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Christopher Nevinson

(d. 1551) [ODNB]

Civil lawyer and Benedictine monk; king's commissioner

Christopher Nevinson was a member of the king's commission that attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and that gave Bonner a list of injunctions. 1563, p. 689; 1570, p. 1501; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, p. 1309.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Edmund Bonner

(d. 1569) [ODNB]

Archdeacon of Leicester 1535; bishop of Hereford 1538; bishop of London (1540 - 49, 1553 - 59)

Henry VIII sent injunctions to Bonner regarding the abolishing of images in churches. 1563, pp. 685-86.

Edmund Bonner wrote a preface to Stephen Gardiner's De vera obedientia, in which he expressed agreement with Gardiner's favouring of King Henry's marriage to Anne Boleyn and his position as head of the church. 1570, p. 1206; 1576, p. 1032; 1583, pp. 1059-60.

Stephen Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. Bonner owed his main preferments to Cromwell. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

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Bonner, when archdeacon of Leicester and ambassador in France, accused Gardiner of papistry. 1570, p. 1233; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, p. 1082.

Bonner sent a declaration to Thomas Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

King Henry wrote to Bonner in France, asking him to assist those printing English bibles in Paris. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Cromwell was instrumental in getting Edmund Bonner's nomination to the bishopric of London. 1570, p. 1362; 1576, p. 1162; 1583, p. 1191.

Although Bonner performed his duties well as far as Henry VIII was concerned, he displeased the king of France, who asked for him to be recalled. Henry recalled him, giving him the bishopric of London, and sent Sir John Wallop to replace him. 1570, p. 1245; 1576, p. 1066; 1583, p. 1093.

Henry VIII wrote to Bonner commanding that excess holy days be abolished. 1563, p. 682; 1570, p. 1441; 1576, p. 1229; 1583, p. 1259.

After Anne Askew had been examined by the quest and the mayor of London, she was imprisoned in the Counter and then examined by Bonner. 1563, p. 670; 1570, p. 1414; 1576, p. 1205; 1583, p. 1235.

Bonner witnessed Anne Askew's confession. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Richard Rich and Edmund Bonner attempted to persuade Anne Askew to change her views after her condemnation. 1563, p. 676; 1570, p. 1418; 1576, p. 1209; 1583, p. 1238.

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Bonner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Bonner brought Richard Mekins to court, charged with heresy. Although the witnesses against him gave contradictory evidence, the jury were told to allow them. The jury brought an indictment and Mekins was executed. 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

Edward VI's commissioners attempted to administer an oath to Bishop Bonner and the clergy of St Paul's and gave Bonner a list of injunctions. He made a protestation, which he subsequently repented and recanted. He was pardoned, but committed to the Fleet for a short period. 1570, pp. 1501-02; 1576, pp. 1272-73; 1583, pp. 1309-10.

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Edward VI's councillors and Edward Seymour wrote to Thomas Cranmer, directing that candles no longer be carried on Candlemas, nor palms on Palm Sunday, nor should ashes be used on Ash Wednesday. Cranmer immediately wrote to the other bishops, including Bonner, to inform them of the new directive. Bonner consented to the changes and wrote to Thomas Thirlby to inform him of them. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

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The council wrote further to Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. He wrote to Edmund Bonner, directing him to carry out the order in London, and Bonner in turn wrote to Thomas Thirlby. 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Bonner continued to hold private masses in St Paul's, and the king's council ordered these to be stopped. Bonner then wrote to the dean and chapter to that effect. 1563, pp. 692-93; 1570, p. 1492; 1576, p. 1265; 1583, p. 1302.

Another letter was sent by the king and council to Bonner, rebuking him and urging him to use the Book of Common Prayer. Bonner again wrote to the dean and chapter. 1563, pp. 693-94; 1570, p. 1494; 1576, p. 1266; 1583, p. 1303.

Hearing of the death of Thomas Seymour and of the rebellions in the kingdom, Bonner began to slacken his pastoral diligence. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 13103.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward VI called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. The council ordered him to preach a sermon at Paul's Cross in three weeks' time and provided him with the articles upon which he was to preach. 1563, p. 695; 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

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John Hooper and William Latymer, in a letter to the king, denounced Bonner for his sermon at St Paul's, which went contrary to the instructions given by the king's commissioners. 1563, pp. 696-97; 1570, p. 1503; 1576, p. 1274; 1583, p. 1311.

Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, Nicholas Ridley, bishop of Rochester, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May, dean of St Paul's, were commissioned to examine Edmund Bonner. 1563, p. 697; 1570, p. 1504; 1576, p. 1275; 1583, p. 1312.

Bonner was summoned to appear before the commissioners. He behaved haughtily, ridiculing his accusers and the commissioners, and spoke in favour of the mass. He appeared first on 10 September 1549 before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre and William May. Sir Thomas Smith was absent. 1563, pp. 698-99; 1570, pp. 1504-06; 1576, pp. 1275-77; 1583, pp. 1312-14.

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Bonner appeared for the second time on 13 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir William Petre, Sir Thomas Smith and William May and was further examined. 1563, pp. 699-704; 1570, pp. 1506-08; 1576, pp. 1277-79; 1583, pp. 1314-17.

Bonner appeared for the third time on 16 September before Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Sir Thomas Smith and William May to answer the articles put to him at the previous session. John Hooper and William Latymer also appeared in order to purge themselves against the slanders of Bonner. 1563, pp. 704-709; 1570, pp. 1508-11; 1576, pp. 1279-80; 1583, pp. 1317-22.

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The commissioners, finding Bonner's answers to the articles put to him to be unsatisfactory, received witnesses against him: John Cheke, Henry Markham, John Joseph, John Douglas and Richard Chambers. Bonner submitted a set of questions the witnesses were to answer. 1563, p. 707; 1570, p. 1510; 1576, p. 1280; 1583, p. 1320.

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Bonner appeared before the commissioners for the fourth time on 18 September, at which session new articles were drawn up and new witnesses received: Sir John Mason, Sir Thomas Chaloner, William Cecil, Armygell Wade and William Hunnings. 1563, pp. 704-713; 1570, pp. 1508-13; 1576, pp. 1279-82; 1583, pp. 1317-23.

