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Henry of Huntingdon

(c. 1088 - c. 1157) [ODNB]

Historian and poet; archdeacon of Huntingdon 1110; son of Nicholas, also archdeacon of Huntingdon

Wrote Historia Anglorum, covering the period from the Roman invasion in 43 BC to the accession of Henry II in 1154

Henry of Huntingdon was the son of a priest. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1129; 1583, p. 1154.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 159, 1301, 1317; 1576, pp. 119, 1113, 1126; 1583, pp. 118, 1139, 1152.

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Justus (St Justus)

(d. 627x31) [ODNB]

Sent in 601 with others to reinforce Augustine's mission; first bishop of Rochester (604 - 24); attended a council of the Frankish church in Paris 614; fled into Francia upon the accession of Eadbald in Kent

Archbishop of Canterbury (624 - 27x31)

Justus accompanied Augustine and was consecrated bishop of Rochester by him. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 158, 161; 1576, pp. 119, 121; 1583, pp. 118, 120.

Justus, as archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated Paulinus bishop of York. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

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Mellitus (St Mellitus)

(d. 624) [ODNB]

Leader of the group of missionaries sent by Gregory I in 601; bishop of London (604 - 616/18); archbishop of Canterbury (619 - 24)

Pope Gregory sent a letter to Mellitus. 1570, p. 159; 1576, p. 119; 1583, p. 118.

Mellitus was sent to the East Saxons and was consecrated bishop of London.1570, p. 159; 1576, p. 119; 1583, p. 118.

Mellitus converted King Sæberht of the East Saxons and built St Paul's. After the king's death, his sons, who had not been converted, expelled Mellitus because, as they had not been baptised, he refused them communion bread.1563, p. 18; 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

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Paulinus (St Paulinus)

(d. 644) [ODNB]

Bishop of York 625 and of Rochester 633; one of the monks sent by Gregory I in 601; worked to convert Eadwine of Northumbria

Eadwine of Northumbria was converted and baptised by Paulinus at York. 1563, p. 18; 1570, pp. 150, 163; 1576, pp. 112, 122; 1583, pp. 111, 121.

Eadwine was reluctant to convert, but Paulinus worked patiently to persuade him. Paulinus baptised many people in the rivers of the realm, and he built a stone church at Lincoln. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

Paulinus was the first bishop of York, consecrated by Justus, archbishop of Canterbury. Upon the death of Justus, Paulinus consecrated Honorius as his successor. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

After the death of King Eadwine, and the conquest by Cadwallon of Gwynedd and Penda of Mercia, the subsequent disorder forced Paulinus to flee into Kent, along with Queen Æthelburh and her daughter Eanflæd. There Paulinus became bishop of Rochester. 1570, p. 163; 1576, p. 122; 1583, p. 121.

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Sent in 601 with others to reinforce Augustine's mission; probably 3rd abbot of St Peter's and St Paul's, Canterbury [ODNB sub Gregorian Mission]

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 158; 1576, p. 119; 1583, p. 118.

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Sæberht of the East Saxons

(d. 616/17) [ODNB sub Kings of the East Saxons]

King of the East Saxons; nephew of King Æthelberht of Kent, his overlord

Converted to Christianity by Mellitus in 604

Sæberht was the first of the East Saxon kings to be converted. 1570, p. 151; 1576, p. 112; 1583, p. 111.

With Æthelberht of Kent, Sæberht built the church of St Paul's in London. They translated the archbishop's see to Canterbury. 1570, pp. 149, 161, 177; 1576, pp. 111, 121, 134; 1583, pp. 110, 120, 133.

141 [118]

The Letter of Gregory to Austen. A Letter of Gregory to K. Ethelbert.

is done without fault, which commeth of fault. As when we be hungry, we eate without fault, notwithstanding it commeth by the fault of our first father to vs that wee are hungrye, &c.

