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Bartolomeo Platina

(1421 - 1481) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

Humanist author; prefect of the Vatican library. In 1468 he was imprisoned on suspicion of heresy and conspiring against the pope's life. He wrote Lives of the Popes under Sixtus IV.

Sabellico and Platina recorded that Constantine IV decreed that bishops of Rome were to be chosen by the clergy and people, not by the emperor. 1570, p. 5, 1576, p. 4, 1583, p. 4.

He is mentioned by Foxe as a source: 1563, p. 11, 1570, p. 75, 77, 95, 104, 119; 1576, p. 38, 51, 52, 67, 80, 85; 1583, pp. 38, 51, 52, 57, 67, 80, 85.

 
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Gratian

of Bologna; C12 canon lawyer [P. Landau, NCMH, vol 4:1, p. 128]

Wrote Decretum, an attempt logically to reconcile contradictory canons, which became the standard text for canon law

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 63, 68, 95, 134, 143; 1576, pp. 38-39, 45, 67, 97, 106; 1583, pp. 4, 39, 45, 67, 96, 105.

 
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Hermammon

fl. C3; recipient of a letter from Dionysius of Alexandria

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 67.

 
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Isidore of Seville (St Isidore)

(c. 560 - 636) [Catholic Encyclopedia; Gams]

b. Cartagena, Spain; Archbishop of Seville (599 - 636); scholar and historian

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 4; 1570, pp. 56, 96, 143, 1319; 1576, pp. 36, 67, 106, 1128; 1583, pp. 36, 67, 105, 1154.

 
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Johannes Nauclerus

(c. 1425 - 1510)

German humanist historian; DCL 1450; taught at the University of Basel; rector of the University of Tübingen 1477; chancellor of the university; judge of the Swabian League (1502 -13); wrote World Chronicle

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 64, 78, 83, 96, 143, 174; 1576, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 106, 131; 1583, pp. 37, 53, 57, 67, 105, 130.

 
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Lucius I (St Lucius)

(d. 254) [Kelly]

Pope (253 - 54)

Lucius was banished for a time from Rome. 1570, p. 95; 1576, pp. 67-68; 1583, p. 67.

 
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Marcus Æmilius Æmilianus

(d. 253) [T. Banchich www.roman-emperors.org]

Roman emperor (c. July - c. September 253); killed by his troops

Aemilianus killed Gallus and his son through an uprising and three months later was himself killed. 1570, pp. 39, 85; 1576, pp. 31, 68; 1583, pp. 31, 67.

 
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Polydore Vergil (Polidoro Virgili)

(c. 1470 - 1555) [ODNB]

English historian of Italian extraction; born Urbino; taught at Paris; deputy collector of Peter's pence in 1502; archdeacon of Wells in 1508

The king gave Polydore Vergil permission to consult all libraries. After Vergil had made use of the books, he burnt them. 1570, p. 1304; 1576, p. 1116; 1583, p. 1141.

Polydore Vergil was present at St Paul's when the king's commissioners came to administer the oath to Bishop Bonner. 1570, p. 1501; 1576, p. 1272; 1583, p. 1309.

He is mentioned as a source by Foxe: 1570, pp. 96, 153; 1576, pp. 68, 114; 1583, pp. 67, 113.

 
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Publius Gallienus

(218 - 268) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Co-emperor with his father Valerian (253 - 60); sole Roman emperor (260 - 68) ; assassinated with his son and his brother

Excluded senators from military command; patron of philosophers

Gallienus participated in the persecutions of his father, but moderated his position after his father's capture by the Persians. 1570, pp. 105-06; 1576, pp. 75-76; 1583, pp. 74-75.

In a letter to the Persian king Shapur II, Constantine I used the examples of Gallienus and his father to illustrate that rulers prospered when they treated Christians well, but suffered ill fortune when they persecuted them. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

 
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Raphael Volaterranus (Raffaele Maffei)

(1451 - 1522) [Catholic Encyclopedia]

b.Volterra; Roman humanist, philosopher, theologian. Established an academy in his house; founded Clarisse monastery, Volterra; wrote an encyclopedia in three parts: geology, anthropology, philology

Volaterran regarded the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.

