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Martin Luther
 
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Martin Luther

(1483 - 1546) [C. Scott Dixon and Mark Greengrass, www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/histcourse/reformat/biograph.htm]

b. Eisleben; of Wittenberg; German theologian, Augustinian monk, founder of the protestant reformation; translated the bible into German

Luther regarded the Donation of Constantine as fraudulent. 1570, p. 144, 1576, p. 106, 1583, p. 105.

Upon leaving England, William Tyndale went into Saxony and met Luther. 1570, p. 1226; 1576, p. 1050; 1583, p. 1076.

Humphrey Monmouth was accused of helping William Tyndale and William Roy to get to the continent to join Martin Luther. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 997.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo X issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

Luther was called to Rome to answer charges of heresy. The duke of Saxony, John Frederick I, pleaded to have him tried by impartial judges. His case, however, was committed to be heard by the legate to Germany, Cardinal Cajetan, a sworn enemy of Luther. The cardinal rejected his case, and Luther appealed from the cardinal to the pope. This appeal was turned down, and Luther appealed to the next general council. 1570, p. 1477; 1576, p. 1252; 1583, pp. 1289-90.

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Henry VIII issued a proclamation against the heresies of Luther. 1570, p. 1159; 1576, p. 991; 1583, p. 1019.

Robert Barnes fled England and went to Germany, where he found favour with Luther, Melancthon, Bugenhagen, Justus Jonas, Hegendorph, Aepinus, the duke of Saxony and the king of Denmark. 1563, p. 603; 1570, p. 1366; 1576, p. 1165; 1583, p. 1194.

Catholics defamed Luther, claiming he died of drunkenness. 1570, p. 1439; 1576, p. 1227; 1583, p. 1257.

Luther was one of those Sir Thomas More in The Supplication of Purgatory said the souls in purgatory railed against. 1570, p. 1156; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

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The difference betwene the Church of Rome that now is, and the auncient Church of Rome that hath bene

ding as it doth) neither they are to be reputed for true Catholikes being altered so far from them: nor we otherwise then heretikes if we shoulde now ioyne with these. MarginaliaThe false image of the Popes Church.For the more triall whereof, let us examine the doctrine & rites of the sayd Church of Rome now vsed, and compare the same with the teaching of the auncient Catholikes; to the intent that such simple soules as haue beene hetherto, and yet seduced by the false visour and image of this pretenced and bastardly church, perceauing what lieth within it, may be warned by tyme, either to eschue the perill, if they list to be instructed: or if not, to blame none but thēselues for their owne wilfull destruction. And albeit I coulde here charge the newfangled Church of the Pope with vij. or viij. heynous crimes, as blasphemy, Idolatry, heresie, superstitiou, absurditie, vanitie, crueltie, and contrarietic (as which neither agreeth with the old learning of their forelders, nor yet with thēselues in sundry points) yet after a more temperate sort to passe this matter wyth them, these ij. things, I will & dare boldly affirme, that in this doctrine of the Pope nowe taught in the Church of Rome, is neither any consolation of conscience, nor saluation of mans soule. MarginaliaNo comfort nor saluation in the Popes doctrine now taught.For seeing there is no life nor soule-health but onely in Christ, nor any promise of saluation or comfort made, but only by faith in the sonne of God; what assurance then can there be of perfect peace, life, or saluatiō, where that which onely maketh all, is least made of, and other things which make least are most esteemed? For to say the simple truth, what els is the whole course and body of the popes law now set foorth, MarginaliaThe scope and summe of the Pope doctrine whether it tendeth.but a doctrine of laws, a heape of ceremonies, a teaching of traditions, a meditation of merites, a foundation of new Religions: al which conferre not one iote to the iustification of our soules before the terrible iudgement of God?

