Person and Place Index  *  Close
Henry IV

(1050 - 1106) [H. Vollrath, NCMH, vol 4:2, pp. 50-68]

King of Germany (1056 - 1105); Holy Roman Emperor (1084 - 1105) (abdicated) In repeated conflict with Pope Gregory VII over investiture; he was excommunicated and appointed an antipope

At the time of Gregory VII's synod in Rome, Henry IV held the right to invest archbishops, bishops and abbots. Gregory decreed that all those invested by the emperor had obtained their offices through simony. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1153.

Henry IV was deposed by Pope Gregory VII. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.

Person and Place Index  *  Close

(384 - 42) [R. W. Mathisen]

Roman emperor (393 - 95); Western Roman emperor (395 - 423)

He was one of the emperors to whom the pope and the people of Rome submitted. 1570, p. 7, 1576, p. 6, 1583, p. 6.

He was asked by Pope Boniface I to settle the claims to the papacy. 1570, p. 8, 1576, p. 7, 1583, p. 7.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Justinian I

(c. 482 - 565) [J. A. Evans]

Eastern Roman emperor (527 - 65)

Reformed legal code; reconquered Africa and Italy. Nephew of Justin

He was one of the emperors to whom the pope and the people of Rome submitted. 1570, p. 7, 1576, p. 6, 1583, p. 6.

Person and Place Index  *  Close

(392 - 457) [G. S. Nathan]

Soldier; captured by Vandals

Eastern Roman emperor (450 - 57); called the fourth ecumenical council at Chalcedon in 451

He was one of the emperors to whom the pope and the people of Rome submitted. 1570, p. 7, 1576, p. 6, 1583, p. 6.

Marcian called the Council of Chalcedon and commanded Pope Leo to attend. Leo would have preferred the council to be held at Rome, but sent his agents to appear on his behalf. 1563, p. 619, 1570, p. 1216, 1576, p. 1041, 1583, p. 1068.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Maurice (Flavius Mauricius Tiberius Augustus)

(d. 602) [W. Baum]

Cappadocian general; Eastern Roman emperor (582 - 602); he and his five sons were executed

Pope Gregory I was subject to him. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583; p. 6.

Maurice granted John IV Nesteutes, patriarch of Constantinople, the title of 'universal patriarch'. 1570, p. 16; 1576, p. 13; 1583, p. 13.

He and his sons were killed by his successor, Phocas. 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Phocas (Flavius Phocas Augustus)

(d. 610) [Baum,W. sub Maurice]

Officer in the Roman army; led rebellion against Maurice; killed Maurice and his sons

Eastern Roman emperor (602 - 10); beheaded

Phocas murdered Emperor Maurice and his children. 1570 p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Pope Gregory I was subject to Phocas. 1570, p. 7; 1576, p. 6; 1583, p. 6.

Because Phocas wanted the favour of the people, Boniface III was able to obtain from him the title of universal bishop. Phocas issued a decree giving Rome and its bishop supremacy over the church. 1563, p. 9; 1570, p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

Phocas in turn was killed by his successor. 1570 p. 161; 1576, p. 121; 1583, p. 120.

29 [6]

The difference betwene the Church of Rome that now is, and the auncient Church of Rome that hath bene.

did beare the figure, so that where soeuer the true Church of Christ is, there is annexed power to bynde & loose, geuen and taken meerly as from Christ, and not mediatly by the Pope or Byshop of Peters sea.