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On the following day, 19 September, Bonner's registrar appeared to report that Bonner was too ill to attend the session. 1563, p. 713; 1570, p. 1513; 1576, p. 1282; 1583, p. 1323.

Bonner appeared for the fifth time before the commissioners on 20 September. During an interval, he instructed Gilbert Bourne, his chaplain, Robert Warnington, his commissary, and Robert Johnson, his registrar, to tell the mayor and aldermen of London to avoid reformed preachers. Bonner made his first appellation to the king. As a result of his behaviour during the proceedings, he was committed to the Marshalsea. 1563, pp. 713-717; 1570, pp. 1513-16; 1576, pp. 1282-85; 1583, pp. 1324-26.

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Bonner appeared for the sixth time before the commissioners on 23 September, when he presented a general recusation against all the commissioners and a second appellation to the king. A letter was read from Bonner to the mayor of London, Henry Amcottes, and aldermen. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1516; 1576, p. 1285; 1583, pp. 1326-27.

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Bonner' seventh appearance before the commissioners took place on 1 October. He presented a declaration, an appellation and a supplication to the king. The commissioners pronounced their sentence definitive. 1563, pp. 718-26; 1570, pp. 1516-19; 1576, pp. 1285-88; 1583, pp. 1327-30.

Bonner was imprisoned in the Marshalsea and deprived of his bishopric under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Bonner remained in prison until the death of Edward VI. 1563, pp. 717-18; 1570, p. 1518; 1576, p. 1287; 1583, p. 1329.

 
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Edward Seymour

(c. 1500 - 1552) [ODNB]

Soldier; viscount Beauchamp of Hache 1536; earl of Hertford 1537

Lord high admiral 1542; lord great chamberlain 1543

Duke of Somerset 1547; lord protector 1547; lord treasurer 1547; earl marshal 1547; beheaded

Because Edward VI was only young when he came to the throne, his uncle Edward Seymour was assigned as overseer and protector of both the king and the commonwealth. He abolished the Six Articles and brought into the country learned reformers. He replaced some of the unlearned clergy with preachers. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

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Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Seymour granted a pardon to Thomas Dobbe, but Dobbe died in prison before it could reach him. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

He was a signatory to a letter from the king and privy council to Nicholas Ridley, directing him to remove and destroy all altars within the churches of his diocese and install communion tables. 1563, p. 727; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour wrote a reply to a letter of Stephen Gardiner objecting to the destruction of images in Portsmouth. 1563, p. 730-31; 1570, pp. 1519-20; 1576, p. 1298; 1583, p. 1331.

Seymour was in regular correspondence with Stephen Gardiner while he was imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 730-54; 1570, pp. 1519-25; 1576, pp. 1298-1300; 1583, pp. 1331-50.

Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, p. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

After the victorious return of John Dudley, earl of Warwick, from Norfolk, he fell into dispute with Edward Seymour. He and other dissatisfied nobles met together to plan to remove the king from the Lord Protector. John Russell replied, hoping for a reconciliation between the Lord Protector and his adversaries. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, pp. 1317-18; 1583, pp. 1367-68.

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Edward Seymour wrote to John Russell, describing the conspiracy against him and asking him to bring forces to Windsor. 1570, pp. 1545-46; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

The king sent a letter to the lord mayor of London, Henry Amcottes; the mayor-elect, Sir Rowland Hill; the aldermen and common council, directing that 1000 troops be mustered to defend the Lord Protector. The lords opposing the Lord Protector sent a letter on the same day directing the mayor and council not to obey any instructions coming from him. 1570, p. 1547; 1576, p. 1319; 1583, p. 1369.

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The lords opposed to the Lord Protector sent Sir Philip Hoby to put their case to the king. As a result, the Lord Protector was imprisoned in Windsor Castle and then taken to the Tower. Shortly after, he was released. 1570, pp. 1548-49; 1576, p. 1320; 1583, p. 1370.

Seymour was imprisoned again in 1551 and charged with treason and felony. He was acquitted of treason, but condemned for felony, intending the death of John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, and others. On 22 January 1552 he was taken to Tower Hill and beheaded. 1570, pp. 1549-50; 1576, p. 1321; 1583, p. 1371.

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Foxe compares the story of Edward Seymour with that of Humphrey of Lancaster, dealing with his enemy Bishop Beaufort. 1563, pp. 882-84; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Edward Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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Edward VI

(1537 - 1553) [ODNB]

King of England and Ireland (1547 - 53); Henry VIII's only son

The young Prince Edward wrote letters in Latin to Thomas Cranmer, his godfather. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Edward VI agreed with Sir John Cheke that clemency should be shown towards heretics and was opposed to the burning of Joan Bocher. Cranmer had great difficulty in getting Edward to sign her death warrant. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Edward VI to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Jerome Cardan gave written testimony of Edward VI's knowledge of the liberal sciences. 1563, p. 885; 1570, p. 1485; 1576, p. 1259; 1583, p. 1296.

Charles V requested of Edward VI that his cousin Mary Tudor be allowed to have the mass said in her house. The request was denied, in spite of the strong urgings of Thomas Cranmer and Nicholas Ridley. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Edward issued a set of injunctions to further the reformation of the church in the realm. He called a parliament to repeal earlier statutes relating to religion, including the Six Articles. 1563, pp. 685-91; 1570, pp. 1486-90; 1576, pp. 1260-63; 1583, pp. 1297-1301.

Having knowledge of rebellions stirring in the realm and of slackness in religious reform in the city of London, Edward called Edmund Bonner to come before his council. 1570, p. 1495; 1576, p. 1267; 1583, p. 1304.

Edward replied to the articles raised by the rebels of Devonshire. 1570, pp. 1497-99; 1576, pp. 1268-70; 1583, pp. 1305-07.

The king and privy council sent out letters to bishops and clergy in late 1549 and 1550, directing that books of Latin service be withdrawn, that altars be removed and communion tables installed. 1563, pp. 726-28; 1570, pp. 1519-21; 1576, pp. 1288-90; 1583, pp. 1330-31.

Edward wrote letters to his sister, Lady Mary, urging her to obey the new laws concerning religion, and she replied. 1576, pp. 1290-96; 1583, pp. 1333-39.