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And therefore (as it may be truely saide) this doctrine of the Pope to be voyd of all true comfort and saluation: so likewise it seemeth that these which addict themselues so deuoutly to þe popes learning, were neuer earnestly afflicted in conscience, neuer humbled in spirite nor broken in hart, neuer entred into any serious feeling of Gods iudgement, nor euer felt the strength of the law & of death. MarginaliaPapistes neuer lightly afflicted in conscience deepely.For if they had, they shoulde soone haue seene their owne weakenes and be driuen to Christ: then should they haue seene what a horrible thing it is to appeare before GOD the father, or once to thinke on him (as Luther saith) without christ. MarginaliaAn horrible thing to thinke of God without Christ. Luther.And on the contrarye side, then shoulde they know what a glory, what a kingdome, what liberty and life it were to be in Christ Iesus by faith; holding their inheritance, not with the bondsonne of Agar, but with the free sonne of Sara: by promise and not by þe law: by grace, and not by works: by gift and not by deseruing, that god onely might be praysed and not man.

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And thus were the olde Romaines first taught by S. Paule writing to the Romanes. MarginaliaThe right fayth of the olde Romanes.The same did Cornelius the Romaine, and first that was Baptised of all the Gentiles, MarginaliaCornelius a Romane first baptised of all the Gentiles.learne of S. Peter when he receaued the holy Ghost, not by the deedes of the law, but onely by hearing the faith of Iesus preached. And in the same doctrine the sayd Church of the Romaines many yeares continued, so long as they were iu affliction. And in the same doctrine, the byshop of Rome with his Romanes now also should still remayne, if they were such auncient Catholickes as they pretende, and woulde follow the old mother Church of Rome, and holde the first liquor wherewith they were first seasoned. MarginaliaThe church of Rome hath lost the liquor wherewith it was first seasoned. But the sweete verdor and sent of that liquor and pleasant must is nowe cleane put out through other vnsauery infusions of the Popes thrusting in, so that almost no tast nor peece remaineth of all that primitiue doctrine which S. Paule and other Apostles first planted among the Gentiles: And what maruell if tho Romanes now in so long tract of time haue lost their first sap, seyng the Church of the Galathians MarginaliaThe Galathians almost gone frō fayth in Sainct Paules time. then in the very time of S. Paule their Schoolemaister, he being amongst them, had not so soone turned his backe a little, but they were all turned almost from the doctrine of fayth, and had much adoo to be recouered againe?

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Of this defection and falling from faith. S. Paule expressely foretelleth vs in his letters both to the Thessalonians, and also to Timothe, where he sheweth: that a defection sall come, and that certaine shall depart from the faith, attending to spirits of errour. &c. 1 Tim. 4. Marginalia1. Tim. 4.And to know what errours these shall be, the circumstance plainly leadeth vs to vnderstande in the same place, where the sayd Apostle, speaketh of marked consciences, forbidding men to marry, and to eate meates ordeined of God to be taken with thankes giuing, for mans sustenance most euidently as with his finger, pointeth out vnto us þe church of Rome, which not in these pointes onely but also in allother conditions, almost is vtterly reuolted from the pure originall sincerity of that doctrine which Saint Paule planted in the Churche of the Romanes, and of all other Gentiles.

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¶ The Summe of S. Paules doctrine deliuered to the Gentiles. 
Commentary  *  Close
St. Paul's doctrine

Foxe concluded the preliminary material on the 'Title': 'Jurisdiction': 'Life'; and 'Doctrine' of the church with this extended and carefully-worked passage which summarized, with ample glosses to the Pauline epistles, what one might regard as the emerging protestant orthodoxy on the main issues of faith, the law, the sacraments, civil and ecclesiastical authority, etc. He followed it with a further 'brief recapitulation of S. Paules doctrine reduced in to v. principall braunches'. Both these sections would have been very easily compiled using the glosses of the Geneva Bible. On the basis of these two sections, it was relatively easy for Foxe to prepare the 'summary collection of the errours, heresies and absurdities conteined in the Popes doctrine' which followed

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Mark Greengrass and Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaA briefe sūme of S. Paules doctrine deliuered to the Gentiles.1. FIrst, the doctrine of S. Paule ascribeth all our iustification freely & meerly to faith onely in Christ as to the onely meanes and cause immediate, whereby þe merites of Christes passion be applyed vnto vs, without any other respect of worke or workes of the law, whatsoeuer: and in this doctrine the Church of the Romanes was first planted.

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MarginaliaSaluation by mercy onely and not by merites.2. Secondly, the same doctrine of S. Paule cutting of and excluding all glory of mans deseruing, stayeth onely vpon Gods promise and vpon grace, not mans merites; vpon mercy, not mans labouring or running: vpon election and calling, not mans willing. &c.

