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Ælle of the South Saxons

(fl. late C5) [ODNB]

King of the South Saxons (Sussex)

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 149; 1576, p. 111; 1583, p. 110.

 
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Aesc (Oisc, Osca)

(d. 512?) [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

By legend son of Hengist

King of Kent (488 - 512)

[Foxe calls him Cosa]

Osca and Octa were captured by Uther Pendragon, but escaped and returned with reinforcements. They were killed in battle. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Aldroenus (Aldrwn)

Legendary king of Brittany C5

He sent help to defend Britain. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Cerdic (Carecius) of Wessex

Legendary founding king of Gewisse (Wessex) C6 [ODNB]

During the time of Cerdic, the Britons were driven from their lands. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 113; 1583, p. 112.

 
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Eldad

(supp. fl. C5) Supposed bishop of Gloucester who condemned Hengist, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth [History of the Kings of Britain, Book 8]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Eldol

(supp. fl. C5) brother of Bishop Eldad; consul of Gloucester who captured and beheaded Hengist, according to Geoffrey of Monmouth [History of the Kings of Britain, Book 8]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Guithelinus

Legendary bishop of London C5

He sent to the king of Brittany for help in defending Britain. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 108.

 
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Hengist

(d. 488?) [ODNB sub Kings of Kent]

Semi-legendary ruler of Kent C5; Germanic mercenary for Vortigern; rebelled

Hengist married his daughter Rowen to Vortigern and then betrayed him. 1570, p. 148; 1576, p. 109; 1583, p. 109.

Hengist was driven out of Britain by Vortimer but, at the urging of Rowen, Vortigern called him back. He returned with a large navy and, through trickery, defeated the Britons in battle. He was captured eventually and either beheaded or died in Kent. 1570, p. 152; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Horsa

(d. 455?) [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

Legendary brother of Hengist; Germanic warrior; killed in battle

Horsa was killed in the reign of Vortimer. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Octa

(fl. 512?) [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

King of Kent; son of Oisc (Osca) or Hengist

Osca and Octa were captured by Uther Pendragon, but escaped and returned with reinforcements. They were killed in battle. 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Pasgen

Reputed son of Vortigern [ODNB sub Vortigern]

Said to have ruled the kingdoms of Buellt and Gwrtheyrnion

Pasgen was said to have poisoned Aurelius Ambrosius. 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Polydore Vergil (Polidoro Virgili)

(c. 1470 - 1555) [ODNB]

English historian of Italian extraction; born Urbino; taught at Paris; deputy collector of Peter's pence in 1502; archdeacon of Wells in 1508

The king gave Polydore Vergil permission to consult all libraries. After Vergil had made use of the books, he burnt them. 1570, p. 1304; 1576, p. 1116; 1583, p. 1141.

Polydore Vergil was present at St Paul's when the king's commissioners came to administer the oath to Bishop Bonner. 1570, p. 1501; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

He is mentioned as a source by Foxe: 1570, pp. 96, 153; 1576, pp. 68, 114; 1583, pp. 67, 113.

 
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Rowen

Legendary daughter of Hengist C5 married to Vortigern [ODNB sub kings of Kent]

Recorded in C9 Welsh Historia Brittonum and by Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain, chapter 12

Rowen ordered the poisoning of Vortimer and urged Vortigern to send for Hengist. She then helped trick Vortigern into leading his men into a trap. 1570, pp. 148, 152; 1576, pp. 109, 114; 1583, pp. 109, 113.

 
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Stuf

(supp. fl. 530) [ODNB sub Cerdic]

Supposed kinsman of King Cerdic of Gewisse; he and Wihtgar were given control of the Isle of Wight in 530

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Theonus

C6 Anglo-Saxon bishop of London [Gams]; said to have fled into Wales

Theonus and Thadiacus, bishop of York, after the destruction of their churches and the flight of their people, went into Wales. 1563, p. 16; 1570, p. 154; 1576, p. 115; 1583, pp. 113-24.

