Robert Platte was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Robert Poole

of Calais

Robert Poole had obtained from Lord Lisle and others letters of accusation against Thomas Broke. 1563, p. 663; 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1225.

Edmund Peyton, Robert Poole and Thomas Boyse testified against Thomas Broke and Geoffrey Loveday. 1563, p. 664; 1570, p. 1403; 1576, p. 1196; 1583, p. 1226.

1583 Edition, page 1249
Robert Potten

(fl. 1556)

Of Ipswich.

Robert Potten was the husband of Agnes Potten. 1563, p. 1504, 1570, p. 2072, 1576, p. 1787, 1583, p. 1894.

1583 Edition, page 1917
Robert Preston

Servant to Stephen Gardiner; insinuated to Bonner that Germaine Gardiner showed the king's letters to strangers [G. Redworth, In Defence of the Church Catholic (1990) pp. 83-84]

Robert Preston told Edmund Bonner that Germaine Gardiner was repeatedly showing the king's letters to strangers. Bonner in turn told Thomas Cromwell. 1570, p. 1244; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1092.

1583 Edition, page 1116[Back to Top]
Robert Pygot

(d. 1555)

Painter. Martyr. Of Wisbeach.

Pygot was presented at Wisbeach Easter-week assizes, 1555, for not going to church. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Robert Pygot appeared before the judge, Sir Clement Higham, who sent him to Ely prison until his execution. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Pygot and Wolsey were visited in prison by a chaplain of Bishop Goodricke's, Peter Valentius, who was of French birth, and who was almoner there for twenty years prior to his meeting with them. Valentius questioned them on their beliefs. 1570, p. 1893, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

On 9 October 1555 Pygot was called before Fuller, Shaxton, Christopherson and others of the commission, who examined Pygot and Wolsey about their doctrinal beliefs. 1570, pp. 1893-94, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Peacock preached at the execution of Pygot and Wolsey. 1570, pp. 1893-94, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

When Pygot and Wolsey were bound to the stake, Wolsey was spoken to by Richard Collinson, a destitute priest without living or residence, as he was concerned for Wolsey's doctrinal errors. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1622,1583, p. 1715.

Books were burned with Pygot and Wolsey [probably New Testaments], one of which each man held to his breast in the flames. 1563, p. 1284, 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

Witnesses and informers of the death of Pygot and Wolsey were: Robert Scortred, Robert Crane, Edward Story, Robert Kendall, and Richard Best. 1570, p. 1894, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1739
Robert Reid

(d. 1558) [ODNB; cistercians.shef.ac.uk/abbeys/melrose.php; Fasti ecclesiæ scoticanæ]

Scotish renaissance humanist; abbot of Cistercian Kinloss Abbey, Moray (1528 - 53); also held the priory of Beauly in commendam; made Kinross a centre of academic excellence; sent as king's commissioner to Henry VIII and France; bishop of Orkney (1541 - 58)

Robert Reid sat on the assize that condemned Sir John Borthwick for heresy. 1563, p. 575; 1583, p. 1259.

Reid sat on the assize that judged heretics in Perth. 1570, p. 1443; 1576, p. 1230; 1583, p. 1267.

He sat on the assize that deprived and exiled John Kerr. 1570, p. 1448; 1576, p. 1235; 1583, p. 1272.

He sat on the assize that tried and condemned Adam Wallace. 1570, pp. 1448-50; 1576, pp. 1235-36; 1583, pp. 1272-73.

1583 Edition, page 1283 | 1583 Edition, page 1291 | 1583 Edition, page 1296
Robert Reignold

of Benenden, Kent; witness against the Kent martyrs 1511

Robert Riegnold abjured in Kent in 1511. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1241; 1583, p. 1278.

Riegnold was a witness against John Browne and Edward Walker. 1570, p. 1455; 1576, p. 1240; 1583, p. 1276.

1583 Edition, page 1300[Back to Top]
Robert Ridley

(d. 1536?) [ODNB]

Theologian; native of Northumberland; uncle of Nicholas; BA Cambridge 1496; MA 1500; BTh 1516; DTh 1518; studied at Paris; lectured in philosophy at Cambridge; university preacher (1513 - 14); secretary to Cuthbert Tunstall

Robert Ridley was present at the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1166; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

1583 Edition, page 1049
Robert Rolfe

When John Alcock did not remove his cap during the procession, Rolfe arrested him. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Robert Rolfe was an honest constable, and asked Newall why he was so enraged by Alcock. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Newall insisted that Rolfe place Alcock in the stocks. Rolfe said that he would bail him and so not put him in the stocks. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe later met with Alcock and told him that he was sorry for him. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe feared that Newall would be cruel to Alcock because of Newall's dislike of Rolfe. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

Rolfe took Alcock to appear before Newall who committed him to ward. 1563, p. 1563, 1570, p. 2245, 1576, p. 1939, 1583, p. 2046.

1583 Edition, page 2070
Robert Rouse

Kinsman of John Milles.

Robert Rouse witnessed Bonner's request that Milles be returned to Bonner's house after he and his wife had spent the night in lodgings in Fulham. 1570, p. 2243, 1576, p. 1938, 1583, p. 2045.

1583 Edition, page 2069
Robert Rudstone

(d. 1589)

Of Boughton Monchelsea, Kent. JP (1547-89). Brother-in-law of Thomas Wotton.

Foxe states that 'Maister Rudston' was sent into Kent for execution on 27 February 1554 but was later pardoned (1570, p. 1638; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1468; cf. CSP Dom. Mary I, no. 83).

[Although Foxe does not say so, Rudstone was one of Wyatt's rebels and was fined for his role in the rebellion; see Loades, Two Tudor Conspiracies, pp. 74, 77, 81-82, 109, 125].

1583 Edition, page 1492
Robert Salmon

Constable of Brentwood, Essex

Robert Salmon was summoned by Anthony Browne to arrest William Hunter. When Hunter surrendered, Salmon placed him in the stocks and the next day brought him to Browne. 1570, p. 1713; 1576, pp. 1462-63; 1583, pp. 1536-37.

Salmon conveyed Hunter to Bishop Bonner. 1570, p. 1714; 1576, p. 1463; 1583, p. 1537.

He was commanded by Browne to return home after Robert Hunter was released from the stocks. 1570, p. 1716; 1576, p. 1465; 1583, p. 1539.

1583 Edition, page 1560[Back to Top]
Robert Samuel

(d. 1555)

Martyr.

Robert Samuel was a preacher at Barholt, Suffolk. 1563, pp. 1269-71, 1570, pp. 1878-79, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

He was spied on by men of Master Foster, Justice, who later put him in jail. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, pp. 1878-79, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

Samuel was cruelly treated by Dr Hopton, bishop of Norwich, and/or Dr Dunnings, the chancellor [Foxe is not sure]. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

He was kissed by Rose Sherringham (or Nottingham) on his way to the stake. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

Samuel was burned on 31 August 1555. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1879, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1702.

Samuel's letters. 1570, pp. 1880-83, 1576, pp. 1610-13, 1583, pp. 1704-07.

1583 Edition, page 1727 | 1583 Edition, page 1728 | 1583 Edition, page 1732 | 1583 Edition, page 1917
Robert Scolding

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Scolding was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Robert Silkby

(d. 1522) [Thomson]

Lollard leader, shoemaker of Coventry; given penance 1511; burnt as a relapsed heretic

Robert Silkby had fled in 1519 when other Coventry Lollards were arrested, condemned and burnt. Two years later he too was apprehended, condemned as a relapsed heretic and burnt. 1563, pp. 420-21; 1570, p. 1107; 1576, p. 946; 1583, p. 973.

