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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Agnes (Joan) Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with her 3 sons and 2 daughters in 1525 [Fines]

Agnes Smith, her sons and daughters, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Agnes Harvie

of Birbrook, Essex. She, her parents and brother were troubled in the 1530s [Fines]

Agnes Harvie, her parents and brother, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Alice Johnson (alias Collins)

Wife of Richard; charged in 1528, imprisoned 1534 at Fulham, starved; sent to Colchester, escaped [Fines]

Richard Johnson and Alice his wife had been persecuted for a long time in Salisbury. They were charged before John Stokesley in 1531 with possessing Wyclif's Wicket. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

Richard Johnson and his wife were imprisoned at Fulham with Edward Freese. 1563, p. 494; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1026.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Alice Shipwright

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; wife of Gilbert [Fines]

Alice Shipwright, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Alice Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with her mother, sister and 3 brothers in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Alice Smith, her mother, brothers and sister, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Anthony and Robert Beckwith

Husbandmen of Braintree, Essex. They and their parents were denounced in 1528 [Fines]

Anthony and Robert Beckwith and their parents, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Bateman

of Birbrook, Essex. He and his wife were troubled c. 1532-33 [Fines]

Bateman and his wife, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Christmas

Old man of Bocking, Essex. He and his wife charged in 1528 [Fines]

Christmas and his wife, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Christopher Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his mother, 3 brothers and sister were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Christopher Choote, his mother, brothers and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Christopher Ravins (Raven)

Tailor of Witham, Essex; persecuted in London 1511 and abjured; continued sheltering heretics; denounced in 1528 [Fines]

Christopher Ravins sheltered those in trouble with the authorities for a long time. He, his wife and servants abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Christopher Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with his 2 brothers, mother and 2 sisters in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Christopher Smith, his mother, brothers and sisters, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Dyonise Ravins (Raven)

of Witham, Essex. Wife of Christopher; persecuted in London 1511 with her husband; denounced in 1528 [Fines]

Dionyse Ravins and her husband abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Edmund Tybal

Husbandman of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; denounced by John Tybal, abjured in 1528 [Fines]

Edmund Tybal and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Elizabeth Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; she, her sister, mother and 2 brothers were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Elizabeth Smith, her mother, brothers and sister, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
George Preston

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

George Preston and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Harvie

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his wife, daughter and son were troubled in the 1530s [Fines]

Harvie, his wife and children, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Browne

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; charged in 1532 [Fines]

Henry Browne, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry Butcher

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

Henry Butcher and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Isabel Choote

Widow of Birbrook, Essex. She, her 4 sons, daughter and maid were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Isabel Choote, her sons and daughter, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Isabel Holden

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; wife of Nicholas; charged in 1528 [Fines]

Isabel Holden, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Joan (Agnes) Smith

Widow of Bower Hall, Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; she, her 2 sons and 2 daughters were accused in 1525 [Fines]

Joan Smith, her sons and daughters, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Joan Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with her mother, sister and 3 brothers in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Joan Smith, her mother, brothers and sister, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Chapman

of Boxtead. Brother of Richard; servant of Christopher Ravins of Witham, Essex; called to answer in 1528 [Fines]

John Chapman, his brother and his master abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his mother, 3 brothers and sister were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

John Choote, his mother, brothers and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Craneford

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; charged in 1528 [Fines]

John Craneford, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Gyrlyng

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his wife and daughter were charged in 1528 [Fines]

John Gyrlyng, his wife and daughter, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Hempstead

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; natural son of Thomas Hempstead's wife; denounced by his stepfather in 1528 [Fines]

John Hempstead and his parents, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Pykas

of Colchester. He and his wife were troubled in 1528 [Fines]

John Pykas and his wife, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Smith

of Birbrook, Essex.

John Smith and his wife, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with his 2 brothers, mother and 2 sisters in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

John Smith, his mother, brothers and sisters, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Tybal

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

Confessed in 1528; often attended meetings of a sect in Colchester; imprisoned several times

John Tybal came to John Chapman's house as he was prevented by injunction from going to his own. Through the betrayal of Wythers and William Holt, Tybal, John Chapman and Andrew Hewett were arrested. Tybal and Chapman were both bound with ropes and taken to the bishop's house, but kept apart. Tybal was released from prison, but had to sell his estate because of the injunction. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1179; 1576, p. 1008; 1583, p. 1036.