 
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Wihtgar

(supp. fl. 530) [ODNB sub Cerdic]

Supposed kinsman of King Cerdic of Gewisse; he and Stuf were given control of the Isle of Wight in 530

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 153; 1576, p. 114; 1583, p. 113.

 
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Amesbury /Avebury [Ambry]

Wiltshire

According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, site where Hengist killed Vortigern's nobles

 
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Lincoln
NGR: SK 975 715

A city and county of itself, locally in the county of Lincoln, of which it is the chief town. Seat of the Bishopric of Lincoln. 132 miles north by west from London. Lincoln formerly contained 52 parish churches, of which 34 were destroyed prior to the reign of Edward VI. It comprises the parishes of St Benedict, St Botolph, St John Newport, St Margaret in the Close, St Mark, St Martin, St Mary Wigford, St Mary Magdalene, St Michael on the Mount, St Nicholas Newport, St Paul in the Bail, St Peter at Arches, St Peter in eastgate, St Peter at Gowte, and St Swithin; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln. Of which St Mary Magdalene, St Paul in the Bail and St .Peter at Arches are discharged rectories; St Mary Wigford is a discharged vicarage; St John Newport is a vicarage not in charge; and the remainder are perpetual curacies.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

 
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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)

Hampshire

OS grid ref: SU 485 295

Historic capital of Wessex; former capital of England; county town of Hampshire; cathedral city

 
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York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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136 [113]

Hengistus. Eldadus. King Arthur. Aurelius Ambrosius.

hold or win from the Saxons: which cōming in daily and growing vpon thē, did so replenish the land wt multitudes of them, that þe Britains at lēgth were neither able to hold þt which they had, nor to recouer that which they lost: Leauing exāple to al ages & countreis, what it is, first to let in forreine nations into their dominion, but especially what it is for Princes to ioyne in mariage with infidels: MarginaliaExample what it is to let in straunge nations. Maryage with Infidels what destruction it worketh. as this Vortiger did wt Hengistus daughter, which was the mother of al this mischief: geuing to the Saxons not only strēgth, but also occasion and courage to attempt that whych they did. Neyther was this vncōsidered before of the Britaine Lords and Nobilitie: who worthely being therewt offended, iustly deposed their king, & inthroned Vortimerus hys sonne in his roume. By the which Vortimer being a puisāt prince, the Saxons were then repulsed and driuen againe into Germany, where they stayed a while till the death of Vortimer whome Rowen daughter of Hengistus caused traiterously to be poysoned. Then Vortiger being again restored to his kingdome, through the entreatie of Rowen hys wife, sent into Germanie againe for Engist, MarginaliaThe second returne of Engist. into Britayne. who eftsoones making his returne, came in wyth a nauie of 300. shippes wel appointed. The Nobles of Britain hearing this, prepared them selues to the contrary side in all forceable wise to put them of. MarginaliaThe dissembling words of the Saxons to deceaue the Brittaynes. But Engist through Rowen hys daughter so laboured the king: excusing himselfe, and saying that he brought not the multitude, to worke any violence eyther against him or against his coūtrey, but only thinking that Vortimer had yet bene aliue, whom he minded to impugne for the kings sake, and to take hys part. And nowe for so much as he heareth of þe death of Vortimer hys enemie, hee therefore committeth both himselfe & his people to his disposition, to appoint how few or how many of thē he wold to remaine within his land: the rest should returne. And if it so pleased the King, to appoynt day & place, where they might meete and talke together of the matter, both he and his would stande to such order as the king with his counsaile should appoynt. With these faire words the king and his nobles (wel contented) did assigne to them both day & place, which was in the towne of Ambry: where he ment to talke with them, adding thys condition wt all, that eche part shoulde come without any maner of weapon. Engist shewing himselfe well agreed thereto, gaue priuy intelligence to his side, that eche man should cary wt him secretely in his hose a long knife, wt their watch worde also geuen vnto them whē they should draw their kniues: wherwith euery Saxon shoulde (and so did) kill the Britayne, wyth whom he talked, as is aboue declared. MarginaliaNeme your sexes, the watcheword. All the Nobilitie of the Britaynes destroyed in one day. The Britaine Lords being slayne, the Saxons tooke Vortigerne the King, and bound him: for whose ransome they required to be deliuered to them the Cittie of London, Yorke, Lincolne, Winchester, wt other the most strongest holdes within the land: MarginaliaThe king raunsomed. The Saxons enter possession of the land. The Christian Britaynes persecuted of the Infidel Saxons. An. 462. whych being to them graunted, they begin to make spoile & hauocke of the Britaine nation, destroying the Citizens, plucking downe Churches, killing vp the Priestes, burning the Bookes of the holy Scripture, leauing nothyng vndone that tyrannie could worke, whych was about the yeare of our Lorde. 462. The King seeing thys miserable slaughter of the people fled into Wales.