1583 Edition, page 996
Robert Singleton

(d. 1544) [ODNB]

BCnL Cambridge 1521/2; in the service of Thomas Cromwell by 1533; chaplain to Anne Boleyn by 1535; wrote treatises; recanted heresies in 1543; executed for treason

Robert Singleton was accused of murdering Robert Packington and of stirring up sedition, but he was in fact persecuted because he preached the gospel to the people. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1228; 1583, p. 1257.

1583 Edition, page 1281
Robert Smalwood

(by 1509? - 1559)

Beer-brewer; MP (1545, 1553) [Bindoff, Commons ]. Churchwarden of St Margaret's, Westminster (1540 - 1542)

Robert Smalwood deposed that after William Flower's attack on Cheltham in St Margaret's on Easter Sunday 1555, he came to the church and saw Cheltham wounded. Smalwood also testified that the people told him that Flower had attacked the priest while he was ministering the sacrament. 1563, p. 1138; 1570, p. 1748; 1576, p. 1493; 1583, p. 1576.

1583 Edition, page 1600
Robert Smith

(d. 1555)

Painter. Martyr.

Foxe relates Robert Smith's early years, physical appearance and attributes. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith was in service to Sir Thomas Smith. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was transferred to Windsor, where he had a clerkship in the college of £10 per annum 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was influenced by the preaching and reading of M. Turner. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

He was sent to Newgate by John Matthew on 5 November 1555. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith interrogated William Flower, when they were both imprisoned in Newgate, about Flower's assault on a priest. 1563, pp. 1135 [recte 1134]-1144 [recte 1135]; 1570, pp. 1746-47; 1576, pp. 1491-92; 1583, p. 1574.

Smith was examined by Bonner, met with Harwood in the garden, and was re-examined. Smith was then left in the garden until Harwood was examined, after which Smith was examined again. 1563, pp. 1252-55, 1570, pp. 1870-72, 1576, pp. 1601-03, 1583, pp. 1691-92.

Robert Smith was examined by John Dee, Harpsfield and Bonner on eucharistic doctrine. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

Smith was held in a chamber at Bonner's house while Bonner went to condemn John Denley and John Newman. 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1601, 1583, p. 1691.

The lord mayor was brought to hear Smith's examination before Bonner and Harpsfield (probably on same day as the condemnation of Denley). 1563, p. 1252, 1570, p. 1870, 1576, p. 1602, 1583, p. 1691.

Robert Smith was again examined before Bonner, Mordant and Dee. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

Smith told his examiners of the time he was in waiting to a gentleman of Norfolk, who was persuaded by a priest to give away many of his goods and to give to Master Gresham and another man a great sum of money. The gentleman managed to recoup some of the money, to the sum of £200 - £300, from Gresham and the other man to whom he had given money. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

Smith told his examiners that he knew of the death of Richard Hunne, who had red-hot needles thrust up his nose and was then hanged. Smith accused his examiners of then telling the people that Hunne had hanged himself. He then followed this with the tale of a priest who had his flesh ripped away with a pair of pincers until he died, when the people were told that the rats had eaten him. He accused Bonner and the others of trying to kill Christ. 1563, p. 1255, 1570, p. 1872, 1576, p. 1603, 1583, p. 1692.

During the last examination of Smith, his articles were read before the mayor and the sheriffs. 1563, pp. 12585-9, 1570, pp. 1874-75, 1576, pp. 1604-05, 1583, pp. 1694-95.

Bonner told the mayor that Tankerfield was 'Master speaker' and that Smith was 'Master Countroller'. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Gresham denied the story about the gentleman of Norfolk. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Mordant claimed to be present during Smith's tale of the Norfolk gentleman. Bonner said he was, but Smith insisted to the mayor that he was not. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Tankerfield professed to Gresham that his beliefs and Smith's were not heresies. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Woodruff joined in with Bonner's calls for Smith to be taken away, and Bonner said that Smith should do his preaching at the stake. 1563, p. 1259, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1605, 1583, p. 1694.

Smith told Bonner that he should not make up tales about Tankerfield. Bonner told Smith that he had offered Tankerfield a chance for instruction but he dismissed it. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

Woodruff echoed Bonner's call for Smith and Tankerfield to be taken away after their condemnation. 1563, p. 1258, 1570, p. 1874, 1576, 1604, 1583, p. 1694.

A letter was sent by the commissioners to Bonner requesting examination of the accused members of the London sacramentaries (including Smith). It was dated 2 July 1555 and signed by Nicholas Hare, William Roper, Richard Rede, and William Cooke. 1563, p. 1250, 1570, p. 1868, 1576, p. 1599, 1583, p. 1689.

Smith sent his mother-in-law some nutmeg and his daughter some comfets. 1563, pp. 1266-67, 1570, p. 1876, 1576, p. 1607, 1583, p. 1701.

Smith's letters and verses: 1563, pp. 1261-67, 1570, pp. 1876-77, 1576, pp. 1606-07 [most of the verses are omitted in 1570 and 1576], 1583, pp. 1695-1702.

1583 Edition, page 1598 | 1583 Edition, page 1713 | 1583 Edition, page 1715 | 1583 Edition, page 1726
Robert Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; he, his brother, mother and 2 sisters were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Robert Smith, his mother, brother and sisters, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Robert Smitton

of St Michael's in Wood Street; one of 6 charged in 1541 as sacramentaries [Fines]

Robert Smitton was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1377; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Robert Southam

(d. 1558)

Martyr. Of unknown occupation. Of London

Robert Southam was apprehended in Islington and appeared before Bonner on 14 June 1558. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

Articles against him were administered and answers given. 1563, pp. 1559-61, 1570, pp. 2235-36, 1576, p. 2235, 1583, p. 2037.

He was condemned by Bonner. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

He was burned at Smithfield on 27 June 1558. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2039.

1583 Edition, page 2061[Back to Top]
Robert Sterop

Customer to Queen Mary. Of Ipswich.

Robert Sterop was described as a maintainer against a complaint made against several parishioners in Ipswich by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2090.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Steward

(d. 1557)

Dean of Ely (1541 - 1557)

Robert Steward condemned Robert Pygot and William Wolsey on 9 October 1555. 1570, pp. 1893-94, 1576, p. 1621,1583, p. 1715.

1583 Edition, page 1739
Robert Stewart

(1522/3 - 1586) [ODNB]

Earl of Lennox and earl of March; bishop-elect of Caithness in 1541 - he was too young to be a priest; he was never consecrated but kept the revenues for life

Along with the archbishop of St Andrews and bishop of Aberdeen, Robert Stewart opposed the directing of the Lord's Prayer to saints. 1570, p. 1451; 1576, p. 1238; 1583, p. 1274.

Stewart sat on the assize that tried and condemned Walter Mylne. 1570, p. 1452; 1576, p. 1238; 1583, p. 1275.

1583 Edition, page 1298 | 1583 Edition, page 1299
Robert Streater

(d. 1556)

Martyr. Of Hythe.

Robert Streater was examined by Nicholas Harpsfield and Thornden on 3 August. 1563, p. 1273.

Articles were brought against him and he gave answers 1563, p. 1273. Referred to in 1570, p. 1884, 1576, p. 1614, 1583, p. 1708.

In 1563 he was burned 6 August 1556 (p. 1273), but in 1570, p. 1184, 1576, p. 1614, 1583, p. 1708, he was burned c. 6 September [1556] at Canterbury.