Where ye aske, if a man after the company with hys wyfe, may resort to the Church or to the holy Communion, before he be purged with water. The law giuen to the old people, commaunded that a man after the companye wyth his wife, both shoulde be purified with water, and also should tary the Sunnes set before he came to the congregation. Which seemeth to be vnderstand spiritually: for then most true it is, that the man companieth with the woman, when his minde through delectation is ioyned to vnlawfull concupiscence in his hart and cogitation. At what time, before the said fire of concupiscence shall be remooued, let the person thinke himselfe vnworthye the entraunce to the congregation, through the viciousnes of his filthy will. But of this matter sondry nations haue euery one their sondry customes: some on way & some an other. The auncient maner of the Romanes frō our forefathers, hath beene, that in such case, first they purged themselues with water, then for a little they abstaine reuerently, and so resort to the Church. &c.

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After many other words debated of this matter, thus he inferreth: but if any person not for voluptuousnes of the flesh, but for procreation of children, do company with his wife, that man concerning either the comming to the Church, or the receauing the misteries of the Lords body & bloud, is to be left to his owne iudgement: for he ought not to be forbid of vs to come, which when he lieth in the fire will not burne. &c.

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There is an other question also to these adioyned, with his aunswere likewise to the same, concerning pollutions in the night, but I thought these at this present to our english eares, sufficient.

To returne now to the story againe, Gregory after he had sent these resolutions to the questions of Austen, sendeth moreouer, to the Church of Englande moe coadiutors, and helpers, as Mellitus, Iustus, Paulinus, and Ruffianus, with bookes and such other implemēts as he thought necessary, for the English Church. He sendeth moreouer to the foresaide Austen a palle with letters wherein he setteth an order betweene the twoo Metropolitane seates, the one to be at London the other to be at Yorke. Notwithstanding he graunteth to the sayde Austen during his lyfe to be the onely chyefe Archbyshop of al the lande: and after hys tyme, then to returne to the two foresaide seats of London and Yorke, as is in þe same letter conteined, the tenour whereof here followeth in hys owne wordes as ensueth.

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The copie of the Epistle of Gregory sent to Augustinus into Englande.

REuerendissimo & sanctis. fratri Augustino cœpiscopo, Gregorius seruus seruorum Dei. Cum certum sit, pro omnipotente Deo laborātibus ineffabilia æterni Regis præmia reseruari, nobis tamen eis necesse est bonorum beneficia tribuere, vt in spiritualis operis studio ex remuneratione valeant multiplicius insudare: and so forth as followeth here in English.

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TO the reuerende and vertuous brother Augustine, his felow Byshop, Gregorius the seruaunt of the seruaunts of God. Although it be most certaine that vnspeakeable rewardes, of the heauenly king, be laide vp for all such, as labour in the wordes of almighty God, yet it shall be requisite for vs, to reward the same also with our benefites, to the ende, they may be more encouraged, to go forward in the study of their spirituall worke. And for asmuch now, as the new church of Englishmen is brought to the grace of almightie God, through his mightie helpe, and your trauayle, therefore we haue graunted to you the vse of the palle, only to be vsed at the solemnitie of your Masse: so that it shall bee lawfull for you to ordaine twelue Bishops, such as shal be subiect to your prouince or dition. So that hereafter alwaies the Byshop of the Citie of London, shall be ordeyned and consecrate by his owne proper Synode: and so to receaue the palle of houour frō the holy and Apostolike seate, wherein I here (by the permission of God) doe serue. And as touching the Citie of Yorke, we wyll sende also a Bysh. thether, whō you may thinke meet to ordayne. So that if that Citie with other places bordering thereby, shall receiue the word of God, he shall haue power likewise to ordayne twelue byshops, and haue the honour of a Metropolitane: to whō also if God spare me life, I entend by the fauour of God, to sende a palle: this prouided, that notwithstanding he shal be subiect to your brotherly appointment. But after your decease, the same Metropolitane, so to be ouer the Byshops whom he ordereth, that he be in no wise subiect to the Metropolitane of Londō after you. And here after betwixt these two Metropolitanes, of London, &Yorke, let there be had such distinction of honour, that hee shall haue the prioritie, which shall in time first bee ordeyned: Wyth common counsell, and affection of hart, let them go both together, disposing with one accord, such things as be to be done, for the zeale of Christ. Let them forethinke and deliberate together prudently, and what they deliberate wisely, let them accomplish concordly, not gerryng, nor swaruing, one from the other. But as for your part, you shall be indued with authoritie, not onelye ouer those Byshops, that you constitute, and ouer the other constituted by the byshop of Yorke. But also you to haue all other Priestes of whole Brytaine, subiect to our Lord Iesus Christ: to the ende that through your preaching and holines of life, they may learne both to beleeue rightly and to liue purely, and so in directing their life, both by the rule of true faith and vertuous maners, they may attaine, when God shall call them, the fruition and kingdome of heauen. God preserue you in health reuerend brother: the x before the Kalend. of Iuly, in the raygne of our soueraigne Lord Mauritius, most vertuous Emperour. MarginaliaGregory calleth the Emperour. hys Lord.

