Person and Place Index  *  Close
Alexander of Jerusalem

(d. 251) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Imprisoned under Severus; coajutor with the bishop of Jerusalem, ordained Origen. Died in prison in Caesarea

Alexander suffered greatly under Severus, but survived the persecuton. He was later made bishop of Jerusalem with Narcissus. He built a library there. He died in prison under Decius. 1570, pp. 80, 88; 1576, pp. 55, 61; 1583, pp. 54-55, 60.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Aquila

Judge in Alexandria under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Aquila took part in the persecution of the Christians. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Aquila of Sinope

C2 translator of the Old Testament into Greek [www.jewishencyclopedia.com]

Joined the Christians, then Judaism; his translation was used by Origen and Jerome

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Basilides

Officer in Alexandria; legend that he was converted by the martyrdom of Potamiaena

He himself was martyred in Alexandria C2-3

Basilides was in charge of the execution of Potamiaena and her mother. Potamiaena appeared to him after her death and converted him. He was beheaded.1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Capella

Governor under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Capella took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cecilius

Governor under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Cecilius took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Claudius

Governor under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Claudius took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Commodus (Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus)

(161 - 192) [D. Quinn www.roman-emperors.org]

Son of Marcus Aurelius; co-emperor with his father (178 - 80)

Roman emperor (180 - 192); murdered

Commodus caused difficulties for the senate, but was not a persecutor of Christians. 1570, pp. 39, 75; 1576, pp. 31, 51; 1583, pp. 31, 51.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Cyprian of Carthage(St Cyprian)

(d. 258) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Teacher of rhetoric; bishop of Carthage (249 - 58); there was opposition and schism in his see. Early Christian writer; in conflict with Pope Stephen I over the efficacy of baptism by heretics; executed

Cyprian was born in Carthage, grew up a pagan and became a skilled rhetorician. He was converted by a priest and baptised. Not long after he became a priest, he was made bishop of Carthage. 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian was called 'papas' or 'father'. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

Cyprian favoured the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Pope Stephen. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.

Cyprian complained that many of the faithful, without having been subjected to any torture, through cowardice voluntarily agreed to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.

Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.

Cyprian was banished from Carthage during the reign of Gallus due to sedition within the church there. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.

Cyprian returned from exile in the reign of Valerian. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Cyprian received visions warning him of the persecution of Valerian. He wrote an Apology in defence of the Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.

He was banished a second time. When he refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.

Foxe discusses his writings. 1570, pp. 99-101; 1576, pp. 70-71;1583, pp. 69-71.

Constantine fulfilled Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

 
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Demetrius

C3 heathen addressed in Cyprian's Apologia Ad Demetrianum, defending Christianity and Christians against the charge that they were the cause of public disasters

Demetrius took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Eusebius of Caesarea

(263 - 339) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, presbyter at the church at Caesarea; wrote History of the Church

Eusebius said that he himself had known the martyrs in Palestine who died during Diocletian's persecution. 1570, p. 110; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.

He personally witnessed the persecutions in the Thebiade. 1570, p. 113; 1576, p. 80; 1583, p. 80.

He was present at the martyrdom of Philoromus at Alexandria. 1570, p. 128; 1576, p. 93; 1583, p. 92.

Eusebius received a letter from Constantine, instructing him to build and repair churches in Caesarea. 1570, p. 141; 1576, p. 104; 1583, p. 103.

Foxe uses Eusebius extensively as a source throughout Book 1.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Heraclides

Pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Heraclides was beheaded. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Herais

Female pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

She is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hermianus

Governor of Cappadocia under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Hermianus took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Heron

Pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Heron was beheaded. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Hilarianus

Governor of Carthage under Emperor Severus (r. 193 - 211)

Hilarianus took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Jerome (Eusebius Hieronomous) (St Jerome)

(c. 340/2 - 420) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Scholar; translator of the bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin; studied at Rome and Trier. Lived as an ascetic (374 -79); lived in Constantinople (380 - 81), Rome (382 - 85) and Bethlehem (386)