1583 Edition, page 1732[Back to Top]
Robert Sylke

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Sylke's son was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

1583 Edition, page 2114
Robert Tailor

Described by Foxe as the deputy chancellor of Chichester {but not found in Fasti).

Robert Tailor accused and examined several prisoners in Chichester. 1563, p. 1634, 1570, p. 2220, 1576, p. 1815, 1583, p. 2023.

1583 Edition, page 2048
Robert Testwood

(c. 1490 - 1543) [ODNB]

Musician of London, Warwick, Boston, Ipswich and Windsor; boy chorister of the Chapel Royal of Henry VII; choir trainer; lay clerk at St George's Chapel 1533; damaged an image of the virgin; mocked relics; held prohibited books; condemned and burnt

William Tate, in response to a request by the musicians at Windsor, agreed to let Robert Testwood apply for a vacant position. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

At dinner at Windsor, Master Ely complained of laymen who meddled with the scriptures and was challenged by Robert Testwood. When Testwood supported the king's supremacy over the church, Ely called him a heretic, refused to have anything more to do with him and reported him to the dean's deputy. A few days later, the act of supremacy was passed and the dean returned, attacking papal supremacy. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Testwood spoke against an image of the Virgin and broke off the nose. As there was strong feeling against him, he kept to his house. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

Testwood mocked the ceremonies of Relic Sunday. He repeatedly removed a poem in praise of the Virgin posted on the choir door. Complaints were made by the canons and dean, but no action resulted. 1570, pp. 1387-88; 1576, p. 1184; 1583, p. 1212.

Robert Phillips was singing in Windsor chapel when Robert Testwood joined in, altering the words and gravely upsetting Phillips. 1570, p. 1388; 1576, p. 1184; 1583, p. 1212.

The duke of Norfolk presided over St George's feast at Windsor. The dean and canons complained of Testwood, and the duke reprimanded him but took no further action. 1570, p. 1388; 1576, p. 1184; 1583, p. 1212.

After John London had been in Windsor a while, he learned of the views of Robert Testwood and was shown by William Symonds the broken nose of the image of the Virgin. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1213.

Ward and Thomas Vachell were appointed commissioners to search for books at Windsor. Robert Bennett, Henry Filmer, John Marbeck and Robert Testwood were found to be holding books contrary to the Six Articles. Bennett, Filmer and Marbeck were sent to prison, but Testwood remained under the charge of the bailiffs of the town as he was suffering acutely from gout. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Henry Filmer, Anthony Pearson and John Marbeck were taken to Windsor and put into prison there. Robert Testwood was brought out of his house on crutches and put with them. 1570, p. 1395; 1576, p. 1190; 1583, p. 1218.

Filmer, Pearson, Marbeck and Testwood were put on trial at Windsor and all were found guilty by the jury. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1219.

Filmer, Pearson and Testwood were burnt together at the same stake. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1192; 1583, p. 1220.

1583 Edition, page 1234
Robert Topley

Augustinian canon of Stoke by Clare, Suffolk [Fines]

Robert Topley was charged in London in 1532 because he had left off his habit and married in 1522; he had been caught, abjured and returned to his monastery, but escaped. 1570, p. 1189; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1046.

1583 Edition, page 1070
Robert Tunnes

Public notary

The copy of the bull of Leo X condemning Martin Luther was presented to Richard Bayfield at his condemnation in 1531. It was sealed with Cardinal Wolsey's seal and signed by Robert Tunnes. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

1583 Edition, page 1047[Back to Top]
Robert Tynley

Of unknown occupation. Of Maidstone in Kent.

Robert Tynley was persecuted during Mary's reign. 1563, p. 1673, 1570, p. 2253, 1576, p. 1946, 1583, p. 2053.

He talked about prayer books and religion with his mother. 1563, p. 1673, 1570, p. 2253, 1576, p. 1946, 1583, p. 2053.

[Son of the martyr Katherine Knight, alias Tynley.]

1583 Edition, page 2077
Robert Wakefield

(d. 1537/8) [ODNB]

Hebraist; BA Cambridge 1515; MA Louvain 1518; lectured at Louvain, Paris and Tuebingen in Hebrew, elementary Arabic and Aramaic; first salaried lecturer in Hebrew at Cambridge 1523; friend of John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, but opposed him over the king's divorce; regius prælector of Hebrew at Oxford 1529

As Richard Pace began to recover from his madness, he studied Hebrew with Robert Wakefield. 1570, p. 1125; 1576, p. 963; 1583, p. 990.

1583 Edition, page 1014
Robert Ward

Shoemaker of St Andrew's in Holborn; troubled in 1541; died in the Counter in Bread Street [Fines]

Robert Ward was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1204.

Robert Ward was detected by three residents of Isleworth for holding opinions against the sacrament of the altar. He died in the Counter. 1563, p. 419.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Robert Wardall

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Robert Wardall's wife Agnes was said by Philip Williams, John Steward and Matthew Butler not to have taken the sacrament. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

Wardall had a stumped foot. He was forced into becoming a sailor because of persecution. 1570, p. 2124, 1576, p. 1846, 1583, p. 1940.

He fled Ipswich for fear of persecution.1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Son of Agnes Wardall the elder. Husband of Ages Wardall.]

1583 Edition, page 1964 | 1583 Edition, page 2114[Back to Top]
Robert Warnington

Bishop Bonner's commissary

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. 1563, p. 716; 1570, p. 1514; 1576, p. 1283; 1583, p. 1325.

1583 Edition, page 1349
Robert Warton (Perfey)

(d. 1557) [ODNB]

Cluniac monk, prior of Bermondsey 1525; BTh Cambridge 1525; bishop of St Asaph (1536 - 54); bishop of Hereford (1554 - 57)

Robert Warton was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088
Robert Welsh

of St Thomas the Apostle; presented in 1541 with 12 others for showing little reverence at mass

Robert Welsh was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1378; 1576, p. 1175; 1583, p. 1204.

1583 Edition, page 1228
Robert West

Priest of St Andrew Undershaft, London [Fines]

Robert West was accused of praising Martin Luther and questioning the authority of the church doctors. He abjured and was given penance in 1529. 1563, p. 419; 1570, pp. 1119, 1184; 1576, pp. 957, 1013; 1583, pp. 984, 1041.

1583 Edition, page 1008 | 1583 Edition, page 1065[Back to Top]
Robert Wigge

of London; John Barret's apprentice in Goldsmiths' Company; in trouble 1528 [Brigden, London, pp. 97-8; Fines]

Robert Wigge, along with many others, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1191; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1048.

1583 Edition, page 1072
Robert Willanton

Chaplain to Edmund Bonner, bishop of London. Deprived under Elizabeth. [DNB sub 'Edmund Bonner']

Robert Willanton witnessed the degradation of John Rogers and John Hooper on 4 February 1555. 1563, p. 1058; 1570, p. 1681; 1576, p. 1435; 1583, p. 1508.

Willanton witnessed Bishop Bonner's burning Thomas Tomkins' hand with a candle. 1570, p. 1710; 1576, p. 1460; 1583, p. 1534.

In February 1555 Willerton, a chaplain to Bishop Bonner, went to speak with John Bradford in prison. They discussed the doctors and scripture and agreed each to write down his own arguments about transubstantiation. Willerton sent his few sparse answers to Bradford the next morning and went to see him in the afternoon. They discussed whether or not the scriptures should be in the vernacular. Bradford gave Willerton his answers on transubstantiation and told Willerton to form his answers as reasons. 1563, pp. 1199-1200. Willerton was with Creswell, Harding, Harpsfield and others. 1570, p. 1790, 1576, p. 1528, 1583, p. 1612.