He sent his own councillors to Mary after her servants, Rochester, Englefield and Waldegrave, had failed to prevent masses being said in her household. 1576, pp. 1296-97; 1583, pp. 1338-39.

King Edward said a private prayer on his deathbed which was overheard by his physician, George Owen. In his will, Edward excluded his sister Mary from the succession because of her religious views. 1563, p. 900; 1570, p. 1565; 1576, p. 1335; 1583, p. 1395.

 
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Henry Holbeach (formerly Rands)

(d. 1551) [ODNB]

Benedictine monk of Crowland; BTh Cambridge 1527; DTh 1534; prior of Buckingham College

Dean of Worcester 1542; dean of Rochester 1544; bishop of Lincoln (1547 - 51)

Edward Seymour stood against the bishops of Chichester, Norwich, Lincoln, London and others at the consultation at Windsor in the first year of Edward VI's reign. 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

After Stephen Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

 
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John Standish

(c. 1509 - 1570) [ODNB]

Clergyman; BA Oxford 1528; MA 1531; BTh 1540/2; DTh 1542; wrote tract against the protestation of Robert Barnes at the stake

Instituted archdeacon of Colchester 1553, cancelled 1554; repudiated his wife under Mary; archdeacon of Colchester (1558 - 59)

John Standish took part in the examination of Anne Askew conducted by Bishop Bonner in 1545. 1563, p. 672; 1570, p. 1415; 1576, p. 1206; 1583, p. 1236.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions by the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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John Young

(1514 - 1581/2) [ODNB]

College head; BA Cambridge 1535; MA 1539; BTh 1546; DTh 1553; vice-chancellor of Cambridge (1553 - 55); regius professor of divinity (1555/6); imprisoned 1558

Young was present at the deathbed of John Redman and discussed matters of religion with him. 1563, pp. 867-70; 1570, pp. 1537-39; 1576, pp. 1310-12; 1583, pp. 1360-62.

After John Redman's death, John Young sent a testimonial letter to John Cheke, praising Redman and his thoughts on religion. 1563, pp. 870-74; 1570, pp. 1539-41; 1576, pp. 1312-14; 1583, pp. 1362-64.

In the disputation at Cambridge in 1549, John Madew answered the first disputation, opposed by William Glyn, Alban Langdale, Thomas Sedgewick and John Young. 1570, pp. 1556-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1376-82.

In the same disputation at Cambridge in 1549, Andrew Perne answered the third disputation, opposed by Thomas Parker, Leonard Pollard, Thomas Vavasour and John Young. 1570, pp. 1556-57; 1576, pp. 1326-28; 1583, pp. 1385-88.

John Young was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 846.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions by the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Martin Bucer

(1491 - 1551) [ODNB]

b. Alsace; theologian; Dominican friar 1508; MA, BTh Heidelberg; present at Luther's disputation

Released from monastic vows in 1521; led reform in Strasbourg; went to England with Fagius; professor at Cambridge (1549 - 51)

Martin Bucer was brought to Cambridge by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Catholics defamed Bucer, claiming that on his deathbed he denied that Christ was the messiah. John Redman and other Englishmen knew this to be false. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

 
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Morgan Phillips (Philipps)

(d. 1570) [ODNB]

b. Monmouthshire; Roman Catholic priest; BA Oxford 1538, MA 1542, BTh before 1550; fellow of Oriel College; principal of St Mary Hall, Oxford (1545 - 50); in exile from 1558; co-founded English College at Douai

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

Morgan Phillips was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, p. 841.

 
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Owen Oglethorpe

(1502/3 - 1559) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1525; MA 1529; lecturer in logic, moral philosophy; BTh, DTh 1536; president of Magdalen College (1536 - 52, 1553 - 55)

Bishop of Carlisle (1556 - 59)

Owen Oglethorpe witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

Owen Oglethorpe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 854-55, 856.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions by the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Paul Fagius

(c. 1504 - 1549) [ODNB]

b. Rheinzabern; protestant reformer, Hebraist; MA Heidelberg 1522; principal minister at Isny (1538 - 43); went to England with Bucer in 1549

Paul Fagius was brought to Cambridge by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Pietro Matire Vermigli (Peter Martyr)

(1499 - 1562) [ODNB]

b. Florence; Augustinian friar; Greek and Hebrew scholar; evangelical reformer

DTh Padua 1525; abbot in Naples; prior at Lucca

From 1542 in exile: Strasbourg (1542-47); regius professor of divinity at Oxford (1548-49); Strasbourg (1553-56); Zurich (1556-death)

Peter Martyr was brought to Oxford by Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 684; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were welcomed as scholars during the reign of Edward VI. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Peter Martyr disputed with William Chedsey and others at Oxford over transubstantiation in 1549. 1570, p. 1519; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1330.

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

 
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Richard Coxe

(1500 - 1581) [ODNB]

BA Cambridge 1524; MA 1526; headmaster at Eton 1529; BTh 1535, DTh 1537

Chaplain to Henry VIII and to Archbishop Cranmer by 1540; archdeacon of Ely 1540; first dean of Osney Cathedral, Oxford 1544

Tutor and almoner to Prince Edward; chancellor of Oxford (1547 - 52)

Bishop of Ely (1559 - 1581). Marian exile

Richard Coxe was one of the scholars Wolsey gathered for Cardinal College. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Coxe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, p. 1169; 1583, p. 1198.

Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson came in to see Anne Askew after a session of questioning at her second examination. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1238.

Thomas Cranmer praised the learning and wisdom of Prince Edward to his tutor, Richard Coxe. 1563, p. 884; 1570, p. 1484; 1576, p. 1258; 1583, p. 1295.

Richard Coxe wrote to Thomas Cranmer, praising the young Prince Edward. 1570, p. 1564; 1576, p. 1334; 1583, p. 1395.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

Richard Coxe was a deponent in the case of Stephen Gardiner. 1563, pp. 808-9

Richard Coxe was present at the scaffold in January 1552 as counsellor and spiritual advisor to Edward Seymour at his execution. 1563, p. 882; 1570, p. 1551; 1576, p. 1322; 1583, p. 1372.