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John Tybal, his mother, his wife and his two sons and two daughters abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
John Wiggen

of Steeple Bumpstead or Witham or friar of Stoke by Clare. Possibly wandering ex-friar [Fines]

John Wiggen, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Johnson

of Essex.

Johnson, his wife and son, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Katherine

of Birbrook, Essex

Katherine and her mistress and family, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Margaret Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. She, her mother and 4 brothers were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Margaret Choote, her mother and brothers, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Margaret Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; she, her sister, mother and 2 brothers were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Margaret Smith, her mother, brothers and sister, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Mrs Matthew

of Essex.

Mrs Matthew, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Chapman

of Boxtead. Brother of John; servant of Christopher Ravins of Witham, Essex; called to answer in 1528 [Fines]

Richard Chapman, his brother and his master abjured. He was made to go bareheaded, barefoot and barelegged and kneel upon the cold church steps during the time of the service. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Johnson (alias Collins)

Weaver originally of Salisbury diocese, but moved to Colchester; charged in 1528, imprisoned 1534 at Fulham, starved; sent to Colchester, escaped [Fines]

Richard Johnson and Alice his wife had been persecuted for a long time in Salisbury. They were charged before John Stokesley in 1531 with possessing Wyclif's Wicket. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

Richard Johnson and his wife were imprisoned at Fulham with Edward Freese. 1563, p. 494; 1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999; 1583, p. 1026.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; he, his brother, mother and 2 sisters were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Richard Smith, his mother, brother and sisters, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Catlin

Spoonmaker of Birbrook, Essex. He was troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Robert Catlin, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his mother, 3 brothers and sister were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

Robert Choote, his mother, brothers and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Faire

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; charged in 1528 [Fines]

Robert Faire, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Hempstead

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex [Fines]

Robert Hempstead and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Smith

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; he, his brother, mother and 2 sisters were accused in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Robert Smith, his mother, brother and sisters, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Roger Tanner

of Essex. He was troubled in Henry VIII's reign [Fines]

Roger Tanner, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Bate

Thomas Bate was one of those sheltered by Christopher Ravins. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Butcher

of Birbrook, Essex. He and wife were detected c. 1533 [Fines]

Thomas Butcher and his wife, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Choote

of Birbrook, Essex [Fines]

Thomas Choote and his wife, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Harvie

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his parents and sister were troubled in the 1530s [Fines]

Thomas Harvie, his parents and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Hempstead

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; brother to Robert [Fines]

Thomas Hempstead and his wife and son, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Hills

Tailor, servant to Christopher Raven of Witham, Essex. Called to answer in 1528 [Fines]

Thomas Hills, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Smith

of Ridgewell, Essex; accused with his 2 brothers, mother and 2 sisters in 1525 [Fines sub Agnes Smith]

Thomas Smith, his mother, brothers and sisters, with many from Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Beckwith

Husbandman of Braintree, Essex. He, his wife and 2 sons were denounced by Hacker in 1528 [Fines]

William Beckwith, his wife and sons, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Butcher

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex. His great-grandfather was burned for heresy. Abjured 1528 [Fines]

William Butcher and his wife, with many from Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1563, p. 419; 1570, pp. 1190, 1191; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, pp. 1047, 1048.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Chatwals

of Steeple Bumpstead, Essex; charged in 1532 [Fines]

William Chatwals, along with many others of Steeple Bumpstead, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Choote

of Birbrook, Essex. He, his mother, 3 brothers and sister were troubled c. 1533 [Fines]

William Choote, his mother, brothers and sister, along with others of Birbrook, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Gardiner

Augustinian canon of Stoke by Clare, Suffolk [Fines]

William Gardiner had been converted by Richard Foxe. He was brought before Cuthbert Tunstall in 1528 and recanted. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1018; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Pykas

of Colchester. Brother of John; arrested 1528 [Fines]

William Pykas, along with others of Essex, abjured. 1570, p. 1190; 1576, p. 1019; 1583, p. 1047.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Birdbrook [Birbroke]