[Foxe also refers to him as 'Willerton' or 'Wyllerton'.]

1583 Edition, page 1532 | 1583 Edition, page 1558 | 1583 Edition, page 1636 | 1583 Edition, page 1815[Back to Top]
Robert Williams

(d. 1558)

Smith. Of London.

Robert Williams was whipped in Bonner's orchard. 1563, p. 1692, 1570, p. 2264, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2061.

He died shortly after his whipping by Bonner. 1563, p. 1692, 1570, p. 2264, 1576, p. 1955, 1583, p. 2061.

1583 Edition, page 2086
Robert Willys

Member of Islington conventicle. Of London.

Robert Willys was arrested with 26 others as a member of an illegal conventicle. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

1583 Edition, page 2061 | 1583 Edition, page 2068
Robert Wingfield

(c. 1513 - c. 1561) [ODNB]

of Ipswich; historian; son and heir of Sir Humphrey Wingfield; prominent among those at Ipswich trying to persuade Roger Clarke to recant in 1546

Robert Wingfield visited John Kirby and Roger Clarke in prison to urge them to repent. 1570, p. 1410; 1576, p. 1202; 1583, p. 1232.

1583 Edition, page 1256
Robert Winter

'Master Winter' was placed in the Tower on 11 February 1554 (1570, p. 1637; 1576, p. 1397; 1583, p. 1467).

'Maister Winter' was brought to the Guildhall on 28 April 1554, but because of lack of time he was not arraigned (1570, p. 1639; 1576, p. 1399; 1583, p. 1469).

His name is given as Robert Winter in J. G. Nichols, ed., The Chronicle of Queen Jane and of two years of Queen Mary, (Cambridge, 1850) Camden Society Original series 48, pp. 63, 75, and 76.

[NB: His release is recorded in The Chronicle of Queen Jane, p. 76].

1583 Edition, page 1491 | 1583 Edition, page 1493
Robert Wisdom

Priest; curate of All Saints, Oxford 1537; curate of St Margaret Lothbury; curate of Stisted, Essex; arrested in 1541, submitted [Fines]

Robert Wisdom was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1177; 1583, p. 1205.

1583 Edition, page 1229
Robert Wright

(d. 1549) Yorkshire rebel

Robert Wright was one of the rebel leaders executed at York in 1549. 1570, p. 1501; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

1583 Edition, page 1333
Robert Yould [also Youle or Yowle]

Low bailiff of Worcester (1546); high bailiff (1548, 1552, 1559).

John Davis was removed to the Peephole prison where the low bailiff, Robert Youle, bound his legs with heavy bolts. 1570, p. 2277, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2073.

[Characterised by John Davis as a 'joly Catholik' (J. G. Nicholls, Narratives, p. 66)]

1583 Edition, page 2097
Robert [?] Gray

One Gray was present at the burning of John Hullier. 1570, p. 2196, 1576, p. 1895, 1583, p. 2004.

[Very probably Robert Gray: BA (1546 - 1547), MA (1549), BD (1557). Fellow of Pembroke (1547). Perhaps Fellow of Trinity (1555). Vicar of Barrington, Cambs. (1557). (Venn )]

1583 Edition, page 2028[Back to Top]
Robin Caly

Persecutor of protestants.

Richard Gibson was sent for by a promoter called Robin Caly. 1563, p. 1640, 1570, p. 2224, 1576, p. 1920, 1583, p. 2026.

Caly acted impiously and cruelly towards Gibson as he transferred him from prison. 1563, p. 1641, 1570, p. 2224, 1576, p. 1920, 1583, p. 2026.

Bonner sent Robin Caly (Robin Papist) to bring Alexander Wimshurst before him. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

Robin Caly apprehended Alexander Wimshurst. 1570, p. 2276, 1576, p. 1965, 1583, p. 2072.

[Also known as Robin Papist.]

1583 Edition, page 2051 | 1583 Edition, page 2096 | 1583 Edition, page 2167
Robinson

Scribe. Of Rochester.

William Wood was examined by Chedsey, Kenall and Robinson on 19 October 1554 in St Nicholas' church, Rochester. 1570, p. 2281, 1576, pp. 1969-70, 1583, p. 2077.

1583 Edition, page 2101
Rogationus and Seagrius

C3 Christians imprisoned

Seagrius and Rogationus were sent a letter of comfort by Cyprian of Carthage. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 67; 1583, p. 66.

1583 Edition, page 89[Back to Top]
Roger

Roger's role as deliverer of Bradford's letter to his mother was acknowledged in Bradford's first farewell letter to his mother. 1570, pp. 1838-39, 1576, pp. 1573-74, 1583, pp. 1656-57.

1583 Edition, page 1680
Roger Acton

Twenty-eight other prisoners were condemned for heresy around the same time as Roger Acton. 1563, p. 1730 [incorrectly numbered 1703], 1583, p. 2144.

1583 Edition, page 2149
Roger Appleton

(by 1520 - 1558)

JP Essex and Kent (1554 - 1558); MP (1558). Of Dartford, Kent and South Benfleet, Essex. [Bindoff]

Roger Appleton was one of the commissioners who examined Thomas Wattes on 26 April 1555. He sent him to Bishop Bonner on 27 April to be tried for heresy. 1563, pp. 1162-63 and 1165-66; 1570, pp. 1769-70; 1576, p. 1511; 1583, pp. 1594-95

In a letter to Bishop Bonner, John Kingston said that Roger Appleton was one of the commissioners who confiscated the lands and goods of 22 accused heretics. 1563, p. 1564 [recte 1576].

Lord Russell received a letter from John Bradford. 1570, p. 1816, 1576, p. 1552, 1583, p. 1634.

On 29 August 1557 an indenture was made between several lords and justices and John Kingston concerning the delivery of 22 prisoners from Colchester. Appleton was one of the persecutors named in the indenture. 1563, p. 1565, 1570, p. 2157, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly marked as 1971].

[Married Agnes, daughter of Walter Clerk of Hadleigh, Suffolk (1 July 1545). (Bindoff)]

[He is described by Bindoff as 'a zealous Catholic'. He appointed Edmund Tyrell to be supervisor of his will (Bindoff, Commons)].

1583 Edition, page 1618 | 1583 Edition, page 1995
Roger Barrett

One of the priests associated with the Western Rising in 1549

Roger Barrett was one of the priests said to have been the chief inspirers of the rebellion and who were later executed. 1570, p. 1496; 1576, p. 1268; 1583, p. 1305.

He was captured and executed with other rebel leaders in 1549. 1570, p. 1499; 1576, p. 1271; 1583, p. 1308.

1583 Edition, page 1329[Back to Top]
Roger Bernard

(d. 1556)

Labourer. Bachelor. Of Framsden, Suffolk. Martyr. [Fines]

Roger Bernard was examined and condemned. 1563, p. 1528, 1570, p. 2098, 1576, p. 1810, 1583, p. 1917.

He was burned at Bury St Edmunds on 30 June 1556. 1563, p. 1528, 1570, p2098, 1576, p. 1810, 1583, p. 1917.

[Significat dated 2 May 1556: 'a right scolar of John Fortune'. C/85/141/26.]

1583 Edition, page 1941
Roger Beswicke

Husband of John Bradford's sister Margaret [Christopher Haigh, 'The Reformation in Lancashire to 1558'(University of Manchester PhD, 1969), p. 539]

George Beswicke spoke to Bradford as the martyr was being taken to Smithfield. He was hit on the head by Woodcock, one the sheriffs of London. 1563, p. 1175, 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

He is referred to as Bradford's brother-in-law. 1570, p. 1782, 1576, p. 1522, 1583, p. 1605.