 
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Richard Morison

(c. 1510 - 1556) [ODNB; Bindoff]

Humanist; royal propagandist; diplomat.

BA Oxford 1529; MP 1539; MP Wareham 1547; JP Middlesex 1547; king's visitor; ambassador to Charles V (1550 - 53); protestant exile

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Richard Smyth (Smith)

(1499/1500 - 1563) [ODNB; Foster]

Theologian; BA Oxford 1527; MA 1530; BTh 1533; DTh 1536; regius professor of divinity (1535 - 48, 1554 - 56, 1559 - 60); in exile under Edward VI and under Elizabeth; vice-chancellor of the university of Douai in Brabant; died there

Richard Smyth was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Richard Smyth preached a sermon when John Mallory came into St Mary's church in Oxford to do his penance. During the sermon, cries of 'fire' produced panic in the congregation. 1563, p. 621; 1570, p. 1382; 1576, p. 1179; 1583, p. 1208.

In 1539 Richard Smyth and George Cotes ran the divinity schools at Oxford. 1563, p. 574.

Smyth witnessed Anne Askew's confession in 1545. 1563, p. 673; 1570, p. 1416; 1576, p. 1207; 1583, p. 1237.

The Lord Protector noted that Stephen Gardiner had not criticised Smyth's book. 1563, p. 735; 1583, p. 1344.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions in the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

In a later letter to the Lord Protector, Gardiner criticised Smyth's recantation. 1563, p. 739; 1583, p. 1347.

 
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Simon Haynes (Heynes)

(d. 1552) [ODNB]

Clergyman and religious reformer; BA Cambridge 1515/16; MA 1519; BTh 1528; DTh 1531

Dean of Exeter (1537 - 52); imprisoned in the Fleet in 1543

Simon Haynes was reported to Stephen Gardiner by William Symonds and John London to be a common receiver of suspected persons at Windsor. 1570, p. 1389; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, p. 1214.

Thomas Southern and Thomas Brerewood accused their dean, Simon Haynes, of heresy and treason. He was committed to the Fleet until friends procured his release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

In a letter to Thomas Cromwell, Edmund Bonner asked for financial help, mentioning that he owed money to Thomas Thirlby and Simon Haynes. 1570, p. 1240; 1576, p. 1062; 1583, p. 1088.

Haynes was praised by Bonner for his reformed views. 1570, p. 1240; 1576, p. 1062; 1583, p. 1089.

Henry Holbeach, Richard Coxe, Simon Haynes, Richard Morison and Christopher Nevinson, king's visitors, were present at the disputations at Oxford in 1549 with Peter Martyr. 1570, pp. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Sir Thomas Arundell

(c. 1502 - 1552) [ODNB]

Administrator, convicted conspirator; beheaded Tower Hill

After the execution of Adam Damplip in Calais, John Butler and Daniel the curate were taken to England and imprisoned in the Marshalsea. They stayed there nine months and were accused of having retained Damplip by Sir John Gage, Sir John Baker and Sir Thomas Arundel. [NB: Sir John Gage is named as Sir George Gage in the 1576 and 1583 editions.] 1570, p. 1407; 1576, p. 1200; 1583, p. 1229.

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Sir Ralph Fane and Sir Miles Partridge were hanged, and Sir Michael Stanhope and Sir Thomas Arundell beheaded, all at Tower Hill on 26 February 1552 for conspiring with the Duke of Somerset. 1570, p. 1552; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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Stephen Gardiner

(c. 1495x8 - 1555) [ODNB]

Theologian, administrator; BCnL Cambridge 1518; DCL 1521; DCnL 1522; chancellor of Cambridge

Principal secretary to the king 1529; ambassador to France

Bishop of Winchester (1531 - 51, 1553 - 55)

Thomas Cromwell, Thomas More and Stephen Gardiner served together in Thomas Wolsey's household. 1563, p. 592; 1570, p. 1347; 1576, p. 1150; 1583, p. 1178.

Gardiner and Edward Fox urged leniency on Cardinal Wolsey when dealing with Robert Barnes. They stood surety for him and convinced him to abjure. 1563, pp. 601-02; 1570, pp. 1364-65; 1576, pp. 1164-65; 1583, pp. 1192-93.

Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-28, 1193; 1576, pp. 963-66, 1021; 1583, pp. 990-92, 1049.

Shortly after Gardiner became secretary to King Henry, he and William Fitzwilliam were assigned by the king to ensure that Thomas Wolsey's goods were not stolen after his deprivation of his offices, but returned to the king. 1570, p. 1130; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

Richard Bayfield was tried before John Stokesley, assisted by Stephen Gardiner and others. 1563, p. 484; 1570, p. 1161; 1576, p. 993; 1583, p. 1021.

John Frith was taken first to the archbishop of Canterbury at Lambeth, then to the bishop of Winchester at Croydon, and then to London to plead his case before the assembled bishops. He was examined there by the bishops of London, Winchester and Lincoln. 1563, pp. 501-03; 1570, pp. 1176-78; 1576, pp. 1006-08; 1583, pp. 1034-35.

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Andrew Hewett was examined by Stokesley, Gardiner and Longland. 1563, p. 506; 1570, p. 1180; 1576, p. 1009; 1583, p. 1036.

The archbishop of Canterbury (Cranmer), along with the bishops of London (Stokesley), Winchester (Gardiner), Bath and Wells (Clerk) and Lincoln (Longland) and other clergy went to see Queen Catherine. She failed to attend when summoned over 15 days, and they pronounced that she and the king were divorced. 1570, p. 1200; 1576, p. 1027; 1583, p. 1055.

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Gardiner swore an oath of allegiance to Henry VIII as head of the church. 1570, p. 1203; 1576, p. 1030; 1583, p. 1057.

In his De vera obedientia, Gardiner challenged the authority of the pope and argued against the validity of the king's marriage to Catherine of Aragon. 1570, pp. 1204-06; 1576, pp. 1031-32; 1583, pp. 1058-59.

Gardiner was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1211; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

Gardiner was sent with a Henry VIII's answer to Francis I, king of France, regarding Henry's supremacy over the English church. 1570, p. 1221; 1576, p. 1045; 1583, p. 1072.