Jerome was called 'papas' or 'father' by Boniface I and others. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Leonides of Alexandria (St Leonides)

(d. 202) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Father of Origen; martyr under Septimius Severus

Leonides had educated his son in the scriptures. He was beheaded in the persecution of Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Lucius Septimius Severus

(145/6 - 211) [ODNB; M. L. Meckler www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (193 - 211); reformer and efficient administrator

Led imperial expedition into Britain to quell rebellions in 208; died at York

For the first ten years of his reign, Severus was favourable to the Christians, but then began to persecute them. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

Foxe says Severus built a great wall between England and Scotland and that he was killed under siege. 1570, p. 83; 1576, p. 57; 1583, p. 57.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Marcella

Mother of Potamiaena; martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Marcella was burnt in the same fire as her daughter. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Narcissus of Jerusalem

C2-3 bishop of Jerusalem

Narcissus supported the position of Pope Victor I in celebrating Easter on a Sunday. 1570, p. 82; 1576, p. 56; 1583, p. 53.

Narcissus was an very old man, and Alexander was brought in to assist him. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Origen

(d. c. 254) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Christian scholar, theologian

Head of a school at Alexandria; banished by a church council held in 231; started a school at Caesarea; imprisoned under Decius

Origen was a pious and scholarly child. He would have suffered martyrdom with his father during the reign of Severus, but his mother hid his clothes. After the death of his father, Origen supported his mother and siblings by starting a school. He then went on to translate scripture from the Hebrew. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

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Origen was sought out by his fellow Christians, and many of his associates were martyred. 1570, pp. 79-80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

He was sent for by Julia Mamaea, mother of Emperor Alexander Severus, and he spent some time with them. 1570, p. 84; 1576, p. 58; 1583, p. 57.

Origen wrote his lost martyrology during the persecutions of Maximinus Thrax. 1570, p. 85; 1576, p. 59; 1583, p. 59.

He and Pope Fabian converted Emperor Philip the Arab and his family. 1570, p. 86; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 59.

Origen wrote De orthodoxia su? fidei to Fabian. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

Under Decius, Origen suffered threats, torture and imprisonment. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

He was banished from Alexandria for sacrificing to the gods. He went to Jerusalem and spent the rest of his life in misery and poverty. He was buried in Tyre.1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

Jerome was at times critical of Origen's doctrine, but praised his learning. 1570, p. 87; 1576, p. 60; 1583, p. 60

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Plutarch

Pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Plutarch was martyred with his brother Serenus. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
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Potamiaena

Female pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Potamiaena was covered with pitch and then burnt with her mother. After her death, she appeared to the captain in charge of her execution and converted him. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Serenus

Pupil of Origen martyred at Alexandria C2-3

Serenus was burnt. He was martyred with his brother Plutarch. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Serenus

Pupil of Origen martyred Alexandria C2-3

Serenus was beheaded. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Symmachus the Ebionite

Late C2 author of a Greek version of the Old Testament [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Wrote commentaries; his works were used by Origen

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Theodotion

Mid-C2 Greek Jewish scholar who translated the Hebrew bible into Greek [www.jewishencyclopedia.com]

His work was used by Origen

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Vespronius Candidus

C2 governor in Africa [Paul Keresztes, 'The Constitutio Antoniniana and the Persecutions under Caracalla', American Journal of Philology, vol. 91, no. 4 (October, 1970), p. 448]

Vespronius Candidus took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Vigellius Saturninus

(fl. 180) [Paul Keresztes,'The Constitutio Antoniniana and the Persecutions under Caracalla', American Journal of Philology, vol. 91, no. 4 (October, 1970), pp. 451-52]

Governor in Africa under whom the first African martyrdoms took place

Vigellius took part in the persecution of the Christians under Severus. 1570, p. 79; 1576, p. 54; 1583, p. 54.

