Persian martyrs under Shapur II
They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
(c. 1100 - 1181) [Kelly]
b.Siena; canon lawyer; cardinal-deacon 1150; cardinal-priest 1151; chancellor 1153; pope (1159 - 81)
The papacy was in schism for 18 years; Alexander moved to France.
Thomas Becket, having stood against the king's laws, went to the pope in France. 1570, p. 1295; 1576, p. 1108; 1583, p. 1134.
(1122 - 1190) [B. Arnold, NCMH, vol. 4:2, pp. 416-20]
King of Germany (1152 - 90); Holy Roman Emperor (1155 - 90); duke of Swabia (1147 - 52/3); king of Italy (1154 - 86)
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 97; 1583, p. 97.
(c . 1020 - 1085 [Kelly]
Benedictine monk; treasurer of Roman church; archdeacon of Roman church 1059; chancellor of the see of Rome; pope (1073 - 85)
Hildebrand approached the emperor, Henry III, to nominate Gebhard of Dollnstein-Hirschberg as pope after the death of Leo IX. 1563, p. 12.
Hildebrand was sent as papal legate to France. He brought Berengar of Tours before a council at Tours. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.
Hildebrand supported the election of Alexander II and persuaded the imperial ambassador Anno to support him. 1563, p. 14.
Hildebrand fought for Alexander II against Cadalous (Honorius II). 1570, p. 1312; 1576, p. 1122; 1583, p. 1148.
Foxe records that Alexander II repented not having the emperor's consent to his election, and that Hildebrand imprisoned and deposed Alexander. In fact, Hildebrand remained Alexander's chancellor and supporter until his death. 1563, p. 14; 1570, p. 6; 1576, p. 5; 1583, p. 5.
Berengar of Tours recanted at a council in Rome under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1311; 1576, p. 1121; 1583, p. 1147.
At the time of Gregory VII's synod in Rome, Henry IV held the right to invest archbishops, bishops and abbots. Gregory decreed that all those invested by the emperor had obtained their offices through simony. He decreed that all simonical clergy and those with wives were to be shunned. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1153.[Back to Top]
Opposition to clerical marriage increased greatly under Gregory VII. 1570, p. 1329; 1576, p. 1134; 1583, p. 1163.
Gregory VII deposed Emperor Henry IV. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.
(1017 - 1056) [H. Vollrath, NCMH, vol 4:2, pp. 48-50]
Duke of Bavaria (as Henry VI) 1026; king of Germany 1028; duke of Swabia 1038 (as Henry I); king of Burgundy 1038 (sole ruler from 1039)
Holy Roman Emperor (1046 - 56)
Henry III was resisted by Pope Benedict IX. 1563, p. 11.
Henry deposed the three contending popes and appointed Clement II. 1563, p. 11.
Deacon martyred under Lucinius
Hermylus was strangled in the Danube. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
(c. 265 - 324) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]
of Dacia; Roman emperor (311 - 24), with Maximinus Daia
Married Constantine's sister; defeated Maximinus; fought Constantine; abdicated. He was arrested and executed by Constantine.
Licinius was made caesar after Severus II was killed fighting Maxentius. 1570, p. 114; 1576, p. 82; 1583, p. 81.
Initially Constantine and Licinius were on good terms, and Constantine gave Lucinius his sister in marriage. 1570, p. 122; 1576, p. 88; 1583, p. 87.
Licinius and Constantine issued a joint edict authorising freedom of worship for Christians. But Licinius began to turn against Constantine and the Christians, instigating a new, more surreptitious persecution. 1570, pp. 120-21, 122; 1576, pp. 86-87, 88; 1583, p. 86, 87.
Licinius continued persecution in the east after Constantine had caused it to cease in the west. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
Foxe says Licinius, having been defeated by Constantine and arrested, was killed by his own soldiers. 1570, pp. 39, 123; 1576, pp. 31, 88; 1583, pp. 31, 81, 88.
Former soldier, bishop in Persia at the time of Lucinius
Failing to convert the citizens of the city in Persia to which he had been sent, he cursed the city and left. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
(d. 447/8) [Catholic Encyclopedia]
Historian of the Christian church; lawyer in Constantinople
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 56, 78, 135, 1315; 1576, pp. 36, 53, 98, 1125; 1583, pp. 36, 53, 97, 1151.
Ruler of the Sassanid Empire (309 - 79); persecutor of Christians
Shapur oppressed the Christians with taxes and tributes and had their priests and bishops executed. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
Archbishop of Seleucia-Ctesiphon [Foxe mistakes Ctesiphon for another person]
Martyred under Shapur II
Simeon, in spite of inticements and threats, refused to refute his Christian faith and was beheaded. 1570, pp. 135-36; 1576, pp. 98-99; 1583, p. 97-98.
Prison keeper martyred under Lucinius
Stratonicus was strangled in the Danube. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
(fl. 2nd half C10) [Catholic Encyclopedia]
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 56, 127, 132; 1576, pp. 35, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 35, 91, 95.
Captain of Lucinius; martyr
Theodorus, having broken the emperor's idols, was tortured and then beheaded. 1570, p. 135; 1576, p. 98; 1583, p. 97.
they be either laye men, or men of euill conuersation, or proued manyfest enimies, or incensed with anye hatred, their accusations against any Byshops ought not to stande. Wyth other such matters moe, concerning the disposition of iudiciall court. Which matter, if Pope Gregory the seuenth, had written to Henrye the third Emperour, or if Pope Alexander the third, had written to the Emperour Fredericus the first: it might haue stand with some reason and opportunity of time. But nowe for Marcellus to write these decrees in such persecution of the Churche, to Maxentius the Heathen and most cruell Emperour: howe vnlyke it is to bee true, and howe it serued then to purpose, the Reader may soone discerne. MarginaliaThe church of England gouerned by the popes Canō law without sufficient ground of antiquitie.And yet these be the epistles and constitutions decretal, whereby (vnder the pretensed title of the fathers) al churches of late time, & al ecclesiastical causes haue beene, & yet are in this realme of england to this day gouerned, directed, and disposed.[Back to Top]
The like discussion & examination I might also make of the other epistles that followe of Eusebius and Miltiades, MarginaliaThe Epistles decretall of Eusebius and Miltiades. which al tende to the same scope, that no Prelate or bishop ought to come to his answere (or ad litem cōtestatam, as the words of their writing do terme it) before they be orderly & fully restored again to their possessiōs. Who moreouer in þe said their epistles stil harpe vpon this key of þe scripture: Tu es Petrus, & super hanc petram ædificabo ecclesiam meam, Declaring moreouer that this priuiledge of iudging al mē and to be iudge of no man, but onely to be left to þe iudgement of the Lord: was gyuen to this foresayd holy sea of Rome, from tyme of the Apostles, & chiefly lefte wt Peter the holye key keeper: so that although the election of the Apostles was equall, yet this was chieflye graunted to Saint Peter, to haue preheminence aboue the rest. Concluding in the end hereby. MarginaliaEx Epist. Decretal. Miltiades. Quod semper maiores causæ, sicut sunt episcoporum, & potiorum curæ negotiorum, ad vnam beati principis Apostolorum Petri sedem confluerent: That is: that alwaies all greater causes, as be the matters of Byshoppes, and such other cares of weighty importaunce, should be brought to the sea of S. Peter, the blessed prince of the Apostles. &c. These be the wordes of Miltiades and Eusebius, whereby it may partly be smelled of him that hath any nose, what was the meaning of thē which forged these writings and letters, vpon these auntient holy martirs.[Back to Top]
This I cannot but maruell at, in the thirde Epistle of Eusebius the bishop of Rome, MarginaliaA place of the third Epistle decretall of Eusebius found vntrue. that where as Marcellius his late predecessor before, in his owne time and remembrance did fall so horribly, and was condemned for the same iustly to be expulsed the Citie by the counsell of 300. Byshops: yet notwithstanding the foresaid Eusebius in his third epistle alledging þt place of Tu es Petrus, bringeth in for a profe of the same and saith: Quia in sede Apostolica extra maculam semper est Catholica seruata religio. &c. That is, for in the Apostolicall sea, alwaies the Catholike Religion hath bene preserued without any spot or blemish.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaMiltiades the last Byshop of Rome being in danger of persecution.But howsoeuer the forgers of these decretal Epistles haue forgottē themselues, most certeine it is that these holy bishops, vpon whom they were and are ascribed: liued perfect good men, and died blessed martirs. Of whom this Miltiades was the last among all the Bishoppes of Rome here in the west Church of Europe, that euer was in daūger of persecution to be Martired, yet to this present day.[Back to Top]
And thus haue ye heard the stories and names of such blessed Saintes, which suffered in the time of persecution, from the xix. yeare of Dioclesian, to the vij. and last yeare of Maxentius with the deathes also & plagues described vpon these tormentors, and cruel tiraunts, which were the captaines of the same persecutiō. MarginaliaThe end of these persecutions in all the West Churches.And here commeth in (blessed be Christ) the ende of these persecutions here in these West Churches of Europe, so far as the dominion of blessed Constantinus did chiefly extend.[Back to Top]
The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).