Essex

OS grid ref: TL 705 415

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Boxted

[Bocksted; Boxsted]

Essex

OS grid ref: TM 005 315

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Florence (Firenze)

[Florentia]

Tuscany, Italy

Coordinates: 43° 46' 13" N, 11° 15' 17" EE

Historic republic; cathedral city

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Salisbury
NGR: SU 145 300

A city having separate civil jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Underditch, county of Wilts. 82 miles south-west by west from London. The city comprises the parishes of St Edmund, St Martin and St Thomas, in the jurisdiction of the Sub-Dean, and in the diocese of Salisbury, of which the city is the seat. The cathedral precinct is extra-parochial, and under the jurisdiction of the Dean and Chapter. The living of St Edmund is a rectory not in charge; St Martin is a discharged rectory; and St Thomas a perpetual curacy.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Person and Place Index  *  Close
Santiago de Compostela

[S. Iames]

A Coruña, Spain

Coordinates: 42° 52' 57" N, 8° 32' 28" W

Major pilgrimage site

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Steeple Bumpstead

Essex

OS grid ref: TL 685 415

1071 [1047]

K. Hen. 8. A table of certayne persons abiured with theyr Articles.
The recantation of Thomas Topley.
Marginalia

The recantatiō of Tho. Topley, Fryer.

Colloquia Erasmi.

Ex Regist. Lond.

ALl Christen men beware of consentyng to Eras-
mus fables, for by consentyng to them, they haue
caused me to shrinke in my fayth that I promised to
God at my Christenyng by my witnesses. First, as
touchyng these Fables, I read in Colloquium by the
instruction of Syr Richard Foxe 
Commentary  *  Close

Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r).

, of certaine Pil-
grimes, which (as the booke doth say) made a vowe
to go to S. Iames, & as they wēt, one of them dyed
& he desired his felowes to salute S. Iames in his
name: and an other dyed homeward, and he desired
that they would salute his wife and his childrē, and
the thyrd dyed at Florence, & his felow sayd he sup-
posed that he was in heauen, and yet he sayd that he
was a great lyer 
Commentary  *  Close

Topley is describing Erasmus's colloquy 'Rash Vows'. See Colloquies, trans. and annotated by Craig R. Thompson, vols., 39-40 of TheCollected Works of Erasmus (Toronto, 1997), I, pp. 36-43.

. Thus I mused of these opinions
so greatly, that my mynde was almost withdrawne
from deuotion to Saintes. Notwithstandyng I cō
sēted that the diuine seruice of them was very good,
and is though I haue not had such sweetnesse in it
as I should haue had, because of such Fables, & also
because of other foolish pastimes, as daūcing, tennes
and such other, which I thinke haue bene great oc-
casions that the goodnes of God hath bene voyde in
me, and vice in strength.
Moreouer, it fortuned thus about halfe a yeare a
goe, that the sayd Syr Richard went forth and desi-
red me to serue his Cure for him, and as I was in
his chāber, I found a certain booke called Wickleffes
Wicket, MarginaliaWickliffes Wicket. whereby I felt in my cōscience a great wa-
ueryng for the tyme that I did read vpon it, and af-
terward also when I remembred it, it wounded my
conscience very sore. Neuerthelesse I consented not
to it, vntill I had heard him preach, and that was v-
pō S. Anthonies day: yet my mynde was still much
troubled with the sayd booke (whiche did make the
Sacrament of Christes body, in forme of bread, but
a remēbraunce of Christes Passion) till I heard Syr
Myles Couerdale 
Commentary  *  Close

Miles Coverdale, the bible translator and future bishop of Exeter.

MarginaliaMyles Couerdale. preach, and then my mynde was
sore withdrawne from that blessed Sacrament, in so
much that I tooke it then but for the remembraunce
of Christes body. Thus haue I wretchedly wrap-
ped my soule with sinne, for because I haue not bene
stedfast in þt holy order that God hath called me vn-
to by Baptisme, neither in þe holy order that God &
S. Augustine hath called me to by my Religion. &c.
Furthermore he sayd and confessed, that in the
Lent last past, as hee was walkyng in the fielde at
Bumstede with Syr Myles Couerdale MarginaliaM. Couerdale. late Frier of
the same order 
Commentary  *  Close

Coverdale had been an Augustinian friar; in fact, he was at the house in Cambridge when Robert Barnes was prior.