The second poynt Marginalia2. Ecclesiasticall iurisdiction abused and extended in the church of Rome further then the word limiteth.wherein this present Churche of Rome abuseth his iurisdiction contrary to Scripture and steps of the old Romane Church, is this, for that it extendeth his authoritie farther and more amply, thē either the warrant of the word, or example of time will giue. For although the Churche of Rome hath (as other particular churches haue) authoritie to binde and absolue, yet it hath no such authoritie to absolue subiectes frō their othe, subiection, and loyaltie to their rulers & Magistrates, to dispēse with periury, to denounce remissiō where no earnest repentaunce is sene before, to number remission by dayes & yeares, to dispense with thynges expressely in the word forbiddē, or to restrayne that which the word maketh free, to deuide Religion into Religions, to binde and burthen consciences with constitutions of men, to excommunicate for worldly matters, as for breakyng of parkes, for not ringyng bels at the Byshops commyng, for not bringyug litter for their horse, for not paying their fees and rētes, for withholding the church goods, for holding on their princes side in princely cases, for not going at the Popes commaundement, for not agreeyng to the Popes electiō in an other princes Realme, with other such thyngs mo & more vayne then these. &c. Agayne, although the Scripture geueth leaue and authoritie to the Byshop and Churche of Rome to minister Sacraments, yet it geueth no authoritie to make Sacramentes, much lesse to worshyp Sacraments. And though their authoritie serueth to baptise mē yet it extendeth not to Christen bels: MarginaliaChristening of Bels.neither haue they authoritie by any word of God to adde to the word of God, or take from the same, to set vp vnwritten verities vnder payne of damnation, to make other articles of belief, to institute straunge worship, otherwise thē he hath prescribed, which hath told vs how he would be worshipped. &c.

[Back to Top]

The third abuse of the Popes iurisdiction Marginalia3. The iurisdiction of the Pope abused and vsurped in temporal matters where he hath nothing to doe.standeth in this, that as in spirituall iurisdiction they haue vehemētly exceeded the boūdes of Scripture, so they haue impudētly intermedled them selues in temporall iurisdictiō, wherein they haue nothing to do. In so much that they haue trāslated the Empire, they haue deposed Emperours, Kyngs, Princes & rulers & Senatours of Rome, & set vp other, or the same agayne at their pleasure, they haue proclaymed warres, & haue warred them selues. And where as Emperours in aūcient tyme haue dignified thē in titles, haue enlarged thē with donations, & they receauyng their confirmation by the Emperours, haue like ingratfull clients to such benefactors, afterward stampte vpon their neckes, haue made thē to hold their sturrup, some to hold þe bridle of their horse, haue caused them to seeke their confirmation at their hand, yea haue bene Emperours thēselues: Sede vacante, & in discordia electionis, and also haue bene Senators of the Citie. Moreouer haue extorted into their owne handes the plenary fulnes of power & iurisdiction of both the swordes, especially since the tyme of Pope Hildebrand: which Hildebrand deposing Henricus the iiij. Emperour, made him geue attendance at his Citie gate. And after him Pope Bonifacius the viij. shewed him selfe vnto the people on the first day like a Byshop, with his keyes before him, & þe next day in his robes Imperiall, hauyng a naked sword borne before him, like an Emperour. an. 1298. And for so much as this inordinate iurisdiction hath not onely bene vsed of thē, but also to this day is mainteined in Rome, let vs therefore now compare the vsage hereof to the old maner in tymes past, meanyng the primitiue and first age of the Church of the Romaines. Wherein þe old Byshops of Rome in those dayes, as they were then subiect to their Emperours, so were other Byshops in like maner of other nations subiect euery one to his Kyng & Prince, acknowlegyng them for their Lordes, & were ordered by their authoritie & obeyed their lawes, and that not onely in causes ciuile but also in regiment Ecclesiasticall as appeareth Dist. 10. cap. 1. & 2. Dist. 97. cap. De illicita.

[Back to Top]

Also 24. q. 3. So was Gregorius surnamed Magnus, subiect to Mauritius, and to Phocas, although a wicked Emperour. Marginalia Popes submitted in the olde tyme to Emperours.So also both Pope & people of Rome tooke their lawes of the Emperours of Constantinople, & were submitted to thē, not onely in the time of Honorius an hūdreth yeares after Constantine the great, but also in the tyme of Martianus, an. 451. & so further vnto the tyme of Iustinian & of Carolus Magnus, and also after the dayes of them. MarginaliaEx cap. 1. de iuramentis calumniat.In all which cōtinuance of tyme, it is manifest, that the Emperiall law of Martiane did rule & bynde in Rome, both in the days of Iustinian, an 150. yeres after, til the tyme of the Empire beyng translated from Grece vnto Fraūce. Wherebyit may appeare false, that the Citie of Rome was geuē by Constantine the first, vnto the bishop of Rome to gouerne, for that Pope Bonifacius the first writyng to the Emperour Honorius, calleth in the same place Rome the Emperours Citie. Dist. 97. cap. 1. MarginaliaDist. 97. cap. 1.And Lotharius, also Emperour appointed Magistrates and lawes in Rome, as is aboue mentioned. Moreouer, for further probation hereof, that both the Byshop of Rome & all other Ecclesiasticall persons were in former tyme, and ought to be subiect to their Emperours and lawfull Magistrates, in causes as well spirituall as ciuile, by many euidences may appeare, takē out both of Gods law, and mans law. And first by Gods law MarginaliaPlat. in vita Euge. 2. Euidences prouing ecclesiasticall persons to haue bene subiect to their Magistrates in causes both Ecclesiasticall & temporall. Euidences out of the Scripture. Dauid. 1. Par. cap. 30. 31. Ezechias. 4. Reg. 18. The order of Abias was the eight order among the Priests. 1. Par. 24.we haue exāple of godly kyng Dauid, who numbred all the Priestes and Leuites, & disposed thē into xxiiij. orders or courses, appointyng thē cōtinually to serue in the ministery euery one in his proper order & turne, as came about: which institution of the Clergy, also good king Ezechias afterward renued, of whō it is written: he did that was right in the sight of the Lord, accordyng to all things as his father Dauid had done before, he tooke away the high groues, and brake downe Images. &c. 4. Reg. 8. The sayd Ezechias also reduced the Priests & Leuites into their orders, prescribed by Dauid before, to serue euery one in his office of ministratiō. 2. Paralip. 30. 31. And this order frō Dauid still continued till the time of Zachary at the cōmyng of Christ our Lord, beyng of Abias course, which was the viij. order of the Priestes appointed to serue in the tabernacle. Luc. 1. To passe ouer other lighter offices translated from the Priestes to the Kyngs authoritie, as cōcernyng the orderyng of oblations in the Temple, and reparations of the Lordes house, kyng Salomon MarginaliaSalomon.displaced Abiathar the high Priest, by his kyngly power, and placed Sadoch in his stede. 3. Reg. cap. 6. Also dedicatyng the temple of the Lord with all the people, blessed the whole congregation of Israell. 3. Reg. 8. Iudas Machabeus MarginaliaIudas Machabeus.also elected Priestes, such as beyng without spot had a zeale to the law of the Lord, to purge the Temple, which the Idolatrous Gentiles had before prophaned. 1. Machab. 4.

[Back to Top]

Also kyng Alexander writyng to Ionathas, appointed him chief Priest in his coūtrey. 1. Mac. 10. Marginalia1. Mac. 10.Demetrius ordeined Simon & Alchinus in the like office of Priesthood. Marginalia1. Mac. 14.Iosaphat MarginaliaIosaphat.likewise as in the whole lād did set Iudges, so also in Hierusalem he appointed Leuites & Priestes, and heades of families to haue the hearyng of causes, and to minister Iudgement ouer the people. 2. Paral. 19. Marginalia2. Par. 19.By these & many other is to be sene, the Kynges & Princes in the old tyme as well, when Priestes were borne Priestes, as whē they were made by election, had the dealyng also in Ecclesiasticall matters, as in callyng the people to Gods seruice, in cutting down groues, in destroying images, in gathering tithes into þe Lordes house, in dedicating the tēple, in blessing the people, in castyng downe the brasen Serpēt within the tēple, in correcting & deposing Priestes, in cōstituting the order & offices of Priestes, in commaundyng such thynges as pertained to the seruice & worshyp of God, & in punishyng the contrary. &c. And in the new Testament what meaneth the exāple of Christ himselfe both geuing & teaching tribute to be geuen to Cæsar? to Cæsar I say, & not to þe high Priest. What meaneth his wordes to Pilate not denying power to be geuen to him from aboue? MarginaliaIohn 19.