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This whyle Aurelius Ambrosius, & Vter Pendragon brethren to king Constans aboue mentioned, whō Vortigerne wickedly caused to be killed, were in little Britayne. MarginaliaAurelius Ambrosius returneth into Brittayne. To whome the Britaynes sent woorde, desiring theyr ayde in helping their countrey. Aurelius vnderstanding the wofull state of the Realme, speedeth hym ouer to satisfie their desire, and to rescue (what in him was) their necessitie. Who at his first commyng eftsoones being crowned for theyr king, MarginaliaAurelius crowned king of Brittayne. seeketh out wicked Vortigerne, the cause of all thys trouble and murder of king Constās hys brother. And finding him in Wales in a strong tower, wherein he had immured him selfe, setteth hym and his castell on fire. MarginaliaVortigerus burned in hys tower. That done he moued his power against the Saxons, wt whom, and wyth Elle Captaine of the Southsaxons (who then was newly come ouer) he had diuers conflicts.

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Our English old Chronicles make record that Horsus the brother of Engist was slaine before in the time of Vortimer. The same also doe recorde, that thys Engist was taken prisoner in the fielde, fighting against Aurelius Ambrosius: MarginaliaHorsus slayne. Engist taken in the field. who then cōsulting with his Nobles and Barons, what was to be done with him: the Byshop of Glocester, called Eldadus, standing vp, gaue this counsaile, saying: MarginaliaThe counsel of Eldadus Byshop of Glocester. that if all men would deliuer him, yet he with his owne hāds wold cut him in peeces, alleaging the exāple of Samuel against Agag King of the Ameleches, taken by King Saul in the field: whome the sayde Samuel caused to be cut in peeces. Euen so (saith he) do you to this Agag here: that as he hath made many a woman widow, and without childrē: so his mother mai be made this day of him likewise. And so wasEngist taken out of the Citie by Eldo Consull or Maior of Glocester, and there was beheaded: if truth or credit be to be geuen to these our old Britaine stories: wherof I haue nothing certainly to pronoūce, but that I may suspect the truth therof, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 490. Henr. Hunting. Galfr. cum alijs. MarginaliaEngist beheaded. Anno. 490. Ex Henr. Huntingtonensi.

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A certaine auncient written history I haue in Latine, MarginaliaGalfrido. Ex Chronico quodā Cariensi. compiled in the. xiiij. yeare of king Richard the seconde, and by him caused to be writtē as the title declareth: whych because it beareth no name of the author: I cal it by the name of him of whom I borowed thys booke, wyth many other likewise without name, Historia Cariana. MarginaliaThe vncertainty of our old Britayne storyes.This hystorie recordeth that Hengistus dyed in Kent the xxxii. yeare of hys raigne: which if it be true, then is it false that he was taken at Cunynburgh, and slaine in the North. MarginaliaEx historia Cariana, Aurelius Ambrosius Brit. kyng. Thys Aurelius Ambrosius before mentioned, is thought of Polidorus Vergilius citing the authoritye of Bede, to descende of the stocke of the Romaines: whych as it is not vnpossible to be true: so this is certaine by the full accord of al our old wrytten stories, that both the sayde Aurelius, and his brother Vter Pendragon being the sonnes of Constantinus, brother to Andoenus king of litle Britaine, were nursed and brought vp in England, in their tender age, and instructed by Guitelinus Archbyshop of London, and after the murder of Constans their elder brother, were conueied from hence to litle Britaine: whereby it is manifest that they were borne in thys land, and though their father were a Romaine as Polydorus pretēdeth, yet lyke it is that they were Britains borne, and had a Britaine to their mother.