, goyng in þe habit of a secular Priest,
which had preached the iiij. Sonday in Lent at Bū
stede, they did cōmon together of Erasmus workes,
and also vpon cōfession: the which Syr Myles sayd
& did hold, that it was sufficient for a man to be con-
trite for his sinnes betwixt God and his conscience,
without confession made to a Priest: which opinion
this respondent thought to bee true and did affirme
and hold the same at that tyme. Also he sayth that at
the sayd Sermon made by the said Syr Myles Co-
uerdale at Bumstede, he heard him preache agaynst
worshyppyng of Images in the Church, saying and
preachyng that men in no wise should honour or
worshyp thē: which likewise he thought to be true,
because he had no learnyng to defend it.
With this Topley I may also ioyne
Wil. Gar-William Gardiner one of the same or-
diner Au-der and house of Clare, who likewise
sten Frierby þe motion of the said Rich. Foxe Cu-
of Clare.rate of Bumstede, & by shewyng hym
certayne Bookes to read was brought
likewise to the lyke learnyng & iudge-
ment, and was for the same abiured by
Cuthbert Bysh. the same yeare. 1528.
This Richard and his wife were
fauourers of Gods word, and had ben
Richardtroubled for the same of lōg time. They
Iohnson ofcame from Salisbury to Bocstede by
Bocstedereason of persecution, where they cōti-
and Alycenued a good space. At lēgth by resort of
his wife. 
Commentary  *  Close

In 1528, Richard Johnson was summoned before the ecclesiatical authorities in Colchester and did not appear (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 30r). Richard and Alice are the 'Johnson and wife' whom Foxe mentions as being imprisoned at Fulham in 1534 (1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999 and 1583, p. 1026). In 1535, Richard Johnson wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining that in the previous year he and his wife had been arrested, tajken to Fulham and held there for months. They were released on Henry VIII's orders, But Stokesley had them sent to St. John's abbey in Colchester, for an informal - and illegal - detention. Johnson and his wife escaped, but they asked Cromwell to intercede with Stokesley so that they did not have to fear being apprehended again (L&P IX, p. 383).

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good men, they began to be suspected, &
specially for a booke of Wickleffes Wic-
1531.ket whiche was in their house, they
were conuented before Stokesly By-
shop of London, and there abiured.

MarginaliaPerilous dayes.So great was the trouble of those times, that it would ouercharge any story to recite the names of all thē, whiche during those bitter dayes before the cōming in of Queene Anne, either were driuen out of the Realme, or were cast out frō their goodes and houses, or brought to open shame by abiuration. Such decrees and Iniunctions then were set forth by the Byshops, such lawes and proclamations were prouided, such watch and narrow searche was vsed, such wayes were taken by force of othe to make one detect an other so subtelly, that vnneth any good mā could or did escape their handes, but either his name was knowen, or els his person was takē. Yet neuerthelesse so mightely the power of Gods Gospell did worke in the hartes of good men, that the nūber of them did nothyng lessen for all this violence or policie of the aduersaries, but rather increased in such sort, as our story almost suffreth not to recite þe particular names of all and singular such as then groned vnder the same Crosse of affliction and persecution of those dayes: as of which number were these. 

Commentary  *  Close

The records that follow for the remainder of this section were generated in 1527 when Geoffrey Wharton, the vicar-general of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London, made a visitation of the diocese. He uncovered a network ofheretics in Colchester and its environs, particularly the viallges of Boxted, Witham and Steeple Bumpstead. Much of this visitation was recorded in a register whosepages - apparently torn out by Foxe or his associates - form a significant portionof BL, Harley MS 421. Some pages of this register that now longer survive, were transcribed by John Strype, when he had custody of Foxe's papers and printed inhis Ecclesiaiastical Memorials.

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[Back to Top] MarginaliaPersons of Būsted abiured.
Arthur.
Geffray Lome 
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These articles are taken from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall's register (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r).