77 [54]

The first Booke conteyning the X. first persecutions, of the Primitiue Churche.

of certaine holy Martyrs, as is aboue declared, vnto his Church. In the which time of tranquillitie, the Christians hauing now some laisure from the foraine enemy, begā to haue a little contention among themselues, about the ceremonie of Easter: Marginalia Difference about the ceremony of Easter. which contention albeit of long time before had bene stirring in the church as is before mentioned of Polycarpus and Anicetus: yet the variance and difference of that ceremonie brought no breach of Christian concorde and societie among them: Neither as yet did the matter exceede so farre, but that the band of loue, and communion of brotherly life continued, although they differed in the ceremonie of the day. For they of the West Church pretending the tradition of Paule and Peter, but in deede beyng the traditiō of Hermes and of Pius, kept one day, which was vpon the Sonday after the 14. day of the first moneth. The Church of Asia following the ordinance of Iohn the Apostle, obserued an other, as more shalbe declared (the Lord willing) when we come to the tyme of Victor Bishop of Rome. In the meane tyme as concerning the fourth persecution, let this hetherto suffise.

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The fift Persecution. 
Commentary  *  Close
The first ten persecutions

The section on the first 300 years of the church was, however, just the preface to the 'First Ten Persecutions', a structured 'decade' of martyrdoms in the early church that mirrored the 'centuries' into which the Magdeburg Centuries had chosen to organize its history of the Christian church. For our examination of Foxe's (extensive) borrowings from the Magdeburg Centuries, we have made use of the online edition of this text at: http://www.mgh-bibliothek.de/digilib/centuriae.htm and, for the bibliographical complexities surrounding its publication, Ronald E. Diener, 'The Magdeburg Centuries. A Bibliothecal and Historiographical Study'. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard Divinity School 1978/79). For these sections, we have undertaken a very preliminary analysis, concentrating on the following textual divisions: Introduction to first 10 persecutions (1583, p. 34; 1576, p. 34; 1570, pp. 53-4); First persecution (1583, pp. 34-5; 1576, p. 34; 1570, pp. 54-6); Second persecution (1583, pp. 35-9; 1576, pp. 35-9; 1570, pp. 56-7); Third persecution (1583, pp. 39-42; 1576, pp. 39-42; 1570, pp. 57-9); Fourth persecution (1583, pp. 42-46; 1576, pp. 42-46; 1570, pp. 59-69); Martyrs of Lyons (1583, pp. 46-50; 1576, pp. 46-50; 1570, pp. 69-74); Remainder of fourth persecution (1583, pp. 50-4; 1576, pp. 50-4; 1570, pp. 74-9); Fifth persecution (1583, pp. 54-9; 1576, pp. 54-9; 1570, pp. 79-85); Sixth persecution (1583, p. 59; 1576, pp. 59-60; 1570, pp. 85-6).

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In the block on the first persecutions, prepared for the 1570 edition and repeated in the later ones, Foxe cites as his source Eusebius, book 3, ch. 30. Although it is probably the case that he consulted the source, it is much more likely that, for this (as for the succeeding sections of this part of the narrative) that he drew on the published volumes of the Magdeburg Centuries, in this case, vol. 1, book 2, cols 561-4.

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For the second persecution, Foxe continued to use Eusebius, supplementing it (apparently) with Irenaeus' Against Heresies and the Historiae adversum paganos of Orosius. Again, although it is difficult to be certain of this at present, his direct source was likely to have been the Magdeburg Centuries. For the fourth persecution, concerned especially with the martyrdom of Polycarp, we can be clearer. Although some of the sections of Foxe's narrative (such as the Epistle to Pontus and the sayings of Polycarp to Martin the heretic, are direct translations from Eusebius, the section on the life and works of Polycarpus, which indirectly comes from Eusebius, book 5, ch. 20, is clearly lifted from the Magdeburg Centuries, II, cols 173 and 176. For the contradictory views of various authors on who were the popes at the time, Foxe clearly used the Magdeburg Centuries, I, book 2, cols 626-8 but he also consulted at least some of the other sources he mentions in order to construct an independent view. The section on the order of the popes to Eleutherius certainly is taken from the Magdeburg Centuries, II, cols 117 and 209-210.

