So the emperour comming to Venis, at saincte Markes church, where the bishop was, there to take his absolution was bid to knele downe at the Popes feete.
MarginaliaThe Pope treading the Emperours neck.The proude Pope setting his foote vpon theemperours necke, saide the verse of the Psalme: Super aspidem et basiliscum ambulabis et cōcultabis Leonem et draconem: That is. Thou shalt walke vpon the adder, & the Basiliske: And shalt treade downe the Lion and the dragon. &c. To whom the Emperour answering againe, saide: Non tibi, sed petro: that is: not to thee, but to Peter. The Pope again, Et mihi, et Petro. Bothe to me and to Peter. The Emperour fearing to to geue any occasion of further quareling, helde his peace: and so was absoyled, and peace made betwene them. The conditions wherof were these. First that he shuld receaue Alexander, for the trew Pope. Secondly that he shulde restore agayn to the church of Rome, all that he had taken awaye before. And thus Themperour obtayning his sōne: departed.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaVolateran taken with a contradiction.Here as I note in diuerse writers, a great diuersitie and varietie, touching the order of this matter: of whom some say, that the Emperoure campte in Palestina before he came to Veneys, some say, it was after: so I meruell to se in Volaterane such a fauorer of the pope such a cōtradiction, who in his. xxii. book sayeth that Otto theEmperours sonne was taken, in this conflicte, which was the cause of the peace betwene his father & the Pope: And in his xxiii. boke againe sayeth, that the Emperour him selfe was take prisoner in the same battaile: And so afterwarde peace concluded, toke his iorney, to Asia and Palestina. MarginaliaConcilium Latronense The clergy the vowe of bound to chastitie.This Pope in the tyme of his papacy (which continued xxi. yeares (kept sondry councels, both at Turo, and at Lateren: wher he confirmed þe wicked procedings of Heldebrand, and other his predecessors, as to bynd all orders of the clergy, to the vow of chastitie, whiche neither were greately to be reprehended, MarginaliaPapistes erre not so muche in promising chastitie, as in defining chastitie.yf they wolde define chastitie a ryght: For who so liueth not a chaste lyfe, is no fit person to be a minister. But herein lieth the error ful of much blindnes, & also perill: to thinke þt matrimonie immaculat (as. S Paul calleth it) is not chastitie: but only a single lyfe, they esteeme to be a chast lyfe.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaVualdenses seu Paupeies de lugduno. Leonisie. Insabbatati. An. 1170.In the time of this Alexander sprong vp the doctrine, and name of them, whiche were then called, Pauperes de lugduno, whiche of one Vualdus, a cheief Senator in Liōs, were named Vualdenses: Item leonistæ: et Insabbatati:: Aboute the yeare of our Lorde M.Clx, or (as Laziardus writeth) An. MClxx.[Back to Top]
Marginaliaiiii. Archepillers of proud papistrie.Not long before this time (as is exprest aboue) rose vp Gratianus master of decrees, & Petrus Lombardus, master of the sentence, bothe archepillers of all papistrie. After whō folowed also two as euel, or wors then they, Franciscus and Dominicus, menteining blind hipocrisie, no les, thē thother mainteined proud prelacy. As theise labored one way, by superstitiō, and worldly aduaunsement to corrupt the sinceritie of religiō: So it pleased Christ the contrary way, laboring against these, to raise vp the forsaid Valdensiās, against the pride, and hipocrisie of the other.
The Waldensians were of crucial interest and importance to Protestant historians and martyrologists. They traced their origins to Peter Waldo, a wealthy twelfth-century merchant of Lyons, who gave away his money and became a wandering preacher. He began to attract followers, but the ecclesiastical authorities were suspicious and denied Peter and his followers permission to preach. In 1215, the Waldensians were condemned as heretics and this, in turn, radicalized the movement. Much of what is known about the Waldensians comes from reports by Reinerius Saccho (d. 1259), a former Cathar who became an informant for the Inquisition. The Waldensians were almost completely suppressed in southern France but they spread into the Piedmont, northern Italy, southern Germany and Bohemia. Aeneas Sylvius, in his influential history of the Hussites, linked them to the Waldensians. The importance of the Waldensians to Protestant historians stems from their relative antiquity and geographical diffusion. This made them a useful counter-example to Catholic challenges that there were no Protestants before Luther. They were even more useful because, in contrast to the Albigensians, their beliefs were compatible with those of the Reformers. Interestingly, Catholic writers like Reinerius and Aeneas were particularly useful to the Protestants because both groups of writers, albeit for different reasons, wished to emphasize the continuity between the early Waldensians and late medieval heresies.[Back to Top]
Foxe's account of the Waldensians first appeared in his 1563 edition and itwas reprinted without change in subsequent editions. It began with a history of Peter Waldo and the genesis of the Waldensians, which was taken from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strasbourg, 1562), pp. 705-9. The list of Waldensian articles is taken directly from Flacius, although one article, stating that only baptism and communion were sacraments was - accidently? - dropped by Foxe. (Cf. Flacius, Catalogus testium, pp. 709-10). The letter from the Waldensians to the king of Hungary is excerpted from Ortwin Gratius, Fasciculus rerum expetendarum ac fugiendarum (Cologne, 1535), fos. 87v-88r, 92r and 92v-93r. All of the remaining material in the account of the Waldensians is reproduced accurately from scattered items in Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis, pp. 711-12, 721-7, 757-6 [recte 759], and 760-1. It is worth noting that the one item in this account, the letter to the king of Hungary, not from Flacius, argued against any real or corporal presence of Christ in the sacramental bread. This belief was offensive enough to Flacius not to print (Flacius was well aware of Gratius's book) and important enough to Foxe for him toinsert it into the other material Flacius had provided on the Waldensians.[Back to Top]
Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield