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Agatha (St Agatha)

Virgin and martyr; died at Catania in Sicily, probably in the Decian persecution 250-53 [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Agatha was imprisoned, starved and tortured. 1570, p. 91; 1576, p. 63; 1583, p. 63.

 
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Antoninus (St Antoninus)

(1389 - 1459) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Dominican theologian; historian. Established the convent of San Marco, Florence, in 1436; archbishop of Florence (1446 - 59)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 16, 62, 65, 85, 132, 1329; 1576, p. 13, 38, 41, 59, 96, 1133; 1583, p. 13, 38, 41, 58, 73, 95, 1162, 1172.

 
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Anysia

Supposed martyr of Thessalonica under Maximinus Daia

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Barbara

Legendary early virgin martyr, appearing from C7 [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Barbara was a noblewoman who was tortured and beheaded. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Bartolomeo Platina

(1421 - 1481) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Humanist author; prefect of the Vatican library. In 1468 he was imprisoned on suspicion of heresy and conspiring against the pope's life. He wrote Lives of the Popes under Sixtus IV.

Sabellico and Platina recorded that Constantine IV decreed that bishops of Rome were to be chosen by the clergy and people, not by the emperor. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

He is mentioned by Foxe as a source: 1563, p. 11, 1570, p. 75, 77, 95, 104, 119; 1576, p. 38, 51, 52, 67, 80, 85; 1583, pp. 38, 51, 52, 57, 67, 80, 85.

 
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Basil of Caesarea (the Great) (St Basil)

(c. 330 - 379) [Catholic Encyclopedia; Gams]

Cappadocian father of the church; bishop of Caesarea (370 - 79)

Thomas Arthur and Thomas Bilney, in their examination for heresy, cited Basil the Great as an authority. 1563, p. 465; 1570, p. 1137; 1576, p. 975; 1583, p. 1000.

He is mentioned as a source by Foxe: 1570, pp. 15, 127, 132; 1576, pp. 12, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 12, 91, 95.

 
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Caius (Gaius)

(d. 296) [Kelly]

Pope (283 - 96)

He was said to have been martyred. 1570, p. 106; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 75.

 
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Catherine of Alexandria (St Catherine)

(d. early C4) virgin martyr [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Catherine was supposed to have debated pagan philosophers and converted a military commander and the empress. She was placed on the wheel, then beheaded. 1570, p. 132; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Claudius, Cyrinus and Antonius

Early C4 martyrs with Marcellinus the bishop

They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 129; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

 
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Cyprian of Antioch (St Cyprian of Antioch)

Legendary C4 bishop of Antioch [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Said to have been a pagan conjurer and sorcerer; martyr under Diocletian

Cyprian was a citizen of Antioch and a sorcerer. He converted to Christianity and became a deacon, a priest and finally bishop of Antioch and martyr. 1570, pp. 128-29; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

He was martyred with Justina. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

Foxe distinguishes him from Cyprian of Carthage. 1570, p. 101; 1576, p. 71; 1583, p. 71.

 
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Euclasius

Supposed official in the palace of Maximinus Daia, converted by the virgin martyr Fausta

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Eusebius (St Eusebius)

(d. 310) [Kelly]

Pope (310); banished by Emperor Maxentius; died in Sicily

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
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Fausta

Legendary virgin martyr

Fausta converted the emperor's officials. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Faustina

Supposed wife of Maxentius who visited the martyr Catherine of Alexandria in prison and was converted by her

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 132; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletian

(236/7 - 316) [R. W. Mathisen www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (284 - 305), succeeding Carus's son, Numerian, in the east; controlled the whole empire after the death of Carinus, Carus's younger son, in 285. Introduced tetrarchy; enforced imperial cult; abdicated.

Declined an offer to take the throne in 308; died at Split.

Diocletian came to the throne with the support of the troops. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.

Having accused Aper of killing Numerian, Diocletian killed him with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian commanded that he be worshipped as a god. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

Diocletian introduced the most severe persecution of the Christians. The persecution began with the destruction of churches and books of scripture. 1570, pp. 39, 109-111; 1576, pp. 31, 78-79; 1583, pp. 31, 77-79.