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MarginaliaA letter of Gregory. to Mellitus.Besides this, the said Gregory sendeth also an other letter to Mellitus, concerning his indgement what is to bee done with the idolatrous temples and Phanes of the Englishmen newly cōuerted, which Phanes he thinketh not best to plucke downe, but to conuert the vse thereof, and so let them stand. And likewise of their sacrifices and killyng of Oxen, how the same ought to be ordered, and howe to bee altered: disputing by the occasions therof, of the sacrifices of the old Egiptians, permitted of God vnto the Israelits the ende and vse thereof being altered. &c.

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MarginaliaA letter of Gregory to Austen.He sendeth also an other letter to the foresaid Austen, wherein he warneth him not to be proude or puft vp, for the myracles wrought of God by him, in conuertyng the people of Englande, but rather to feare and tremble, least so much as he were puft vp by the outward work of miracles, so much he shoulde fall inwardly through the vayne glory of his hart: and therfore wisely exhorteth him to represse the swelling glory of hart, with the remembraunce of his sinnes rather against God, whereby he rather hath cause to lament, then to reioyce for the other. Not all the elect of God (saith he) worketh miracles, and yet haue they their names written in the booke of life. And therefore he shoulde not count so much of those miracles done, but reioyse rather with the Disciples of Christ, & labor to haue his name written in the booke of life, where al the electe of God be contained, neither is there any ende of that reioycing. And whatsoeuer miracles it hath pleased god by him to haue been done, he shoulde remember they were not done for him: but for their conuersion, whose saluation god sought thereby, &c.

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MarginaliaA letter of Gregory to King Athelbert.Item, he directed an other Epistle to king Ethelbert, as is expressed at large in the Chronicle of Henry Huntyngton, Lib. 3. in the which Epistle, first he praised God, then commendeth the goodnes of the king, by whom it pleased god so to worke such goodnes of the people. Secondly exhorteth him to persist and continue in the godly profession of Christes faith, and to be feruent and zealous in the same: in conuerting the multitude, in destroying the temples and works of idolatry, in ruling and gouerning the people in all holines & godly conuersation, after the godly example of the Emperour Constantinus the great. Lastly, cōforting him with the promises of lyfe and reward to come, wyth the Lord that raigneth and liueth for euer: premonishyng him besides, of the terrours and distresses that shall happen (though not in his dayes) yet before the terrible daye of Gods iudgement: wherfore he willeth him alwaies to be sollicitous for his soule, and suspectfull of the houre of hys death, and watchfull of the iudgement, that he may be alwaies prepared for the same, when that iudgement shall come. In the ende he desireth him to accept such presentes as giftes which he thought good to sende vnto him from Rome, &c.

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Austen thus receyuing his palle from Gregory, as is aboue said, and now of a Monke beyng made an Archbyshop, after he had baptised a great part of Kent: hee after made two Archbyshops or Metropolitanes, by the commaundement of Gregory, as witnesseth Polychronicon, the one at London, the other at Yorke. MarginaliaAn. 600. Polycrō. lib. 5. ca. 9. Fab. part. 5. ca. 119. Archbishops of London & of York made by Austen.

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Mellitus, of whō mention is made before, was sent specially of the Eastsaxons in the prouince of Essex, where after he was made Bishop of London, vnder Sigebert kyng of Essex: which Sigebert together with his vncle Ethelbert, first built the church and minster of saint Paule in Londō, and appointed it to Mellitus for the byshops sea, MarginaliaMellitus Byshop of London. Austē (associate with this Mellitus and Iustus through the help of Ethelbert) assembled and gathered togither the Byshops & Doctours of Britaine in a place, which taking the name of the sayd Austen, was called Austens Oke. In this assēbly

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