Gardiner was suspected of involvement in the downfall of Anne Boleyn, and urged the king to disinherit Elizabeth. 1570, pp. 1233, 1243; 1576, p. 1056; 1583, pp. 1082, 1083.

Gardiner was a resident ambassador to France in 1538, when Edmund Bonner, through the efforts of Thomas Cromwell, was brought in to replace him. There were great disagreements between the two, since Bonner at the time was in favour of reform. 1570, p. 1239; 1576, p. 1061; 1583, p. 1088.

The bearward who had a book belonging to Archbishop Cranmer's secretary intended giving it to Sir Anthony Browne or Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1356; 1576, p. 1157; 1583, p. 1186.

In a letter to Henry VIII, Philip Melancthon called Gardiner wicked and impudent. 1570, p. 1341; 1576, p. 1145; 1583, p. 1173.

Bonner sent a declaration to Cromwell of Stephen Gardiner's evil behaviour. 1570, pp. 1241-44; 1576, pp. 1063-66; 1583, pp. 1090-92.

Gardiner urged Henry VIII to withdraw his defence of religious reform in order to ensure peace within the realm and to restore good relations with foreign rulers. 1570, pp. 1296; 1576, p. 1109; 1583, p. 1135.

Stephen Gardiner urged Henry VIII to use the case against John Lambert as a means of displaying the king's willingness to deal harshly with heresy. 1563, pp. 533-34; 1570, p. 1281; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, pp. 1121-22.

Cranmer had sent letters for Henry VIII to sign relating to reform in the church. Gardiner convinced the king that these reforms would jeopardise a league with the king of France and the emperor, so the letters were never signed. 1570, p. 1426; 1576, p. 1215; 1583, p. 1245.

Gardiner disputed with Lambert during his trial. 1563, pp. 535-36; 1570, pp. 1282-83; 1576, p. 1097; 1583, p. 1123.

Stephen Gardiner was Thomas Cromwell's chief opponent. 1563, p. 598; 1570, p. 1359; 1576, p. 1160; 1583, p. 1189.

Stephen Gardiner complained to the king about the sermon of Robert Barnes preached during Lent at Paul's Cross. He disputed with Barnes, and Richard Coxe and Thomas Robinson acted as arbiters. Gardiner then submitted articles against Barnes. 1570, p. 1371; 1576, pp. 1169-70; 1583, p. 1198.

Adam Damplip was brought before Thomas Cranmer, Stephen Gardiner, Richard Sampson and others and examined. 1563, p. 657; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1224.

Thomas Broke, Ralph Hare, James Cocke and James Barber were sent from Calais with their accusers to England to be examined by Cranmer, Gardiner, Sampson and other bishops. 1563, p. 661; 1570, p. 1401; 1576, p. 1195; 1583, p. 1224.

William Symonds and John London kept notes of Anthony Pearson's sermons at Windsor. They included the names of all those who frequented the sermons and reported all of these to Stephen Gardiner, who in turn reported to the king and received a commission for a search at Windsor. 1570, pp. 1389-90; 1576, p. 1185; 1583, pp. 1213-14.

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Gardiner had Simon Haynes and Philip Hoby committed to the Fleet, but their friends secured their release. 1570, p. 1390; 1576, p. 1186; 1583, p. 1214.

Gardiner conducted the third examination of John Marbeck himself. He ordered Marbeck to be placed in irons and kept in isolation. 1570, pp. 1391-92; 1576, pp. 1186-88; 1583, pp. 1215-16.

On the orders of Stephen Gardiner, John Massie took Adam Damplip to Calais. 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1193; 1583, p. 1223.

John Capon and others of the judges in the trial of Marbeck, Testwood, Pearson and Filmer at Windsor sent a message to Stephen Gardiner in favour of John Marbeck. Gardiner went straight to the king and obtained a pardon. 1570, p. 1397; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1220.

After the burning of Filmer, Pearsons and Testwood, Capon sent Robert Ockham with a report to Stephen Gardiner. 1570, p. 1398; 1576, p. 1191; 1583, p. 1221.

Gardiner was one of the questioners at the second examination of Anne Askew in 1546. 1563, p. 683; 1570, p. 1417; 1576, p. 1208; 1583, p. 1237.

Katherine Parr read and studied the scriptures and discussed them with her chaplains. The king was aware of this and approved, so she began to debate matters of religion with him. When the king became more ill-tempered because of his sore leg, her enemies, especially Stephen Gardiner and Thomas Wriothesley, took the opportunity to turn the king against her. 1570, pp. 1422-23; 1576, pp. 1212-13; 1583, pp. 1242-43.

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Gardiner and other enemies of Katherine Parr planned to accuse and arrest Lady Herbert, Lady Lane and Lady Tyrwhit and search their quarters for books and other evidence to use against the queen. 1570, p. 1423; 1576, p. 1213; 1583, p. 1243.

During Henry VIII's final illness, Sir Anthony Browne tried unsuccessfully to get Stephen Gardiner reinstated in the king's will. 1570, p. 1478; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1291.

After the death of Henry VIII, the duke of Suffolk related to Thomas Cranmer how Stephen Gardiner had nearly been arrested at the time of the execution of Germaine Gardiner. He confessed his fault to the king and was pardoned. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1253; 1583, p. 1290.

Stephen Gardiner preached a sermon contrary to King Edward's injunctions. He was arrested and taken to the Tower by Sir Anthony Wingfield and Sir Ralph Sadler; Sadler and William Hunnings were instructed to seal off doors to his house. He was transferred to the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728, 760; 1570, pp. 1521, 1529; 1576, pp. 1297, 1304; 1583, pp. 1340, 1353-54.

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Gardiner wrote to Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, the Lord Protector and others while imprisoned in the Fleet. 1563, pp. 728-54; 1570, pp. 1522-25; 1576, pp. 1297-1300; 1583, pp. 1340-50.

Gardiner was released out of the Fleet by a general pardon, but was placed under house arrest for failure to conform. Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Smith and William Cecil were sent to him. He was called before the council. 1563, p. 755; 1570, pp. 1525-26; 1576, p. 1301; 1583, p. 1351.

Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower with Cuthbert Tunstall under Edward VI and Edward Seymour. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1296.

After Gardiner had been in the Tower for nearly a year, Sir William Paulet and Sir William Petre visited and urged him to admit his fault. Paulet, Petre, the earl of Warwick and Sir William Herbert delivered the king's letters to him. 1563, pp. 761-62; 1570, pp. 1529-30; 1576, p. 1304; 1583, p. 1354.

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Edward Seymour, John Russell, John Dudley and Sir William Petre visited Stephen Gardiner in the Tower at various times to attempt to get him to accept the king's reforms. 1563, pp. 766; 1570, p. 1532; 1576, p. 1306; 1583, p. 1356.

Articles were put to him to answer. 1563, pp. 754-68; 1570, pp. 1525-34; 1576, pp. 1300-07; 1583, pp. 1350-57.

When Sir William Herbert and Sir William Petre went to Stephen Gardiner in the Tower with new articles, they took with them a canon and a civil lawyer: Nicholas Ridley and Richard Goodrich. 1563, p. 768; 1570, p. 1534; 1576, p. 1307; 1583, p. 1357.

After Gardiner's sequestration, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Thomas Goodrich, Henry Holbeach, Sir William Petre, Sir James Hales, Griffith Leyson, John Oliver and John Gosnold were commissioned to examine him. 1563, p. 776; 1570, p. 1535; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1358.

William Paget, Andrew Baynton and Thomas Chaloner were deponents in the case of Gardiner. 1563, pp. 814-18; 1570, p. 1536; 1576, p. 1309; 1583, p. 1359.

Gardiner was examined and deprived of his bishopric. 1563, pp. 814-67; 1570, pp. 1536-37; 1576, pp. 1309-10; 1583, pp. 1359-60.

 
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Thomas Seymour

(c. 1509 - 49) [ODNB]

Lord admiral (1547 - 49); MP Wiltshire 1545; privy councillor (1547 - 49); JP Berkshire, Devon, Essex, Gloucestershire, Hampshire, Herefordshire, Hertfordshire, Kent, Middlesex, Shropshire, Sussex, Wiltshire, Worcestershire 1547

Brother of Jane and Edward, duke of Somerset. Executed for treason

Thomas Seymour was a signatory to a letter to the king's commissioners relating Bishop Bonner's recantation of his protestation. 1570, p. 1502; 1576, p. 1273; 1583, p. 1310.

Thomas Seymour was one of the signatories of the letter of the council addressed to Thomas Cranmer ordering the abolishing of images in all churches in the archdiocese. 1563, p. 692; 1570, p. 1490; 1576, p. 1263; 1583, p. 1300.

Thomas Seymour worked in harmony with his brother Edward, but his marriage to Katherine Parr produced ill feeling between them. He was accused of planning to secure the crown for himself and was beheaded on Tower Hill. 1563, p. 880; 1570, p. 1545; 1576, p. 1317; 1583, p. 1367.

Thomas Seymour is given as an example of one wrongly accused and judged. 1570, p. 1360; 1576, p. 1161; 1583, p. 1189.

 
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William Chedsey

(1510/11 - 1577?) [ODNB]

Catholic priest; BA Oxford 1530; MA 1534; BTh 1542; DTh 1546; chaplain to Edmund Bonner, bishop of London, by 1536; archdeacon of Middlesex 1556; president of Corpus Christi, Oxford 1558;

Peter Martyr disputed with William Chedsey and others at Oxford over transubstantiation in 1549. 1570, p. 1519; 1576, p. 1288; 1583, p. 1330.

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

Doctors Smyth, Chedsey, Standish, Young and Oglethorpe recanted their earlier conservative positions by the last year of the reign of King Edward VI. 1570, p. 1522; 1576, p. 1323; 1583, p. 1373.

 
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William Tresham

(1495 - 1569) [ODNB]

Priest; BA Oxford 1515; MA 1520; BTh 1528; DTh 1532; registrar of Oxford University (1524 - 29); vice-chancellor (1532 - 47, 1550, 1556, 1558); Merton College bursar (1521 - 22, 1526 - 28), dean (1524 - 26)

Chancellor of Chichester (1539 - 60); imprisoned in the Fleet (1551 - 53)

Doctors Tresham, Chedsey and Morgan Philips were the chief opponents of Peter Martyr in the disputations at Oxford in 1549. 1570, pp. 1552-55; 1576, pp. 1323-26; 1583, pp. 1373-76.

 
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Cambridge (Grantbridge)

[Cambrige; Grantbrige; Grantebryge]

OS grid ref: TL 465 585

County town of Cambridgeshire and university town

 
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Oxford

OS grid ref: SP 515 065

County town of Oxfordshire; university town

1397 [1373]

King Edward 6. Religion hindered by discorde. Disputations in Oxford.

dible, it is, that the said Duke in suffering or procuring this death of his brother, not only endamaged himselfe, & weakened his own power, but also prouoked the chastisement of Gods scourge and rod, which did so light vpon him.

MarginaliaThe beheading of the Earle of Surrey.Furthermore, as touching the death and decay of the Lord Henry Earle of Surrey, who suffered also at the Tower next before the Lord Admirall, the Lorde Protectours brother, because the casting of him was so neare to the death of King Henry: as I know not vpon whome, or what cause the same did proceede, so I passe it ouer and leaue it to the Lord. 

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Foxe's patron, the fourth duke of Norfolk, was the earl of Surrey's son, so Foxe's circumspection in discussing the case is understandable.

Notwithstanding, as for the Duke of Somerset, whatsoeuer his other vices and vertues were, this is certayne, that his ende (the Lord so working wyth him) was constant in Christes truth, as his life was before a great maintenance of the same.

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MarginaliaSyr Rafe Vane, 

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Fane, Sir Ralph Fane's widow, was a 'sustainer' and correspondent of numerous Marian martyrs, particularly John Philpot.

Syr Myles Partrige. Syr Michael Stanhop, and Syr Thomas Arundell suffered at Tower hyll.Moreouer, on the xxvj. day of February, in the same yeare was sir Rafe Vane, sir Miles Partrige both hāged at the Tower hill: And sir Michaell Stanhop, & sir Thomas Arundell beheaded vppon the scaffold: all which four were condemned by the saide Acte of vnlawfull assemblie, and as accessaries vnto the Duke of Somerset.