He went on use threats and imprisonment, and eventually he devised a great variety of tortures and methods of execution. 1570, pp. 112-14; 1576, pp. 80-81; 1583, pp. 79-81.

Diocletian abdicated and, having heard of the edict of Constantine and Licinius granting freedom of worship to Christians, died. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 87; 1583, p. 86.

 
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Jacobus Philippus Bergomensis (Jacob Philip of Bergamo)

(1434 - 1520)

Chronicler

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 65, 85, 91, 97, 104, 128, 132; 1576, pp. 38, 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 95.

 
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Juliana (St Juliana)

(d. early C4) [Catholic Encyclopedia] martyr

Bede gives a legendary account of her life and martyrdom

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Julitta

Widow martyr who died under Diocletian

Julitta had abjured her Christian faith, but then refused to worship the Roman gods. She was burnt. 1570, p. 132; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Justina

Virgin; martyr under Diocletian with Cyprian of Antioch

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 129, 133; 1576, pp. 93, 96; 1583, pp. 92, 95.

 
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Lucia (St Lucia)

(d. c. 300) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Virgin martyr; legend of her life appears in Aldhelm and Bede

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Marcellinus (St Marcellinus)

(d. 304) [Kelly]]

Pope (296 - ?304) Rumoured to have sacrificed to the Roman gods in compliance with Diocletian's edict

Having sacrificed to idols, Marcellinus was excommunicated by the Christians. He repented, confessed his fault, proclaimed himself a Christian and died a martyr. 1563, p. 8; 1570, pp. 113, 133; 1576, pp. 81, 96; 1583, pp. 80, 95.

The pseudo-council of Sinuessa was said to have condemned Pope Marcellinus. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 97; 1583, p. 96.

 
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Marcellus I (St Marcellus)

(d. 308) [Kelly]

Leading presbyter; pope (306 - 308)

Exiled by Maxentius and died in exile.

Marcellus confirmed Maurice, Roman soldier and martyr, and his troops in their Christian faith in Rome. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 81; 1583, p. 80.

Marcellus refused to sacrifice to the gods and was exiled. He gathered the Christians in the house of the widow Lucina. Maxentius turned the house into a stable and placed Marcellus in charge of the beasts, whereupon he died of the stench and rough handling. 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 96.

According to Platina, Marcellus died at Rome during the reign of Maximinus Daia. 1570, p. 117; 1576, p. 84; 1583, p. 83.

 
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Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius)

(c. 278 - 312) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]

Son of Maximian; married the daughter of Galerius

Roman emperor (306 - 12); entered into civil war with his father Maximian and with Galerius; died at the battle of Milvian Bridge

Maxentius was set up as emperor by the praetorian guard, but was opposed by his father. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.

He initially feigned favouring the Christians in order to ingratiate himself with the people of Rome. He then instituted persecutions. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 85.

The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. Constantine responded and, having received a vision and taking the cross as his standard, defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, pp. 85-86; 1583, pp. 84-85.

While in retreat, Maxentius fell into the Tiber and, weighted down by his armour, drowned. 1570, pp. 39, 119; 1576, pp. 31, 86; 1583, pp. 31, 85.

 
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Maximinus

Supposed governor under Maximinus Daia, converted by the virgin martyr Fausta

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Maximinus Daia

(c. 270 - 313) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]

Served as Galerius's caesar in the East (305 - 11)

Roman emperor of the East (311 - 13)

Maximinus fought off a revolt by Maxentius. He renewed persecution of the Christians after the publication of the toleration edict of Galerius. 1570, pp. 114, 117; 1576, pp. 82, 84; 1583, pp. 81, 83.

Maximinus issued contradictory edicts urging persecution and toleration of Christians. He eventually, after defeat by Licinius, turned against the priests of the Roman gods. 1570, pp. 121-22; 1576, pp. 87-88; 1583, pp. 86-87.

Maximinus died of an abdominal complaint. 1570, pp. 39, 122; 1576, pp. 31, 88; 1583, pp. 31, 88.