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For the fourth persecution, it is evident that the Magdeburg Centuries formed the direct source for the following sections of it:- the Epistle of Pliny to Trajan and its response (p. 53 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 13-4); the martyrdoms under Emperor Hadrian (p. 54 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 15-6 and cols 231-33); the final rising of the Jews under Hadrian and subsequent slaughter, the succession of Antoninus Pius, and resumption of the fourth persecution (p. 55 of the 1570 edition) - (II, col 17); the disputed claims concerning Hyginus (p. 66 of the 1570 edition) - (II, cols 111; 141; 212-3); Eleutherius' mission to convert the British (II, cols 8-9); and the contention over the date of Easter at the time of Commodus (p. 67 of the 1570 edition) - (II, col. 118).

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For the fifth persecution, Foxe drew directly on the Magdeburg Centuries for the following passages:- the fifth persecution by Septimus Severus (p. 67 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 9-10); the martyrdom of Origen and his father - (III, cols 9-10; 150-1; 253-259); for the list of martyrs under Septimus Severus (p. 68 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 10; 251; 305); for Basilides and the miracles of Potomiena - (III, col. 305); for Alexander as bishop of Jerusalem - (III, col. 209); for the persecutions in the time of Septimus Severus - (III, cols 295-6; 211); for Tertullian as an ecclesiastical writer (p. 69 of the 1570 edition - (III, cols 236; 241; 242); for the controversy over Easter in the time of Victor (p. 70 of the 157- edition) - (II, cols 152-58); for the epistles of Zephirus - (III, cols 275-6); for the invasion of Britain - (III, col. 315); for the epistles of Calixtus (p. 72 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 276-77). Foxe clearly used other sources for this account as well, but only further research will confirm more precisely the extent to which he worked outwards from the Magdeburg Centuries to write a more independently based narrative of this section.

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For the sixth persecution, we have undertaken a similar analysis of the extent of Foxe's dependence on the Magdeburg Centuries. The results are less complete. It is certainly the case that he drew somewhat on that source for the beginning of the sixth persecution under Emperor Maximus (pp. 73-4 of the 1570 edition) - (III, col. 13). He also borrowed to some degree for the description of the rule of Pontianus, bishop of Rome (p. 74 of the 1570 edition) - (III, cols 177; 278); for the story of Natalius he also fairly clearly derived his material from the Centuries - (IIII, cols 287-288); for Emperor Philip the same is true (III, cols 8; 254; 279).

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We have not continued our analysis beyond this stage at present. It will require a more extensive and detailed examination of the full range of the sources cited by Foxe in his marginalia, and a comparison of them with what was contained in the extant volumes of the Magdeburg Centuries, which had become available to him in between the publication of the 1563 and 1570 editions, to arrive at a proper assessment of Book One.

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Mark Greengrass and Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

AFter the death of Commodus, raigned Pertinax but few monthes, after whom succeeded Seuerus. Marginalia Seuerus Emperour. Anno. 195. Vnder whom was raised the fift persecution against the christian saints: who raigning the terme of 18. yeares, the first x. yeares of the same, was very fauourable and curteous to the Christians. Afterward through sinister suggestions and malicious accusations of the malignāt, was so incensed against them, that by Proclamations he commaunded no Christians any more to be suffered. Marginalia The 5. persecution. Ex Euse. Lib. 6. cap. 2. Anno. 205. Thus the rage of the Emperour beyng inflamed agaynst them, great persecution was stirred vpon euery side, wherby an infinite nūber of Martyrs were slayne, as Eusebius in his sixt booke recordeth, which was about the yeare of our Lord, 205. The crimes and false accusations obiected against the Christians, Marginalia The false accusations agaynst the Christians. are partly touched before, pag. [illegible text]. as sedition and rebellion against the Emperour, sacriledge, murthering of Infants, incestuous polution, eating rawe flesh, libidinous cōmixture, whereof certaine in deede called then Gnostici, were infamed. Item, it was obiected against them, for worshipping the head of an Asse, which whereof it should rise, I finde no certain cause, except it were perhaps by þe Iewes. Also they were charged for worshipping the sunne, for that peraduenture before the sunne rise, they conuented together, singing their morning Hymnes vnto the Lord, or els because they prayed toward þe East: but especially for that they would not with them worship their idolatrous gods and were counted as enemies to all men. &c.