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Disputation at Oxford

In the disputations on the Sacrament of the Eucharist held at the two universities under the auspices of the Edwardian Privy Council, the problem of biblical and patristic proof-texting arises again and again. Both traditionalist or Catholic and evangelical or protestant - the last term did not come into common usage until the reign of Mary I (1553-1558) - claimed that Scripture and the writings of the Fathers of the Church (the theologians of the approximately the first 500 years of Christianity) upheld their disputed doctrinal stances, and quoted them liberally to demonstrate their claims to the antiquity of those stances. These theologians and indeed Foxe himself falls into the trap of not looking at their sources more critically; such critical study was to been at the heart of the humanist endeavor among scholars, but this seems to have become more and more of an ideal rather than a reality among controversial theologians in the Reformation period. Often the biblical and patristic sources they employed had not been written over a thousand years previously as tools for controversy; but often as sermons or treatises that were more concerned with persuading Christians to a more devout life through rhetoric, rather than through precision of thought.

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William Wizeman, SJCorpus Christi ChurchNew York CityUSA

Not long after the death 
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Edward Seymour was executed for treason in October 1551.

of the Duke of Somerset, in the next yeare folowing deceassed the King himselfe about the moneth of Iune 
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Edward VI died on 6 July 1553.

, whereof more shall be said (the Lord graunting) in his due order and course heereafter. In the meane season, before we come to close vp the latter end and story of this good King, the place heere present seemeth not vnfitte to intermixt by the way a few other things before, hapning within the time of his reigne, namely concerning matters incident, of the Church & of Religiō. 
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Foxe concludes his discussion of Edward VI's reign and the religious reforms that came with it by reflecting on the state of the Edwardian Church and the Protestant religion its leaders attempted to establish in England.

MarginaliaReligion hindered by discorde.Which state of Religion begā wel to grow, & to come happely forward during this Kings daies, had not the vnhappy troubles of the outward state amongst the Lords not agreeing within themselues, disquieted the good towardnes of things begon. But the malice of the diuell how subtilly worketh it, if men could see it? So long as the Lordes agreed in concord among themselues, Winchester and Boner, with all that faction, was cut short, and began to condescend to good cōformitie 
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According to Foxe the English nobility were conforming to Protestant changes in religion, once Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, the leaders of traditional or Catholic faith in England, had been imprisoned in the Tower of London.

. But afterward perceauing the states and nobles of the Realme to be amōg themselues diuided, and þe Lord Protectour the Kings vncle displaced, and his brother the Admirall before beheaded, and the yong King now left in the case, they begā vpon some hope to take more hart vnto them, till at last it came to passe, as they themselues desired. And thus though nothing else will leade vs, yet experience may teach vs what discorde worketh in publicke weales: MarginaliaDiscorde what decay it worketh in a common wealth. and contrary, what a necessary thing concord is to the aduancemēt especially of Gods matters apperteining to his Church. Examples whereof in this Kings daies be not farre to seeke. For as touching the successe of the Gospell of peace, while publicke peace and the Gospel did ioine together, marueilous it was how errour & Popery were in themselues confounded, and ashamed almost to shewe their faces. MarginaliaD. Smyth, Chadsey, Standish, Younge, Oglethorpe, reclaymed from their errours.In so much that then both Doctour Smith, Chadsey, Standishe, Yong, Oglethorpe, with many moe recanted their former ignoraunce, whose recantations I haue to shew 
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Richard Smyth, William Chedsey, John Standish, John Young, Owen Oglethorpe were among the leaders of Catholic or traditional belief in England who seemingly conformed to the Edwardian Church. Smyth had been the Henrician Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and fled into exile after recanting. Chedsey was a canon of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. John Standish had published a book on traditional religion under Henry, but became Archdeacon of Colchester under Edward. John Young assisted in the foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge in Henry's reign. Owen Oglethorpe was President of Magdalen College, Oxford. They all became leading members of the Catholic Church hierarchy under Mary I. Only Standish conformed to the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559, the rest undergoing exile or imprisonment.

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. Boner then with his owne hand subscribed to the Kings supremacie, and promoted his Iniunctions 
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Bonner acceded to the Royal Supremacy in religious matters under both Henry VIII and Edward VI, and initially administered the Edwardian royal injunctions regarding religion in his Diocese of London. In a short time he refused to conform to the religious changes, however, and was tried, convicted, deprived of his diocese and imprisoned in the Tower.

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MarginaliaThe Gospell how it florished so long as peace continued.The same also did Steuen Gardiner, subscribing wyth his owne hand to the first booke of the Kings proceedings, and no doubt had done no lesse to the second booke also set foorth by the King 

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The second edition of the Book of Common Prayer appeared in 1552 with significant changes, which made more explicit the Protestant doctrines contained in the 1549 edition. Contrary to Foxe, there is no evidence that Gardiner intended to subscribe to the second Prayer Book. He was already imprisoned partly for his Catholic interpretation of the first, which incurred the wrath of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and encouraged him to bring forth the second edition.

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, had not the vnfortunate discorde fallen amongst the nobles in time so vnfortunate, as then it did. Brieflye during all that time of peace and concorde, what Papist was found in all the Realme, which for the Popes deuotion would or did once put his necke in the halter to die a Martyr for his sake? 
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The Edwardian regime was careful to imprison Bonner and Gardiner and to apply pressure to Mary to conform to religious changes; but they were careful not to make martyrs of them.

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MarginaliaPeter Martyr, Martyn Bucer, & Paulus Phagius, placed in the vniuersityes.I shewed before how in these peaceable dayes of Kyng Edward, Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer, Paulus Phagius, with other learned men moe, were enterteined, placed and prouided for in the two Vniuersities of this Realme, Oxford and Cambridge 

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Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were important theologians of the Reformation on the Continent, and fled to England from the Holy Roman Empire after Charles V's victories over the Protestant nobility. They were given important professorships in theology at England's two universities: Martyr at Oxford and the others at Cambridge.