 
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Miltiades (or Melchiades)

(d. 314) [Kelly]

Pope (311 - 314) Presided over the Lateran Synod at Rome in 313

Miltiades received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to set up a synod to examine the cause of Cæcilian of Carthage. 1570, p. 141, 1576, p. 104, 1583, p. 103.

 
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Nero (Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus)

(d. 68) [D. J. Coffta www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (54 - 68); deposed, committed suicide

Nero was lecherous, murderous and cruel. He burned Rome and blamed the Christians, and was forced to commit suicide. 1570, p. 38; 1576, p. 31; 1583, p. 31

The first persecution of the Christians began under Nero. 1570, p. 42-44; 1576, pp. 34-35; 1583, pp. 34-35.

Melito of Sardis, in his Apology, refers to him, along with Domitian, as the worst persecutors of Christians. 1570, p. 75; 1576, p. 51; 1583, p. 51.

 
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Pietro de Natali

(d. 1400 - 1406) [Gams]

Venetian; bishop of Jesolo (1370 - 1400); hagiographer

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 132; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Porphyry

Roman commander supposed to have visited the martyr Catherine of Alexandria in prison and been converted by her

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 132; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

 
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Sixtus II (St Sixtus)

(d.258) [Kelly]

Pope (257 - 58); martyred: beheaded at Rome

Sixtus was martyred with his deacons. 1570, p. 101; 1576, p. 71; 1583, p. 71.

 
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Symeon Metaphrastes

(fl. 2nd half C10) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Byzantine hagiographer

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 56, 127, 132; 1576, pp. 35, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 35, 91, 95.

 
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Tecla

Early virgin martyr

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 133; 1576, p. 96; 1583, p. 95.

118 [95]

beyng desired to pray vnto Christ for the partie, that a litle before with fire frō heauen for hys incōtinency was stricken was restored by their prayer, both vnto hys perfect health & sight. MarginaliaThe young man restored agayne to his health by the prayer of Agnes. But blessed Agnes after that she had climed this her first griefe and step vnto the heauēly pallace, forthwith began to clime an other: for fury ingendring now, þe mortall wrath of her bloudy enemy, wringing his handes crieth out saying, I am vndone: O þu the executioner draw out thy sword, and doe thyne office that þe Emperour hath appoynted thee. And when Agnes saw a sturdy and cruell fellow (to behold) stand behinde her, or approaching neere vnto her with a naked sword in his hand: I am now gladder sayth she, & reioyce, þt such a one as thou, being a stout, fierce, strong and sturdy souldiour art come, then one more feable, weake, & faynt should come, or els any other yong man sweetly enbalmed, and wearing gaye apparell that might destroy me with funerall shame. MarginaliaAgnes desirous of martirdōe This, euen this is he I now cōfesse, þt I do loue. I wil make hast to meet him and will no longer protract my longing desire: I wil willingly receaue into my papes the length of hys sword, and into my brest will draw the force therof euē vnto the hilts: MarginaliaThe prayer of Agnes. That thus I being maryed vnto Christ my spouse, may surmount and escape all the darckenes of this world, that reacheth euen vnto þe skyes. O eternal gouernour, vouchsafe to opē the gates of heauen once shut vp agaynst al the inhabitantes of the earth, and receaue (oh Christ) my soule that seeketh thee. Thus speaking and kneeling vpon her knees, she prayeth vnto Christ aboue in heauen, that her necke might be the redyer for the sword, now hāging ouer the same. MarginaliaAgnes beheaded.The executioner then with his bloudy hand, finished her hope, & at one stroke cutteth off her head, & by such short & swift death doth he preuente her of þe payne therof.