.
Iohn Tibold, his mother, hys
wife, his two sonnes, and
his two daughters. 
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John Tyball was a figure of more significance than this terse mention would indicate, He converted Richard Foxe (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)), and was an avid collector of Lollard and evangelical works (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 35r). He would bear witness, as part of his abjuration, in Colchester and its environs (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 30r-v; Strype, EM, I, 1, p. 131 and I, 2, pp. 50-66)

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Edmond Tibold, and his wife. 
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Edmund Tyball was John's brother and a churchwarden in Richard Foxe's church (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)). He would later abjure and denounce a number of Lollards in Colchester and its environs (Bl, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r-v; Strype, EM I, 1,p. 135 and I, 2, p. 56).

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Henry Butcher, and his wife.
William Butcher, and his wife. 
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Butcher was a plowright of Steeple Bumstead, who abjured on 11 May 1528 in Colchester. Reading of the New Testament in English were held in his house (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r; Strype, EM I, 1, p. 132 and I, 2, pp. 59-60).

George Preston, and his wife.
Ioane Smith, widow. 
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These two Joan Smiths are apparently different people.

Robert Smith, her soone.
Richard Smith, her sonne.
Margaret Smith, her daughter.
Elizabeth Smith, her daughter.
Rob. Hempstede, and his wife. 
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They abjured in Colchester on 11 May 1528. The pair was from Steeple Bumpstead, Essex and Robert claimed that Richard Foxe (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)) had worked to convert him to heresy. Robert was the brother of Thomas Hempstead. See BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r).

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Tho. Hempstede, and his wife. 
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They abjured in Colchester on 11 May 1528. Thomas was one of Richard Foxe's churchwardens (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)). He testified that his wife taught him the Lord's Prayer and Apostle's Creed in English (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r). Thomas was the brother of Robert Hempstead.

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Iohn Hempstede, his sonne.
Robert fayre.
William Chatwals.
Ioane Smith, widow otherwise
called Agnes widow.
Iohn her sonne.
Thomas her sonne.
Christopher her sonne.
Alyce her daughter.
Ioane her daughter.
Iohn Wiggen.
Nicholas Holdens wife.
Alyce Shypwright.
Henry Browne.
Iohn Craneford.

¶ All these were of the Towne of Bumstede, who being detected by Syr Richard Foxe their Curate, and partly by Tibold 

Commentary  *  Close

William was a husbandman of Braintree, Essex. He and his wife were associates of leading Lollards in Essex (Strype, EM, I, I, p. 117 and I, 2, p. 53).

, were brought vp to the Byshop of London, and all put together in one house, to the number of xxxv. to beexamined and abiured by the sayd Byshop.

Moreouer, in other townes about Suffolke and Essex, other also were detected, as in the towne of Byrbroke, these following.

MarginaliaMen & women of Essex & Suffolke troubled for the Gospell.Isabell Choote widow.
Iohn Choote her sonne.
William Choote her sonne.
Christopher Choote her sonne.
Robert Choote her sonne.
Margaret Choote her daughter.
Katherine her mayde.
Thomas Choote, and his wife.
Haruy, and his wife.
Agnes his daughter.
Thomas his sonne.
Bateman, and his wife.
Iohn Smith, and his wife.
Thomas Butcher, and his wife.
Robert Catlyn, a spone maker.
Christmas, and his wife.
William Bechwith, his wife 
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Of St. Nicholas parish, Colchester. He supplied other Lollards with books and owned an extensive collection of Lollard works (Strype, EM I,1, pp. 115, 118-23, 126-9, 132-3 and I, 2, p. 53; BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r).

, and
his two sonnes.
Iohn Pickas, and his wife. 
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See Strype, EM I, I, pp. 124-31 and I, 2, p. 53; also see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r.

William Pickas, his brother. 
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See BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r.

Girling, his wife, & his daugh-
ter.
Mathewes wife.
Iohnson, his wife, and his son.
Thomas Hilles 
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He was a servant to Christopher Ravin of Witham, Essex. Heattended Lollard meetings, bought and sold heretical books, and had extensive ties to Lollards and evangelicals in Steeple Bumpstead (Strype, EM, I, 1, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54; BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r and James Oxley, The Reformation in Essex[Manchester, 1965], pp. 13-14).