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, who there with their diligent industrie did much good. The learned and fruitefull disputations of whome, I haue likewise present in my handes heere to insert, but that the bignes of this Volume driueth me to make short, especially seeing their disputations be so long and prolixe as they be, and also in Latin, and require of themselues a whole Volume to comprehend thē.

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First, Peter Martyr beeing called by the King to the publicke reading of the Diuinitie Lecture in Oxforde, amōgst his other learned exercises did set vp in publicke scholes iij. conclusions of Diuinitie to be disputed & tryed by Argument. MarginaliaThe kinges Visitors at the disputation in Oxford.At whiche disputations 

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Disputations were held at both universities on the subject of the Eucharist, one of the most divisive issues of the Reformation. These debates were set pieces to convince fellows, students and local aristocracy of Edwardian religious positions.

where present the Kings visitours, to witte, Henry Byshop of Lincolne, Doctour Coxe Chauncellour of that Vniuersitie, Doctour Haynes Deane of Exeter, M. Richard Morison Esquier, Christopher Neuynson Doctour of Ciuill law. MarginaliaThe conclusions to be disputed in Oxford.The con-clusions propounded were these.

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1. In the Sacrament of thankes geuing there is no transubstantiation 

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Transubstantiation is the Roman Catholic doctrine that maintains that in the mass the bread and wine are completely transformed into the real, substantial body and blood of the Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, crucified and risen from the dead.

of bread and wyne into the body and bloud of Christ.

2. The body and bloud of Christ is not carnally or corporally in bread and wine, nor as other vse to say, vnder the kindes of bread and wine. 

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Impanation (Luther's view that Christ's body and blood are present together with the bread and wine, often called consubstantiation) and Transubstantiation, in which only the outward signs of bread and wine remain), are denied.

3. The body and blond of Christ be vnited to bread and wyne Sacramentally. 

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Another denial of impanation is presented.

MarginaliaDisputers on the contrary part agaynst Peter Martyr.They which were the chiefe disputers against hym on the contrary side, were Doct. Tresham, D. Chadsey, and Morgan 

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William Tresham, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford until the beginning of Edward's reign, William Chedsey, Canon of St George's Windsor, and Henry Morgan, who became Marian bishop of St David's in Wales, upheld the traditional views on the Eucharist.

. The reasons and principall Arguments of Peter Martyr heereunder follow.

¶ The Arguments of Peter Martyr vpon the first conclusion.

MarginaliaThe first argument of Peter Martyr agaynst transubstantiation.The Scriptures most plainely do name and acknowledge bread and wyne. In the Euangelistes we reade that the Lord Iesus tooke bread, blessed it, brake it, and gaue it to his Disciples. S. Paule likewise doth ofttimes make mention of bread.

Ergo, we also with the scriptures ought not to exclude bread from the nature of the sacrament.

Cyprianus. 
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De caena Domini was a medieval sermon falsely ascribed to St Cyprian by both Catholics and Protestants at this time.

MarginaliaCyprian in sermon. De cæna Domini.As in the person of Christ, his humanitie was seene outwardlye, and his Diuinitie was secret within: so in the visible Sacrament the diuinitie inserteth it selfe in such sort as can not be vttered, that our deuotion about the Sacraments might be the more religious.

Ergo, as in the person of Christ: so in the Sacramente both the natures ought still to remaine.

Gelasius.

MarginaliaGelasius contra Eutithen.The Sacramentes which we receaue of the body and bloud of Christ, are a Diuine matter: by reason whereof, we are made partakers by the same, of his Diuine nature, and yet it ceaseth not still to be the substance of bread and wine. And certes the representation and similitude of the body and bloud of Christ, be celebrated in the action of the mysteries, &c.

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Augustinus.

MarginaliaAugust. De consecrat. dist. 2. ex Sententiis Presperi.As the person of Christ consisteth of God and man, when as he is true God, and true man. For euery thing conteyneth in it selfe the nature and veritie of those things whereof it is made. Now the Sacrament of the Church is made of two things, that is, of the Sacrament that signifieth, and of the matter of the Sacrament that is signified, &c.

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Theodoretus.

MarginaliaTheodoretus Dial. 1. contra Eutichen.These visible mysteries which are seene, he hath honored with the name of his body and bloud, not chaunging the nature, but adding grace vnto the nature, &c. And the same Theodoretus againe sayeth:

MarginaliaTheodoretus Dial. 2. contra Eutichen.Those mysticall sacraments after sanctification, do not passe out of theyr owne proper nature, but remayne still in their former substance, figure, and shape, &c.

Ergo, lyke as the body of Christ remained in him, and was not chaunged into his diuinitie: so in the sacrament the bread is not chaunged into the body, but both the substances remaine whole.

Origine.

MarginaliaOrigen, in Matth. cap. 15.If whatsoeuer entreth into the mouth, goeth downe into the belly, and so passeth through a man: euen that meate also which is sanctified by the word of God and by prayer, as touching that part which it hath materiall within it, passeth into the belly, and so voydeth through a man. But thorough prayer, which is adioined to it, according to the measure of faith, it is profitable and effectuall, &c. And he addeth moreouer: For it is not the outward matter of the bread, but the word that is spoken vpon it, that profiteth him which eateth him worthely, &c.

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Irenæus.

MarginaliaIrenæus lib. 4. contra heres.Iesus taking bread of the same condition which is after vs, (that is, taking bread of the same nature and kinde as we vse commonly to eate) did confesse it to be his body. And taking likewise the cup which is of the same creature which is after vs, (that is, which we commonly vse to drinke) confessed it to be his bloud, &c.

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MarginaliaIrenæus lib. eodem.Item, lib.4. Like as bread which is of the earth, receauing the word and calling of God, is now not common bread, but the Eucharist, consisting of two things, the one earthly, the other heauenly: so our bodies receauing the sacred Eucharist, be now not corruptible, hauing hope of resurrection, &c.

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¶ Argument.
Ba-The bread in the Sacrament is so chaunged into the
body, as our bodies are changed when they are made
vncorruptible by hope.
ro-But our bodies are not made incorruptible by chaun-
ging their substance.
co.Ergo,no more is the bread changed into the substance
of the body.
Gregory.