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MarginaliaThe history of Katherine martir. All thinges be not true and probable, that be written of Sainctes liues.I haue oftentimes before complayned that the stories of Sayntes haue bene poudered and sawsed with diuers vntrue additions and fabulous inuentiōs of men, who either of a superstitious deuotion, or of a subtill practise, haue so mingle mangled their stories and liues, that almost nothing remayneth in them simple and vncorrupt, as in the vsuall Portues wont to be read for dayly seruice, is manifest and euident to be seene, wherein, few Legendes there be, able to abide þe touch of history, if they were truely tried. This I write vpon the occasiō specially of good Katherine, whome now I haue in hand. In whom although I nothing doubt, but in her life was great holines, in her knowledge excellency, in her death constancy: yet that all thinges be true that be storyed of her, neyther dare I affirme, neyther am I bound so to thinke: So many strange fictions of her be fained diuersly of diuers writers, wherof some seeme incredible, some also impudent. As where Petrus de Natalibus, MarginaliaPetrus de Natalibus. lib. 10. writing of her conuersion declareth, how that Katherine sleeping before a certaine picture or table of the Crucifixe, Christ with his mother Mary appeared vnto her: And when Mary had offered her to Christ to be his wife, he first refused her for her blackenes. The next tyme, she beyng baptised, Mary appearing againe, offered her to mary with Christ, who then being liked, was espoused to hym and maryed, hauing a golden ring the same tyme put on her finger in her sleep. &c. Bergomensis writeth thus, that because she in þe sight of the people openly resisted the Emperour Maxentius to hys face and rebuked hym for hys crueltie, MarginaliaKatherine resisteth the Emperour openly to hys face. therfore she was commaunded and committed vpon the same to prison, which seemeth hetherto not much to digresse from trueth. It followeth moreouer, that the same night an angell came to her, comforting and exhorting her to be strong and constant vnto the Martyrdome, MarginaliaKatherine committed to prison and comforted by an Aungell. for that she was a mayd accepted in the sight of God, and that the Lord would be with her, for whose honor she did fight, and that he would geue her a mouth and wisedome, which her enemies should not withstand: with many other thinges mo, which I here omit. As this also I omit concerning þe 50. Philosophers, whome she in disputation conuicted, and conuerted vnto our religion, and dyed martyrs for þe same. Item, of the conuerting of Porphyrius kinsmā to Maxentius and Faustina the Emperours wife. At length (saith the story) after she proued the racke, and the foure sharpe cutting wheeles, hauing at last her head cut off with the sword, so she finished her martyrdome, MarginaliaThe tormentes and end of Katherine. about the yeare of our Lord (as Antoninus affirmeth) 310. Symeon Metaphrastes, writing of her, discourseth the same more at large, to whome they may resort, which couet more therein to be satisfied.