[In 1563, Foxe calls him 'George' rather than 'Roger'. Foxe also refers to him by the variant 'Beastwick' and 'Bestwick'.]

1583 Edition, page 1629
Roger Brown

(fl. 1485)

Of Coventry.

Roger Brown was accused of heresy. 1563, p. 1739.

Roger Butcher

of St Nicholas Shambles; one of 4 presented in 1541 for nonattendance on holy days

Roger Butcher was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Roger Clarke

(d. 1546) [Fines]

of Mendlesham, Suffolk; apprehended May 1546 with John Kirby; burnt at Bury St Edmunds in November

John Kirby and Roger Clarke were arrested at Ipswich and brought before Thomas Wentworth and other commissioners. There they declared their view that communion was a remembrance only and denied transubstantiation. They were subjected to persuasion and threats, but refused to recant. They were sentenced to be burnt. Roger Clarke was burnt at Bury. 1563, pp. 654-55; 1570, pp. 1410-11; 1576, pp. 1202-03; 1583, pp. 1232-33.

1583 Edition, page 1255[Back to Top]
Roger Coo

(d. 1555)

Martyr. Shearman and 'aged father' of Melford, Suffolk.

Roger Coo was examined by the bishop of Norwich, 12 August, 1555. 1563, pp. 1272-73, 1570, pp. 1883-84, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

He was burned at Yexforde in Suffolk. 1563, p. 1273, 1570, p. 1884, 1576, p. 1613, 1583, p. 1707.

Foxe calls him Thomas Coo in 1563, pp. 1272-73.

1583 Edition, page 1731
Roger Davy

of Trinity the less parish, London; charged in 1541 with speaking against the worshipping of saints [Fines]

Roger Davy was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1203.

1583 Edition, page 1227
Roger Gostlow

Parson of Lexden.

In a letter to Bonner, Kingston said that Gostlow had been examined by Justice Brown1563, p. 1564, 1570, p. 2156, 1576, p. 1864, 1583, p. 1975 [incorrectly numbered 1971].

1583 Edition, page 1996
Roger Grasbroke

Roger Grasbroke was examined in Essex and later submitted. 1570, p. 2089, 1576, p. 1802, 1583, p. 1909.

1583 Edition, page 1933
Roger Hackman

North Stoke, Oxfordshire [Fines]; accused in 1525 of disavowing good works

Roger Hackman was accused for words he spoke at a church ale in North Stoke. 1570, p. 1118; 1576, p. 957; 1583, p. 984.

1583 Edition, page 1008[Back to Top]
Roger Hall

Brother of Alice Benden. Of Kent.

Edward Benden told Thornden that his wife was being manipulated by her brother, Roger Hall, who gave her money, comforted her, and persuaded her not to attend mass. 1570, p. 2168, 1576, p. 1872, 1583, p. 1981.

[Brother-in-law of Edward Benden.]

1583 Edition, page 2005
Roger Holland

(d. 1558)

Merchant tailor. Martyr. Of Lancashire, then London.

Roger Holland was apprentice to Master Kempton at the Black Boy in Watling Street. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

Foxe recounts his early activities. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

Holland was assisted in his early protestantism by a maid called Elizabeth who advised him on what he should do. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

He went to Lancashire to visit his father and told many of his friends there of the heresy of papistry. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

He returned to London and married Elizabeth. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

They had a child whom Master Rose baptised into the protestant faith. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

Holland removed to the country but his goods and wife were seized by Bonner's men. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2040.

Holland was apprehended in Islington and appeared before Bonner on 14 June 1558. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

His first examination was by Chedsey and both Harpsfields. 1570, p. 2239, 1576, pp. 1932-33, 1583, p. 2040.

His second examination was before Chedsey and Bonner. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1933-34, 1583, pp. 2040-41.

The last examination of Holland was before the lord Strange, Sir Thomas Jarret, Master Eagleston, Bonner, and others. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1934-35, 1583, pp. 2041-44.

During the examination his accusers said that Dr Standish had told them that Holland was the son of a catholic gentleman. 1570, p. 2239, 1576, pp. 1932-33, 1583, p. 2040.

Master Eagleston, a near kinsman of Holland and also from Lancashire, supported Holland at his examination. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1933-34, 1583, pp. 2040-41.

Bonner told Master Eagleston that he hoped Holland might turn into a good catholic. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1933-34, 1583, pp. 2040-41.

Bonner told Holland that he was as mad as Joan Boucher. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1933-34, 1583, pp. 2040-41.

Holland and Pond continued to exhort their doctrine to others in prison, to strengthen them in difficult times. 1570, pp. 2239-40, 1576, pp. 1933-34, 1583, pp. 2040-41.

Articles against him were administered and his answers given. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1932, 1583, p. 2066.

Holland was burned at Smithfield on 27 June 1558. 1570, p. 2237, 1576, p. 1935, 1583, p. 2039.

1583 Edition, page 2061
Roger Hurd

Verger of Winchester Cathedral

Hurd was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 839-40.

Roger Hutchinson

(d. 1555) [ODNB]

Religious writer; of St John's College, Cambridge; MA 1544; took part in a disputation in 1547 arguing against the mass; disputed with Joan Bocher in 1550; eventually married, became an evangelical

Roger Hutchinson was one of the accusers of Thomas Dobbe at St John's. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

1583 Edition, page 1321
Roger Laurence

Of unknown occupation. Of Ipswich.

Roger Laurence fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Alias Sparrow.]

1583 Edition, page 2113[Back to Top]
Roger Lupton

(d. 1539/40?) [Venn]

Provost of Eton.

Sir John Baker believed Bland to be Scottish, but Bland told him he was English, from Sedbar and brought up by Dr Lupton, the provost of Eton.1563, p. 1223, 1570, p. 1847, 1576, p. 1581, 1583, p. 1668.

1583 Edition, page 1692
Roger Matthew

A servant of Justice Drayner. Of Kent.

Justice Drayner of Kent disliked Gregory Dods and sent Roger Matthew to spy on him. 1563, p. 1730, 1576, p. 2002, 1583, p. 2113.

1583 Edition, page 2135
Roger Newman

(fl. 1555 - 1566)

Roger Newman was forced to flee Canterbury for fear of persecution. 1563, p. 1679.

[A letter written to Foxe in 1566 stated that Roger Newman went into exile during Mary's reign for conscience's sake. The letter also desribes Newton challenging the curate of Maidstone in 1566 because the curate had denounced some martyrs burned at Maidstone in Mary's reign as unorthodox. (See Thomas S. Freeman, Historical Journal (1994)).]

[Joyce Hales had written to Careless from Calais in the spring or summer of 1556 in which letter she mentioned that she had been shown a letter Careless had written to 'Newman'. (BL, Add.Ms.19400, fo.78v).]

[An 'N' was one of thirteen freewillers Bradford addressed in a letter dated 14 February 1555, urging them to accept predestinarian teachings. (BL, Add.Ms.19400, fo.33r).]

[Brother of John Newman, the martyr.]

Roger of Howden (Hoveden)

(d. 1201/2) [ODNB]

Chronicler; parson of Howden c. 1174; member of the household of Henry II

Wrote a chronicle covering the years from 732 to 1201, and Gesta Henrici II covering 1169 - 1192

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 175, 1301; 1576, pp. 132, 1113; 1583, pp. 131, 1039.