In the same countrey of Persia, about this time suffe-red vnder Sapores the king (as recordeth Symeon Metasthenes) diuers valiant & constant martirs, MarginaliaPersecution in Persia. Acindimus, Pegacius, Anempodisius, Epidephorus. Symeon Archbishop. Ctesiphon. Byshop, Martyrs. 128 Martirs in Persia. The story of Symeon Archb. of Seleucia. Ex Sozom. lib. 2. cap. 8. 9. 10. as Acindymus, Pegasius, Anempodistus, Epidephorus, also Symeon Archbishop of Seleucia, with Ctesiphon an other bishop in Persia, with other ministers & religious men of that region, to þe number of 128. Of this Symeon and Ctesiphon thus writeth Zozomenus lib. 2. That the idolatrous Magitians in Persia, taking counsaile togither against þe Christians, accused Symeon & Ctesiphō, to Sapores þe king, for þt they were gratefull & accepted vnto þe Romane Emperor & bewraied to him, such things as were done in þe land of Persia. Whereupon Sapores being moued, toke great displeasure against þe christians, oppressing them with taxes & tributes vnto their vtter impouerishiug, killing also their Priestes with the sword: After that calleth for Symeon the Archbyshop, who there before the king declared himselfe a worthy & a valiant captaine, of Christs church. For when Sapores had cōmaūded him to be led to suffer torments, he neither shronk for any feare, nor shewed any great humble sute of submission for any pardon: wherat the king partly marueiling, partly offended, asked why he did not knele downe, as he was wont before to do. Symeon to this aūswered, MarginaliaThe worthy answere of Symeon vnto the king. for that saith he, before this time I was not brought vnto you in bondes to betray the true God, as I am nowe, so long I refused not to accomplishe that which the order & custome of the Realme of me required: but now it is not lawful for me so to do, for now I come to stand in defence of our Religion and true doctrine. When Symeon thus had aunswered, the king persisting in his purpose, offereth vnto him þe choise, either to worship with him after his maner (promising to him many great gifts, if he would so doe) or if he would not, threatneth to him and to al the other christians within his land, destruction. MarginaliaThe constancie of Simeon.But Symeon neither allured with his promises, nor terrified with his threatnings, cōtinued constaunt in his doctrine professed, so that neyther he could be induced to Idolatrous worship, nor yet to betray the truth of his religion. For the which cause he was committed into bands, and there commaunded to be kept to the kings pleasure further knowne.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaThe fall of Vsthazares.It befel in the way as he was going to þe prison, there was sitting at the kings gate a certaine Eunuche, an olde Tutor or scholemaister of þe kings, named Vsthazares, who had bene once a christian, and afterward falling from hys profession, fell with the Heathen multitude to their Idolatrie. This Vsthazares sitting at the doore of the kinges pallace, and seing Symeon passing by led to the prison, rose vp and reuerenced the Bishop. MarginaliaThe fruite of Ecclesiasticall discipline and chastisment.Symeon againe with sharpe wordes (as the time would suffer) rebuked him & in great anger cried out against him: which being once a christian, woulde so cowardly reuolt from his profession, & returne againe to the Heathenish Idolatry. At the hearing of these words the Eunuch forthwith brasting out in teares, laying away his courtly apparell, which was sumptuous & costly & putting vpon him a blacke and mourning weede, sitteth before the court gates weping and bewailing, thus saying with himselfe: MarginaliaThe repentance of Vsthazares. wo is me, wyth what hope, wyth what face, shall I looke hereafter for my God, which haue denied my god: whē as this Symeon my familiar acquantance, thus passing by me, so much disdaineth me, that he refuseth with one gentle word to salute me?[Back to Top]
These things being brought to the eares of the King (as such tale cariers neuer lacke in Princes courtes) procured against him no litle indignation. wherupon Sapores the king sending for him, first with gentle words & courtly promises began to speake him faire, asking him what cause he had so to mourne, & whether there was any thing in his house, which was denied him, or which he had not at his owne will and asking. Whereunto Vsthazares aunswering againe saide: MarginaliaThe aunswere of Vsthazares to the king. That there was nothing in that earthly house, which was to him lacking, or wherūto his desire stod. Yea would god (said he) O king any other grief or calamitie in al the world, whatsoeuer it were, had happened vnto me, rather thē this for þe which I do most iustly mourne and sorrow. For this sorroweth me that I am this day aliue, who should rather haue died long since; & that I see this sonne, which against my hart and mynde, for your pleasure dissēblingly I appeared to worship, for which cause doublewise I am worthy of death. First, for þt I haue denied Christ. Secondly, because I did dissemble with you. And incontinent vpon these wordes, swearing by him that made both heauen & earth, affirmed most certainly, that althongh he had plaied þe foole before, he would neuer be so mad againe, as in steede of the creator and maker of all thinges, to worship the creatures which he had made and created. Sapores the king being astonied at the so sodaine alteration of this man, and doubting with hymselfe, whether to be angry with those inchaunters, or with[Back to Top]