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Among the workes of Basill a certayne Oration is extant concerning Iulitta the martyr, MarginaliaThe history of Iulitta Martyr. who came to her martyrdome (as he witnesseth) by this occasion. MarginaliaEx Basil. in Serm. A certayne auaricious and greedy person, of great authoritie, and as it may appeare, the Emperour his deputy, or other like officer, (who abused the decrees and lawes of the Emperour agaynst the Christians, to hys own lucre and gayne) vio-lently tooke from this Iulitta all her goodes, landes, cattell, and seruaunts, contrary to all equity and right. MarginaliaIulitta violently spoyled of her goodes. She made her pittifull cōplaint to the Iudges, a day was appointed, when the cause should be heard. The spoyled woman, and the spoiling extorcioner stode forth together, þe woman lamentably declareth her case, þe man frowningly beholdeth her face. When she had proued that of good right the goods were her owne & that wrongfully he had dealed with her: the wicked & bloudthirsty wretch, preferring vile worldly substaunce, before the precious substaunce of a Christen body, affirmed her action to be of no force, for that she was as an outlaw in not seruing the Emperors Gods, since her christian faith hath bene first abiured. MarginaliaIulitta once abiured. His allegation was allowed as good and reasonable. Whereupon incense & fire were prepared for her to worship the Gods, which vnles she would do, neither the Emperors protectiō, nor lawes, nor iudgment, nor life, should she enioy in that cōmon weale. MarginaliaIulitta standeth to the cōfession of her fayth.When this handmaid of the Lorde heard these wordes, she saide, farwell life, welcome death: farwell ryches welcome pouerty. All that I haue if it were a thousand times more, would I rather loose, then to speake one wicked & blasphemous word against God my creator. MarginaliaA Christian voice of a true martyr. I yeeld thee thanks most harty, O my God, for this gift of grace, that I can contemne & despise this frayle and transitory world, esteming Christian profession aboue all treasures. Hence forth whē any question was demaunded, her aunswere was: MarginaliaThe answere of Iulitta. I am the seruaunt of Iesus Christ. Her kindred & acquaintaunce flocking to her, aduertised her to chaunge her minde. But that vehemently she refused, with detestation of their Idolatry. Forthwith the Iudge, with the sharpe sworde of sentēce not only cutteth of al her goodes & possessions, but iudgeth her also to the fire most cruellye. MarginaliaIulitta condemned to the fire. The ioyfull Martyr imbraceth the sentence as a thing most sweete and delectable. She addresseth her selfe to the flames, in countenaunce, iesture, and wordes, declaring the ioy of her hart, coupled with singular constancy. To the women beholding her, sententiouslye shee spake: MarginaliaThe words and exhortations of Iulitta to woemen about herSticke not, O sisters, to labour and trauell after true piety and godlines. Cease to accuse the fragilitie of feminine nature. What? are not we created of the same matter, that mē are? Yea, after Gods Image and similitude are we made, as liuely as they. Not flesh only God vsed in the creation of the woman, in signe and tokē of her infirmitie, & weaknes, but bone of bones is she, in token that shee must be strong in the true and liuing God, all false Gods forsaken. Constant in faith al infidelity renounced patient in aduersity, all worldly ease refused. Waxe wery, (my dere sisters) of your liues lead in darkenes, & be in loue with my christ, my God, my redeemer, my comforter which is the true light of the worlde. Perswade your selues, or rather the spirite of the liuing God perswade you, that there is a world to come, wherin the worshippers of idoles and deuils shal be tormented, perpetually, the seruauntes of the high god shalbe crowned eternally. With these words she embraced the fire, and swetely slept in the Lord.

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MarginaliaBarbara, Fausta, Euelatius, Maximinus, Iuliana, Anysia, Iustina, Tecla, Martirs.There haue bene moreouer beside these aboue recited diuers godly women and faithfull Martirs, as Barbara a noble woman in Thuscia, who after miserable prisonmēt sharpe cordes, & burning flames put to her sides, was at last beheaded. Also Fausta the virgin, which suffered vnder Maximinus by whome Euelasius a ruler of the Emperours palace, and Maximinus the President were both conuerted and also suffered martirdome, as witnesseth Metaphrastes. Item Iuliana a virgine of singular beautie in Nicomedia, who after diuers agonies suffered likewise vnder, Maximinus. Item, Anysia a mayd of Thessalonica, who vnder the said Maximinus suffred. Metaphr. ibid. Iustina which suffered with Cyprianus bishop of Antioche, not to omit also Tecla although most writers doe accorde that she suffered vnder Nero. Platina in vita Caij, maketh also mentiō of Lucia, & Agatha. All which holy maides and virgins glorified the Lord Christ with their constant martirdome in this tenth & last persecution of Dioclesian.

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MarginaliaCaius, Marcellinus, Marcellus, Eusebius, Miltiades Byshops of Rome and martyrs.During the time of which persecution these bishops of Rome succeded on after another, 

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Papal martyrs down to Milles

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).

Caius who succeded next after Xist9 mētioned. pag. 71. Marcellinus, Marcellus (of whō, Eusebius in his story maketh no mention) Eusebius, & then Miltiades: al which, died martirs in the tempest of this persecution. First Marcellinus after the Martirdome of Caius was ordeined Bishoppe, he being brought by Dioclesian, to the Idoles, first yeelded to their Idolatry & was seene to sacrifice; wherfore being excommunicated by the Christians, fell in such repentaunce, that he returned agayne to Dioclesian, MarginaliaMarcellinus denyeth and repenteth. Ex Lib Concilior &. Platina. where he standing to his former confession, and publikely condemning the idolatry of the heathen, recouered the crowne of martirdome: suffering with Claudius, Cyrinus, and Antoninus.

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Mar