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After the death of Aurelius, who (as the storie sayeth) was poysoned by the crafty meanes of Pascentius, sonne of Vortigernus (suborning one, vnder the weede of a Monke to play the Phisicion, and so to poyson him) next succeeded hys brother Vter, surnamed Pendragon, about the yeare of our Lord. 497. MarginaliaAnno. 497. Vter Pendragō. Brit. Kyng. who fighting against Octa and Cosa, tooke them and brought them to London there to be kept. But they breaking out of pryson returned into Germanie for more aid. In this meane time daily recourse was of Saxons, with great companies cōming out of Saxonie: MarginaliaRemember the wordes of Gildas 633. hist. Caria. with whom the Britains had diuers & sundry conflictes, sometimes winning, sometimes loosing. Not long after Octa & Cosa, reiming their power in Germany, in all most speedy hast did returne againe, and ioyne with the other Saxons against the Britaines. Heere began the state of miserable Britaine daily more and more to decay, while the idolatrous Saxons preuailed in number and strength against the Christian Britaines: MarginaliaThe Christian Brittaynes persecuted by the Heathen Saxōs. oppressing the people, throwing downe Churches and Monasteries, murdering the Prelates, sparing neither age nor person, but wasting christianity almost through the whole realme. To these miseries it fell moreouer that Vter their king was sicke & could not come out. Notwtstanding being greeued with the lamentable destructiō of his people, caused his bed to be brought into the campe, where God gaue him victorie: Octa & Cosa there being slaine. After this victorie in short space Vter died of poyson (as is sayde) put into a fountaine of water, whereof the king was wont to drinke, about the yeare of our Lorde. 516. Flor. Hist.

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About which time and yeare, MarginaliaAnno. 516. came in Stuph and Wigarius two nephewes of Certhice king of Westsaxons, wyth their companies so violently vpon the Britains, that they of the West part of the realme, were not able to resist them. Then the merciful prouidence of almighty God, raised vp for them King Arthure, the sonne of Vter: MarginaliaKing Arthur. who was then crowned after him and victoriously raigned. To thys Arthure the old Britaine historyes do ascribe xij. great victories against the Heathen Saxons: whose notorious & famous conquests, mētioned in the Britain stories, I leaue them as I finde them: referring them to the credite of their authors in whom they are found. MarginaliaThe tales of King Arthur. Notwithstanding as I do not thinke contrary, but God by the foresayde Arthure, gaue to the Britaines some stay and quietnes during his life, and certaine of his successours: so touching certaine of great victories & conquests, not onely ouer thys land, but also ouer all Europe, I iudge them more fabulous, then þt any credit should be geuen vnto them, more worthy to be ioyned with the Iliades of Homere, then to haue place in any Ecclesiasticall hystorie. MarginaliaConstantinus. 3. Aurelius. Conanus. Vortiporius. Malgo. Carecius Kings of Brittayne.After Arthure next King of the Britaines, was Constantinus the third. After him Aurelius Conanus. Then Vortiporius, after whome followed Malgo, noted in storyes to be a Sodomite. And after hym the last King of the Britaines, was Carecius, all geuen to Ciuill warre, execrable to God & man. Who being chased out by the Britains thēselues, the land fell to the possession of the Saxons: about the yere of our Lord. 568. by whom all the Clergy and the Christiā ministers of the Britaines, were then vtterly driuen out: In so much that Theonus Archbi-

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