1583 Edition, page 154 | 1583 Edition, page 1163[Back to Top]
Roger of Wendover [Matthæus]

(d. 1236) [ODNB]

English chronicler; monk at St Albans; main contributor to Flores Historiarum [erroneously attributed to Matthew of Westminster]

He is mentioned by Foxe (as Matthæus): 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

1583 Edition, page 80
Roger Sandy

Of Islington conventicle. Of London.

Roger Sandy was arrested with 26 others for praying in the fields in Islington. 1563, p. 1659, 1570, p. 2235, 1576, p. 1930, 1583, p. 2037.

1583 Edition, page 2061
Roger Sergeant

Tailor. Born in Buckinghamshire. Of London.

William Ellerby went with Roger Sergeant to a meeting of godly brethren in London. 1563, p. 1652, 1570, p. 2230, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2033.

Margery Mearing went to Roger Sergeant's house and asked if Judas was at home. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2228, 1576, p. 1924, 1583, p. 2031.

John Rough was betrayed by Roger Sergeant, a tailor. 1563, p. 1646, 1570, p. 2226, 1576, p. 1921, 1583, p. 2028 [incorrectly numbered as 2034].

Roger Sergeant gave information against Cuthbert Symson. 1563, p. 1652 [incorrectly numbered as 1632], 1570, p. 2230, 1576, p. 1926, 1583, p. 2033.

1583 Edition, page 2053
Roger Tanner

of Essex. He was troubled in Henry VIII's reign [Fines]

Roger Tanner, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

1583 Edition, page 1071
Roger Tonge

(d. 1549)

D.D., chaplain to Edward VI [Venn]

Roger Tonge recommended Edmund Farley to Robert Ferrar. 1563, p. 1088; 1583, p. 1546.

1583 Edition, page 1570[Back to Top]
Roger Waste

Brother of Joan Waste and son of William Waste.

After the death of their parents, Joan Waste lived with her brother, Roger Waste, during the reign of Edward VI. Roger took her to church to hear sermons in the vernacular. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1858, 1583, p. 1952.

Roger Waste held his sister's hand on the way to the Windmill-pit, where she was burned in August 1556. 1570, p. 2039, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

1583 Edition, page 1976
Roger Whaplode

(d. before 1560) [Fines; W. R. Cooper, 'Richard Hunne', Reformation (1996) pp. 221-51, www.tyndale.org/Reformation/1/cooper.html]

Merchant tailor of London; son-in-law to Richard Hunne; in 1531 he joined a riot against a levy on clergy; prevented a priest in St Mary Axe from reading visitation articles in 1554 [LMA DL/C/614, fo. 30r]

Roger Whaplode asked William Goodridge to read a bill from the pulpit of St Mary Spital seeking anyone willing to repair the conduit on Fleet Street, the repair to be paid for out of Richard Hunne's estate. The bill also included a prayer for the soul of Hunne. As Hunne had been a condemned heretic, Whaplode was brought before the bishop in 1529 and Goodridge had to publicly revoke his prayer for Hunne at Paul's Cross. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1184; 1576, p. 1013; 1583, p. 1041.

1583 Edition, page 1065
Roger Wrinstone

A servant to Robert Barton

Roger Wrinstone led a search to apprehend George Marsh. 1570, p. 1731; 1576, p. 1478; 1583, p. 1561.

1583 Edition, page 1585
Roger Wydouse

Roger Wydouse was a witness to William Glover's godly death. 1570, p. 1892, 1576, p. 1620, 1583, p. 1714.

1583 Edition, page 1739
Rogers

(d. c. 1546) [Fines]

Persecuted by the bishop of Norwich and the duke of Norfolk; burnt at Smithfield

William Rugg incited the duke of Norfolk against Rogers. Rogers was burnt, and within half a year the duke's position deteriorated, although it later recovered. 1563, p. 627; 1570, p. 1422; 1576, p. 1212; 1583, p. 1241.

1583 Edition, page 1265[Back to Top]
Rogerson

The day after the bones of Peter Martyr's wife had been reburied, Rogerson preached a sermon against those who had dug up her bones and buried them in a dunghill. 1563, p. 1559, 1570, p. 2153, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1968.

1583 Edition, page 1992
Roland Blackadder

Subdean of Glasgow (1498x1500 - 1541); commissary of Glasgow 1519 [Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae]

Roland Blackadder was one of those who passed the sentence definitive on Patrick Hamilton in 1528. 1570, p. 1109; 1576, p. 948; 1583, p. 975.

1583 Edition, page 999
Roland Messenger

MA Oxford 1505 [Emden; Fasti] vicar of High Wycombe 1512; canon of Lincoln, prebendary of St Botolph (1513 - 46); one of the chief agents of Wolsey for building Cardinal College 1526

Roland Messenger was put in charge of the convicted Thomas Harding and his burning. Messenger preached a sermon in Chesham church, forcing Harding to stand before him throughout. He and his fellow clergy rejoiced after the burning. 1570, pp. 1117-18; 1576, pp. 956-57; 1583, p. 983.

1583 Edition, page 1007
Roland Swynborne

(1516 - 1557)

Master of Clare (1539 - 1549 and 1553 - 1557). Prebend of Durham (1529). (Venn)

Roland Swynborne replaced John Madew as Master of Clare; Madew was discharged by John Young on 26 October 1553 because he was married (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Swynborne was one of those who put the common seal of the University of Cambridge to the condemnation of Bucer and Phagius. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

On 14 January 1557, after the examination of the provost and vice-provost of Cambridge, Bacon invited Perne, Dr Young, Dr Harvey, Swynborne, and Maptide to come to dinner. He was examined before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

He was so alarmed by Ormaneto's discussion with Brassey on 22 January 1557 that he found himself unable to speak. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1961.

1583 Edition, page 1984
Roland Swynborne

(d. 1557)

Master of Clare College, Cambridge (1539 - 1549; 1553 - 1557) [Venn]

Roland Swynborne replaced John Madew as Master of Clare; Madew was discharged by John Young on 26 October 1553 because he was married (1563, p. 1000; 1570, p. 1636; 1576, p. 1396; and 1583, p. 1466).

Swynborne was one of those who put the common seal of the University of Cambridge to the condemnation of Bucer and Phagius. 1563, pp. 1537 [recte 1549]-1558 [recte 1570]

On 14 January 1557, after the examination of the provost and vice-provost of Cambridge, Bacon invited Perne, Dr Young, Dr Harvey, Swynborne, and Maptide to come to dinner. He was examined before Scot, Watson and Christopherson on 14 January 1557. 1563, p. 1541, 1570, p. 2146, 1576, p. 1866, 1583, p. 1960.

He was so alarmed by Ormaneto's discussion with Brassey on 22 January 1557 that he found himself unable to speak. 1563, p. 1545, 1570, p. 2147, 1576, p. 1867, 1583, p. 1961.

1583 Edition, page 1490[Back to Top]
Roman

Priest; chaplain to the Kentish queen Eanflæd; attended the Synod of Whitby in 664 on the side of Bishop Agilbert, who supported the Roman position on calculating the date of Easter

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 165; 1576, p. 124; 1583, p. 123.

1583 Edition, page 146
Romanus (St Romanus)

(d. c. 303/04) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Deacon of Caesarea; martyred at Antioch

When Galerius invaded Antioch, Romanus warned his fellow Christians of the arrival of the soldiers and urged them to stand firm. Asclepiades had him tortured and strangled. 1570, pp. 124-26; 1576, pp. 90-91; 1583, pp. 89-90.

1583 Edition, page 112
Rose Allin

(1537? - 1557)

Martyr. Daughter of William and Alice Mount. Spinster. Of Great Bentley, Essex.

Allin was one of 18 men and 4 women indicted for heresy in Colchester.1563, p. 1566 [recte 1578].