MarginaliaAll fleshe concluded vnder sinne.3. Thirdly, the same doctrine casting downe the strength of man and his integra naturalia (as the scholes doe terme them) concludeth all fleshe vnder sinne, and maketh the same destitute of the glory of God.

MarginaliaDifference betweene the law and the gospell.4. Item, it maketh manifest difference betweene the law and the Gospell, declaring the vse and ende of them to be diuers: the one to kill, the other to quicken; the one to cōdemne, the other to iustifie: the one to haue an ende and a tyme, the other to be perpetuall. &c.

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MarginaliaIusticia dei. Iusticia propria.5. Item, the same doctrine of S. Paule, as it sheweth a difference betweene the law and the Gospell: so it maketh no lesse difference betweene Iusticia Dei, and Iusticia propria, that is, the righteousnes of God and the righteousnes of man, MarginaliaThe righteousnesse of God, and the righteousnes of man howe they differ in Scripture.abhorryng the one, that is, mans owne righteousnes, comming by the law and works: and embracing the other which God imputeth freely and graciously to vs for Christ his sonnes sake, in whom we beleeue.

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6. Item, it wipeth away al traditions, and constitutions of men whatsoeuer; especially from binding of conscience, calling them beggerly elements of this world.

MarginaliaA true christian knoweth nothing but Christ crucified.7. Likewise it reiecteth and wipeth away al curious subtilities, and superfluous speculations; & knoweth nothing els but Christ onely Crucified, which is onely the obiect whereunto our faith looketh.

MarginaliaAll men condemned by one:8. Furthermore, as the same doctrine of S. Paule defieth al men to be transgressours by disobedience of one Adam, though they neuer touched the Aple, comming of his stocke by nature: so doth it prooue all men to be iustified by the obedience of one, though they did not his obedience, being likewise borne of him by spirituall regeneration and faith.

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MarginaliaAll men saued by one. Originall sinne, originall iustice.9. And therfore as all men comming of Adam be condenned originally, before they grow vp to commit anye sinne agaynst the law; so all men be saued originally being regenerated by fayth in Christ, before they begin to do any good worke of charite, or any other good deede.

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10. Item, the doctrine of S. Paule perpending the high glory of a Christen mans state in Christ Iesus by faith, first setteth him in a perfect peace with almightie God. Rom. 5. MarginaliaRom. 5.Secondly exempteth him from all condemnatiō. Rom. 8. Thirdly it matcheth him with aungels, it equalleth him with Saints and felow-citizens of heauen, it nūbereth him with the housholde of God, and inheriteth him with Iesus Christ himselfe. Ephes. 2. MarginaliaEphes. 2.Fourthly it adopteth him from the state of a seruaunt, to the state of the sonne of God, crying Abba father. Gal. 4. MarginaliaItaq; [illegible text] non es seruus sed filius. Gal. 4.Fiftly, it openeth to him a bolde accesse and entraunce to the high maiestie and throne of grace, Ephes. 2. Heb. 4. MarginaliaHeb. 4.Sixtlye, it subiecteth all thinges vnder him: as ministers, yea, the Apostles themselues in their hiest office, death, life, thinges present, thinges to come, with the whole worlde besides and assigneth him no spirituall head, but onely Christ, saying. And you are Christes, and Christ is Gods. 1. Cor. 3. Marginalia1 Cor. 3.Seuenthly, it aduaunceth and setteth him in a spirituall liberty or freedome, aboue all terrours of spirite, MarginaliaThe glorious state of Christian libertie, and spirituall freedome in Christ Iesu. rising either of Gods lawe or mans lawe, aboue all dreadfull feares of sinne, damnation, malediction, reiection, death, hell, or purgatory: aboue al seruile bondage of ceremonies, mens precepts, traditions, superstitious vses, yokes, customes, or what els soeuer oppresseth and intangleth the spirituall freedome of a conscience wich Christ hath set at libertie. And requireth moreouer that wee walke and stande stout in that liberty with the free sonne of Sara, whereto we are brought, and not suffer our selues any more to bee clogged with any such seruile bondage: that is to meane, although we must be content to subiect our bodies to all seruice & to all men, yet that we yeld not our spirituall consciences

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and