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Marginalia The captaines and ministers of this persecution. Ex Tertul. ad Scapulam.The Capitaines and Presidentes of this persecution vnder the Emperour were Hilarianus, Vigellius, Claudius. Hermianus Ruler of Cappadocia, Cecilius, Capella, Vespronius, also Demetrius mentioned of Cyprian. And Aquila Iudge of Alexandria, of whom Euseb. Lib. 6. cap. 5. maketh relation.

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The places where the force of this persecution most raged, were Affrica, Alexandria, Cappadocia, and Carthage.

The number of them that suffered in this persecution, by the report of the Ecclesiasticall story was innumerable. Of whō the first was Leonidesxref>, the father of Origene, Marginalia Leonides father of Origene Martyr. who was beheaded: with whō also Origene his sonne, beyng of the age thē of xvij. yeares, should haue suffered (such a feruent desire hee had to be Martired for Christ) had not hys mother priuily in the night season conueied away his clothes & his shirt; Marginalia Origene kept from Martyrdome by his mother. Wherupō more for shame to be seen, then for feare to die, he was cōstrained to remaine at home: and when he could do nothing els, yet he writing to his father a letter with these words: Caue tibi, ne quid propter nos aliud quam martyrij constanter faciendi propositum cogites 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Fifth Persecution: citation from Eusebius, lib. vi. cap. 2.
Foxe text Latin

Caue tibi, ne quid propter nos aliud quam martyrij constanter faciendi propositum cogites.

Foxe text translation

Take heede to your selfe, that you tourne not your thought and purpose for our sake, &c.

Translation

"Take care not to change thy mind on our account"

Eusebius, The ecclesiastical history, bk. VI, ch. 2, trs. K. Lake (London : Heinemann, 1932), 2 vols., vol. 2, pp.11-13

, that is, Take heede to your selfe, that you tourne not your thought and purpose for our sake, &c. Such a feruency had this Origene being yet young, Marginalia Origene commended. Ex Euseb. Lib. 6. cap. 3. to the doctrine of Christes faith, by the operation of Gods heauenly prouidence, and partlye also by the diligent education of his Father, who brought him vp from his youth most studiously in all good literature, but especially in þe reding & exercise of holy scripture; wherin he had such inward & mistical speculatiō, that many times he would moue questions to his father, of the meaning of this place, or þt place in þe scripture. Insomuch þt his father diuers times would vncouer his brest being a sleepe, & kisse it, giuing thanks to God which had made him so happy a father of such a happy child. Marginalia Ex Euseb. Antonino. Symoneta[illegible text]. &c. After the death of his father, and all his goodes confiscated to the Emperour, he wyth his poore mother, and sixe brethren, beyng brought to such extreme pouerty, did sustaine both himself and them by teaching a schole. Til at length being wearyeof þt profession, he transferred his study onely to the knowledge and seeking of diuine Scripture, & such other learning conducible to the same. So much he profited both in the Hebrue and other toungs, that he conferred þe Hebrue text with the translation of the lxx. And moreouer did conferre and find out the other translations which we call the common translation of Aquila, of Symmachus, and Theodotion. Also he adioyned to these aforesaid other foure translations, wherof more is in the story of Eusebius expressed.