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.
Roger Tanner 
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This is a mistake. This was Roger, a tanner of Bowers Gifford, not a man named Roger Tanner. He bought and sold an English New Testament (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r).

.
Christopher Rauen, and his wife 
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Of Witham, Essex. Ravin had already abjured back in 1511. His household was apparently a center of Lollard activity and a number of his servants were also Lollards (Roger, a tanner of Bowers Gifford, bought and sold an English New Testament (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r), the Chapman brothers, servants to Christopher Ravin, also were Lollards: see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r and Strype, EM, I, I, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54). He was apparently survived long enough to relate a story about this visitation to Foxe or one of Foxe's associates (since he seems to be the source for stories about the harsh treatment of his servants).

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.
MarginaliaIohn Chapman.Iohn Chapman, his seruant.
Richard Chapman, his seruant, and
brother to Iohn Chapman. 
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On the Chapman brothers, servants to Christopher Ravin, see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r and Strype, EM, I, I, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54.

Who 
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I.e., Christopher Ravin, who seems to be the source for this story about the harsh treatment of his servant.

remaineth yet aliue, & hath bene of a long time a great harberour
of many good men & women that were in trouble & distresse, & receiued thē
to his house, as Tho. Bate 
Commentary  *  Close

Robert Bate is meant; Foxe's account of Edward Freeze and 'father' Bate is based on material sent to Foxe by an informant; very probably an informant in Colchester (this account contains quite a bit of detail on people from Essex and Colchester). But there is quite a bit of corroboration for Foxe's account. First of all, A. G. Dickens uncovered information on Edward Freese's family. Edward's father Frederick was a Dutch immigrant (the family name was probably Vries or de Vries), who settled in York and made a living as a bookbinder and stationer (A. G. Dickens, Lollards and Protestants in the diocese of York 1509-1558 [Oxford, 1959], p. 30). This Dutch background may explain the pronounced evangelical convictions of Valentine and Edward Freese. Another major piece of corroboration is a letter, almost certainly sent to Thomas Cromwell, which is now in the TNA. Although the signature has been cut off of the letter, the biographical details related in it fit Edward Freese so closely that is virtually certain that he wrote it. The author of the letter, detained in London for religious offences, admits that he had been a monk since the age of 13, but claims that he was 'sold' by his master to the abbot of Jervaulx. The author of the letter declared that he attempted to flee the abbey several times but was recaptured. Finally he fled to Colchester and he got married (TNA SP 1/73, fos. 175r-176r).

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, Simon Smith, the Priests wife 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Simon Smith, the curate of Much Hadham and his wife (Smith was Patmore's curate and Benmore his maidservant. Patmore's activesupport, if not outright instigation, of this marriage was necessary.).

, Roger Tan-
ner, with a nūber mo, which ye may see & reade in our first edition 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's unwillingness to describe the abjurations of Henrician evangelicals (and, earlier in his work, the Lollards) contrasts starkly with his desire to conceal such submissions in the case of the Marian martyrs. This an indication of the extent to which an earlier tolerance of recantations had eroded among Protestants, and also of Foxe's conviction that those born before the full onset of the Reformation had both lesser spiritual knowledge and lesser obligations to God.

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, pa. 419.

Marginalia

Rich. Chapman.

Cruelty shewed for mercy.

¶ Touching this Richard Chapman, this by the way is to be noted, that as he was in his coate and shyrt enioyned bare head, bare foote, and bare legge, to go before the procession, and to kneele vpon the cold steps in the Church all the Sermon time, a little ladde seeing him kneele vpon the cold stone with his bare knees, & hauing pitie on him, came to him, and hauing nothing else to geue him, broughthim his cap to kneele vpon. For the which the boy immediatly was taken into the Vestry, and there vnmercifully beaten for his mercy shewed to the poore penitent.

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Besides these, diuers other were about London, Colchester, and other places also partakers of the same Crosse and affliction for the like cause of the Gospell, in whiche number commeth in these which hereafter follow.

Peter
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