Rose Allin was charged with heresy and delivered to John Kingston and then to Bonner. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Alice Mount asked that her daughter, Rose, fetch a drink for her. On her way back through the house Edmund Tyrrel stopped Rose and advised her to encourage her parents to become better catholics. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Rose Allin challenged Edmund Tyrrel over his accusations of heresy. for which he took her candle from her and burned the back of her hand until the sinews cracked. 1563, p. 1707, 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

William Candler, of Great Bentley, witnessed the burning of Rose Allin's hand. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Rose Allin told Mistress Bright of Romford and her maid, Ann Starkey, of the burning of her hand. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Mistress Bright tended Rose Allin's wound in her house in Romford, when she and other prisoners stayed in Bright's house on the way to London. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Edmund Tyrrel called Rose Allin a whore on several occasions while he burned her hand and became frustrated when she would not cry. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Rose Allin told Edmund Tyrrel that the Lord might give him repentance, if it were his will. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Edmund Tyrrel found John Thurston and Margaret, his wife, at William Mount's house and so sent them to prison at Colchester castle, along with the Mounts and their daughter. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

In prison, Rose Allin told a friend that she could have smashed Edmund Tyrrel in the face with a pot she held in her free hand whilst he was burning her other hand, but she was glad she had not. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

Rose Allin told friends in prison that the longer her hand was burned, the less painful it became. 1570, p. 2200, 1576, p. 1898, 1583, p. 2007.

She was burned in the castle yard in Colchester 2 August 1557. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

[No relation to Edmund Allin or his wife.]

1583 Edition, page 1996 | 1583 Edition, page 2029 | 1583 Edition, page 2043[Back to Top]
Rose Bate

from near Colchester; wife of Robert [Fines]

Rose Bate made supplications to the king on behalf of her husband. She was directed to get a letter from Mr Selyard to the bishop on her husband's behalf, but the letter asked for information against him. 1563, p. 495; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1027.

Rose Bate, along with others, abjured. 1563, p. 419.

1583 Edition, page 1051
Rose Fletcher

Of Colchester.

Rose Fletcher was arrested for heresy but submitted when examined. 1563, p. 1610, 1570, p. 2202, 1576, p. 1900, 1583, p. 2008.

Rose Nattingham

Rose Nattingham kissed Robert Samuel on his way to the stake. The authorities looked for her to burn her too but she avoided them. She told Foxe of the incident herself. 1563, p. 1271, 1570, p. 1879, 1576, p. 1575, 1583, p. 1703.

[Foxe also refers to her as 'Pattingham'.]

1583 Edition, page 1728
Rose Nottingham

Daughter of William Nottingham the elder. Of Suffolk.

Robert Samuel was kissed by Rose Sherringham (or Nottingham) on his way to the stake. 1563, p. 1270, 1570, p. 1898, 1576, p. 1609, 1583, p. 1703.

Rose Nottingham fled Ipswich for fear of persecution. 1576, p. 1981, 1583, p. 2089.

[Probably related to the other Ipswich Nottinghams]

1583 Edition, page 2113
Rosewell

Bartlett Green wrote a letter to Master Goring, Master Farneham, Master Fletewood, Master Rosewel, Master Bell, Master Hussey, Master Calthorp, Master Boyer and others. 1563, pp. 1465-66, 1570, pp. 2027-28, 1576, p. 1747, 1583, p. 1855.

1583 Edition, page 1879[Back to Top]
Rought

Of Winston.

Rought was persecuted by John Tyrrel and forced to flee Winston. 1563, p. 1522, 1570, p. 2093, 1576, p. 1806, 1583, p. 1912.

1583 Edition, page 1936
Rowen

Legendary daughter of Hengist C5 married to Vortigern [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

Recorded in C9 Welsh Historia Brittonum and by Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain, chapter 12

Rowen ordered the poisoning of Vortimer and urged Vortigern to send for Hengist. She then helped trick Vortigern into leading his men into a trap. 1570, pp. 148, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 114; 1583, pp. 109, 113.

1583 Edition, page 131 | 1583 Edition, page 136
Rowland Harrison

Rowland Harrison was called as a witness against Joan Warren. 1563, p. 1453.

Rowland Hill

(1492? - 1561)

Mercer. Sheriff of Middlesex (1541). Lord Mayor of London (1549 - 1550). Member of the Council of the Marches of Wales (1551) (DNB)

Hill was a member of a commission set up by Philip and Mary to seek out heretics. 1563, pp. 1561 [recte 1573]-1563 [recte 1575].

In Ridley's friendly farewell he comments on the mayoral role of Sir Rowland Hill and Sir George Barnes. 1570, pp. 1939-43, 1576, pp. 1622-28, 1583, pp. 1770-76.

Rowland Hill was one of the recipients of the proclamation from Philip and Mary authorising the persecution of protestants. 1563, p. 1561, 1570, p. 2155, 1576, p. 1862, 1583, p. 1974[incorrectly numbered 1970].

[Despite his appointment to the commission against heretics in 1557, Rowland Hill was regarded as a staunch protestant. (DNB)]

1583 Edition, page 1994[Back to Top]
Rowland Lee

(c. 1487 - 1543) [ODNB]

Administrator; BCL Cambridge 1510; DCnL 1520; chancellor to Geoffrey Blythe (1526 - 28); active in the king's divorce; bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (1534 - 43)

Lee was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1583 Edition, page 1088
Rowland Meyrick

(1505 - 1566)

Canon and chancellor of St David's (1550 - 1554). Bishop of Bangor (1560 - 1566). [DNB]

Rowland Meyrick was one of Robert Ferrar's chief opponents in the diocese of St David's. 1563, p. 1084; 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470; 1583, p. 1544.

According to Foxe, Meyrick was motivated to act against Ferrar because the bishop proceeded against him for despoiling the church, for simony and for laxity. 1570, p. 1722; 1576, p. 1470.

He was accused by Ferrar of despoiling church property. His opposition to Ferrar is detailed. 1563, pp. 1088-93; 1583, pp. 1546-50.

Meyrick's involvement in the dispute over the benefice of Penbryn is mentioned. 1563, p. 1094; 1583, p. 1551.

Ferrar denounced him in letters to Lord Chancellor Thomas Goodrich. 1563, pp. 1096-98; 1570, pp. 1725-26; 1576, pp. 1472-1480 [recte 1484]; 1583, pp. 1552-53 and 1555-56. [NB: When Foxe printed these letters in the 1563 edition, he gave only Meyrick's initials. In subsequent editions, he gave Meyrick's name].

1583 Edition, page 1568
Rowland Philipps

(1467/8 - 1538?) [ODNB]

MA Oxford by 1491; tutor to the Benedictine monks of Gloucester College; senior proctor of the university (1496 - 97); BTh 1508; DTh 1522; licentiate of medicine by 1525

Vicar of Croydon 1497; canon of St Paul's; celebrated public preacher; chaplain to Henry VIII by 1510; warden of Merton College, Oxford (1521 - 25)

Rowland Philipps preached that the king would not lose the title of defender of the faith for all of London and twenty miles around. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Rowland Philipps was present at the examination of John Tewkesbury. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1166; 1576, p. 997; 1583, p. 1025.

1583 Edition, page 1013 | 1583 Edition, page 1049
Rowland Taylor

(d. 1555)

Rector of Hadleigh. Martyr [DNB]

Foxe gives an account of Rowland Taylor's life and early career. 1563, p. 1065; 1570, p. 1693; 1576, pp. 1445-6; 1583, pp. 1518-19.