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They that write of the life of Origene, testifie of him that he was of wit quicke and sharpe, much patient of labour, a great traueler in the tongues, of a spare dyet, of a straight life, a great faster, his teaching & his liuing were both one: his going was much barefoot. A straight obseruer of that saying of the Lorde, bydding to haue but one coate, &c, he is said to haue written so much as seuen Notaries, & so many maides euery day could penne. The nūber of his bookes by the accōpt of Hierome, came to 7000. Volumes, þe copies whereof he vsed to sel for 3. d. or a little more, for the sustentation of his liuing. Gut of hym more shalbe touched hereafter. So zelous he was in the cause of Christ, and of Christes Martirs, that he nothing fearyng his owne perill would assist and exhort them going to theyr death, & kisse them, insomuch that he was oft in ieoperdie to be stoned of the multitude. And sometimes by the prouision of Christen men had his house garded about wyth souldiers, for the safety of them, which daily resorted to heare his readings, & many times he was cōpelled to shift places & houses, for such as laid waite for him in al places, But such was the prouidence of God to preserue him in the middest of all this tempest of Seuerus. Among other which resorted vnto him, & were his hearers. Plutarchus, was one, and died a martyr, & with him Serenus hys brother who was burned. Marginalia Plutarchus scholler of Origene, and Serenus his brother Martyred. The third after these was Heraclides, The fourth Heron, who were both beheaded. The fift, was an other Serenus also beheaded, Rhais, and Potamiena. who was tormented with pitch poured vpon her, & martyred with her mother, Marcella, who died also in the fyre. Marginalia Heraclides. Heren. Rhais. Potamiena. Marcella. schollers of Origene and Martyrs. This Potamiena was of a fresh and flourishing beautie; who because she could not be remoued from her profession was committed to Basilides one of the Captaines there in the armie, to see the execution done, Basilides receyuing her at the Iudges hand, & leading her to the place, shewed to her some compassion in repressing the rebukes and raylinges of the wicked aduersaries: for the which Potamiena, the virgine, to requite againe his kindnes, bad him bee of good comfort, saying that she would pray þe Lord to shewe mercy vpon him. And so went she to her Martyrdome, which she both strongly and quietly did sustaine.

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Not long after it happened that Basilides was required to giue an othe in a matter cōcerning his fellowe souldiours: which thing he denied to doe, plainely affirming þt he was a Christian. Marginalia Basilides of a persecutour made a martyr. For their othe then, was woont to be by the Idoles & the Emperor. At the first he was thought dissimulingly to iest; but after whē he was heard constantly, & in earnest to confirme the same, he was had before the iudge, and so by him committed to warde. The Christians marueiling thereat, as they came to him in the prison inquired of him the cause of that his sodaine conuersion. To whom he aunswered againe aud saide, that Potamiena had praied for him to the Lord, & so he saw a crowne put vpon his head: adding moreouer that it should not be long, but he should be receiued. Which things thus done, þe next day following, he was had to the place of execution, and there beheaded, Euseb.. Lib. 6. cap. 5. Marginalia Ex Euseb. Lib. 6. ca. 5. Albeit the said Eusebius, giueth this story of no credite, but onely of heare say, as he there expresseth.

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As diuers and many there were that suffered in the daies of this Seuerus: so some were againe which through the protection of God his prouidence, being put to great torments, yet escaped wt life. Of whom was one Alexander Marginalia Alexander confessor and Byshop of Hierusalem. who for his constant confessiō and torments suffered, was made Bishop afterwarde of Hierusalem; together with Narcissus, who being then an olde man of an hundred and threescore yeares and three, Marginalia The notable age of Narcissus Byshop of Hierusalem. as sayeth Eusebius, was vnwieldy for his age to gouerne that function alone.

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Of this Narcissus is reported in the Ecclesiasticall historie, that certaine miracles by him were wrought verye notable, if they be true. First of water by him turned into oyle at the solemne vigile of Easter, what time the cōgregation wanted oyle for their lampes. Marginalia A miracle of water turned into oyle. Ex Euseb. Lib. 6. Ca. 9. Another miracle is also told of him, which is this. There were three euill disposed persons, who seing the soundnes & graue constancy of his vertuous life, & fearyng their owne punishment, as a conscience that is giltie, is alwaies fearefull, thought to preuent his accusations, in accusing him first, & laying an haynous crime to his charge. And to make their accusatiō

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