[Back to Top]

And agayne declaryng the kynges of nations to haue dominiō ouer thē, & willing his Disciples not so to do, geuyng vs to vnderstād the difference betwene the regimēt of his spirituall kingdome, & of þe kingdome of this world, willyng all worldly states to be subiect vnder the superiour rulers & Magistrates, in whose regiment is dominiō and suiectiō, & not in the other. Whereunto accorbeth also the doctrine of S. Paule, where it is written: let euery soule be subiect to the higher powers, MarginaliaRom. 13.vnder whose obedience neither Pope, Cardinall, Patriarch, Byshop, Priest, Frier nor Monke is excepted, nor exempted, as Theophilactus MarginaliaTheophilactus.expoūdyng the same place declareth, & sayth: Vniuersos erudit, siue sacerdos sit ille, siue monachus, siue Apostolus, vt se principibus subdant: that is, he teacheth all sortes, whether he bee Priest, or Monke, or els Apostle, that they should submit themselues vnder their Princes. &c. And S. Augustine writyng ad Bonifacium, MarginaliaAug. ad Bonifacium.sayth in much like sort: Quicunq; autem legibus imperatoris, quæ pro Dei veritate seruntur, obemperare non vult, acquirit grande supplicium 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Difference between early Church and Roman Church: letter from Augustine to Boniface.
Foxe text Latin

Quicunq; autem legibus imperatoris, quæ pro Dei veritate seruntur, obemperare non vult, acquirit grande supplicium,

Foxe text translation

whosoeuer refuseth to obey the lawes of the Emperor, which make for the veritie of God, incurreth the daunger of great punishmēt. &c.

Actual text of Augustine's letter


quicumque autem legibus imperatorum, quae pro Dei veritate feruntur, obtemperare non vult, acquirit grande supplicium.


Accurate citation, except that Foxe has the genitive singular imperatoris rather than the plural imperatorum.

, that is, whosoeuer refuseth to obey the lawes of the Emperor, which make for the veritie of God, incurreth the daunger of great punishmēt. &c. Also in an other place, writyng cōtra Cresconium, MarginaliaAug. contra Cresconiū. li. 3. cap. 5.hath these words: In hoc enim reges sicut eis diuinitus præcipitur, Deo seruiunt, in quantum reges, si in suo regno bona iubeant, mala prohibeant, non solùm quæ pertinent ad humanam societatem, verumetiam quæ ad diuinam religionē &c. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Difference between early Church and Roman Church: letter of Augustine to Cresconius.
Foxe text Latin

In hoc enim reges sicut eis diuinitus præcipitur, Deo seruiunt, in quantum reges, si in suo regno bona iubeant, mala prohibeant, non solðm quæ pertinent ad humanam societatem, verumetiam quæ ad diuinam religionē &c.

Foxe text translation

Kynges accordyng as it is inioyned them of God, do serue God in that they are kynges, if they in their kyngdome commaunde those thynges that be good, & forbid thynges that be euill, such as appertaine not onely to humaine societie, but also to Gods Religion. &c.

Actual text of Augustine


LIBER TERTIUS. Pat. Lat. Vol. 43. Col. 0527.

In hoc enim reges, sicut eis divinitus praecipitur, Deo serviunt in quantum reges sunt (Psalm. II, 10), si in suo regno bona jubeant, mala prohibeant, non solum quae pertinent ad humanam societatem, verum etiam quae ad divinam religionem.

that is, Kynges accordyng as it is inioyned them of

[Back to Top]