[A letter from William Turner to John Foxe describing, among other things, Rowland's early life and background survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 416, fols. 132r-133r). Foxe never printed this information].

Foxe recounts Taylor's conflict with catholics in Hadleigh; Taylor was summoned before Stephen Gardiner and refused to flee. 1563, pp. 1065-68; 1570, pp. 1693-95; 1576, pp. 1446-47; 1583, pp. 1519-20. [Note that this contradicts the next entry, in which the privy council orders Taylor's arrest in Hadleigh].

The privy council ordered Sir Henry Doyle and one Foster to arrest Rowland Taylor and one Henry Alskewe (or Askew in Foxe) and bring them before the council on 26 March 1554 (1583, p. 1428, from APC 1554 - 1556, p. 3).

Taylor's first examination by Stephen Gardiner and deprivation of his livings: 1563, pp. 1068-71; 1570, pp. 1695-96; 1576, pp. 1447-48; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

On 6 May 1554, John Hooper wrote to Taylor and his fellow prisoners, Robert Ferrar, John Bradford and John Philpot,discussing a proposed disputation in Cambridge in which they would represent the protestants. 1570, p. 1687; 1576, p. 1440; 1583, p. 1513.

Taylor was one of the signatories to a letter of 8 May 1554 protesting against a proposed disputation at Cambridge. The letter is printed in 1563, pp. 1001-3; 1570, pp. 1639-41; 1576, pp. 1399-1400; 1583, pp. 1469-71).

He wrote an account of his examination by Stephen Gardiner on 22 January 1555 and also wrote defending clerical marriage. 1563, pp. 1071-74; 1570, pp. 1696-99; 1576, pp. 1448-50; 1583, pp. 1520-21.

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

Laurence Saunders sent a letter to Taylor and his fellow prisoners John Bradford, Robert Ferrar and John Philpot. 1570, pp. 1671-72; 1576, p. 1428; 1583, pp. 1501-02.

In a letter William Tyms wrote to 'God's faithful servants', he named his fellow prisoners in the King's Bench as Robert Ferrar, Rowland Taylor, John Philpot, John Bradford and five other Sussex men. 1570, p. 2082, 1576, p. 1795, 1583, p. 1902.

Taylor was brought before Gardiner at St Mary Overy's on 29 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

[An eyewitness account of Rowland Taylor's fourth and final examination, which Foxe did not print, is found in Foxe's papers: BL, Harley MS 590, fols. 64r-68r].

He was excommunicated and sentenced to death by Stephen Gardiner on 30 January 1555 (1570, p. 1655; 1576, p. 1412; 1583, p. 1483).

His condemnation, degradation, last supper with his family and his will: 1563, pp. 1074-76; 1570, pp. 1699-1700; 1576, pp. 1450-51; 1583, pp. 1523-25.

His journey to Hadleigh and execution there on 9 February 1555: 1563, pp. 1076-80; 1570, pp. 1700-03; 1576, pp. 1451-54; 1583, pp. 1525-27.

He wrote a letter to Margaret Taylor. 1570, pp. 1703-05; 1576, pp. 1454-56; 1583, pp. 1527-29.

Rowland Taylor wrote a letter to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer when they were prisoners in Oxford. 1570, p. 2072; 1576, p. 1787; 1583, p. 1893.

Stephen Knight and William Pygot claimed that they were taught their religious beliefs by Rowland Taylor. 1563, p. 1112; 1570, p. 1720; 1576, p. 1469; 1583, p. 1543.

Rowland Taylor's martyrdom is referred to in Bradford's letter to the university town of Cambridge. 1563, pp. 1178-80, 1570, pp. 1808-09., 1576, p. 1545, 1583, p. 1627.

In a letter to Laurence Saunders, John Bradford stated that he should refer to the answers of both Taylor and Philpot when considering the plight of Saunder's friend, mentioned in Saunder's letter to Bradford. 1563, p. 1195, 1570, p. 1815, 1576, p. 1550-51, 1583, p. 1633.

Rowland Taylor was mentioned in a letter by John Bradford to Lady Fane. 1570, p. 1824, 1576, p. 1560, 1583, p. 1642.

Ridley, in a letter to John Bradford and others, expressed his joy at hearing the report of Dr Taylor and his godly confession. 1563, pp. 1894-95, 1570, pp. 1896-97, 1576, pp. 1624, 1583, pp. 1724-25.

Grindal wrote to Ridley from his exile in Frankfort, to which letter Ridley replied. Ridley mentioned that he knew that Ferrar, Hooper, Rogers, Taylor of Hadleigh, Saunders and Tomkins, a weaver, had all been martyred, as had Cardmaker the day before he wrote this letter. 1570, pp. 1901-02, 1576, pp. 1628-30, 1583, pp. 1729-30.

Taylor made Robert Drakes a deacon, at the commandment of Thomas Cranmer. 1563, p. 1505, 1570, p. 2074, 1576, p. 1788, 1583, p. 1895.

Joan Waste said that the doctrine taught and sermons given by Dr Taylor were believed by Taylor and others to be a true doctrine. 1570, p. 2138, 1576, p. 1859, 1583, p. 1952.

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Royden

Bradford wrote a letter to his dear friends and brethren R. and E. and their wives and families. 1570, pp. 1824-25, 1576, pp. 1560-61, 1583, pp. 1642-43.

[He is referred to simply as 'R' in the letter.]

1583 Edition, page 1666
Ruardus Anchusianus

Ruardus Anchusianus was a theologian at the University of Louvain who, according to Foxe, shut his colleague Jacob Latomus away in a close chamber after his railings during a public lecture in Louvain (1570, p. 2306, 1576, p. 1996, 1583, p. 2106).

1583 Edition, page 2130[Back to Top]
Rudolf Gwalther

(1519 - 1586) [ODNB]

born Zurich. Theologian; in 1537 visited England with Nicholas Partridge; later provided refuge for English protestants in Zurich

Rudolf Gwalther saw the buildings Cardinal Wolsey had begun for Cardinal College. 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

1583 Edition, page 1056
Rudolf of Fulda

(d. 862) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Benedictine scholar; studied under Rabanus Maurus; chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 91; 1576, p. 63; 1583, p. 63.

1583 Edition, page 86
Rudolf von Rheinfeld (Rudolf of Swabia)

(d. 1080)

Duke of Swabia (1057 - 79); German anti-king (1077 - 80); kidnapped Matilda, Henry IV's half-sister, in 1057; married her 1059; elected anti-king when Henry was excommunicated

Gregory VII wrote to Rudolf of Swabia and other dukes, princes and bishops informing them that they were to shun simonical and married clergy. This included clergy appointed by the emperor. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1153.

1583 Edition, page 1177
Ruffinus

Said to be Christian priest at Rome at the time of Commodus

Ruffinus baptised Julius, a senator, and his family. 1570, p. 77; 1576, p. 52; 1583, p. 52.

1583 Edition, page 75
Rufinianus

Sent in 601 with others to reinforce Augustine's mission; probably 3rd abbot of St Peter's and St Paul's, Canterbury [ODNB sub Gregorian Mission]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 158; 1576, p. 119; 1583, p. 118.

1583 Edition, page 141[Back to Top]
Rufinus of Aquileia

(345 - 411) [Alan D. Booth, 'The Chronology of Jerome's Early Years', Phoenix, Vol. 35, No. 3 (Autumn, 1981) pp. 237-259]

Presbyter of Aquileia, Italy; author and translator from Greek to Latin; contended with St Jerome

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 11, 62; 1576, p. 8, 38; 1583, p. 8, 38.

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