He is mentioned by Foxe: 1563, p. 11; 1570, pp. 6, 63, 78, 86, 96, 105, 1329; 1576, pp. 5, 38, 53, 60, 69, 75, 1133; 1583, pp. 5, 38, 53, 59, 69, 74, 1162

 
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Stephen I (St Stephen)

(d. 257) [Kelly]

Pope (254 - 57); he had disagreements with Cyprian of Carthage

Stephen was archdeacon under his predecessor, Pope Cornelius. 1570, p. 94, 1576, p. 66, 1583, p. 65.

Foxe refutes the authenticity of letters ascribed to Stephen. 1570, p. 96, 1576, p. 67, 1583, p. 67.

Stephen opposed the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Cyprian of Carthage. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.

 
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Valerian (Publius Licinius Valerianus)

(d. 260) [R. D. Weigel www.roman-emperors.org]

Commander under Decius; senator

Roman emperor (253 - 60); captured and killed by the Persians

In the early years of his reign, Valerian behaved favourably towards the Christians and the senate. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 67.

Later, Valerian instigated a harsh persecution of the Christians. 1570, pp. 97-104; 1576, pp. 68-74; 1583, pp. 67-74.

Valerian was captured in battle by Shapur I and endured humiliations during his captivity before he was killed. 1570, p. 104; 1576, p. 74; 1583, p. 74.

In a letter to the Persian king Shapur II, Constantine I used the examples of Valerian and his son to illustrate that rulers prospered when they treated Christians well, but suffered ill fortune when they persecuted them. 1570, p. 137; 1576, p. 100; 1583, p. 99.

90 [67]

writing to the Priestes and Deacons, which were free, exhorteth them to be seruiceable and obsequious with al care and loue, to cherish and embrase thē that were in bondes. Cypria. Lib. 3. Ep. 6. MarginaliaCyprian. Lib. 3. Epist. 6. wherby may apppeare the feruent zeal & care of this goodByshop, toward the Church of Christ, although beyng now in exile, in the time of this Emperour Gallus.

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In the same time and vnder the said Gallus reignyng with his sonne Volusianus was also Lucius bishop of Rome sent to banyshment who next succeeded after Cornelius, in that byshopricke, about the yeare of our Lorde 256. MarginaliaLucius Byshop of Rome banished. An. 256. Albeit in this banishment he did not long continue, but returned againe home to his Church: as by the Epistle of, S. Cyprian, Lib 3. Epist. 1. maye appeare. As to all other Bishops of Rome in those primitiue daies certaine decretall Epystles with seuerall ordinaunces be ascribed, bearing theyr names and titles, as hath bene afore declared: so also hath Lucius one Epistle, fathered vpon him, in the which Epistle he writing to the brethren of Fraunce and of Spayne, appointeth such an order and forme of the church, as seemeth not to agree with the time then present: MarginaliaThe Epistle decretall of Lucius Bishop. The ordinaunces of Lucius. For so hee declareth in that Epistle that a Byshop in al places, whether soeuer he goeth, should haue two Priestes with three deacons waiting vpō him, to be witnesses of al his waies and doings. Which ordinaunce although I deny not, but it may be and is conuenient, yet I se not how that time of Lucius could serue then, for a Bishop to cary such a pompe of Priestes & Deacons about him, or to study for any such matter: for so much as Bishops commonly in those daies were seldome free to go abroad, went they neuer so secrete: but either were in houses close and secret, or in prison, or els in banishment. Moreouer in the said Epistle how pōpously he writeth to the Church of Rome: MarginaliaThe pōpous stile of the Church of Rome. This holy and Apostolycall Church of Rome (sayth he) the mother of all Churches of Christ, which by the grace of God omnipotent, hath neuer bene proued to swerue out of the pathe of Apostolicall tradition, neyther hath euer fallen, or bene depraued with heretical innouations: but euen as in the first beginning it receaued the rule of the Apostolicall faith by his first instructers, the Princes of the Apostles, so it continueth euer immaculate and vndefiled vnto the end.

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Vnto this Lucius also is referred in the decrees of Gratian this constitution, that no minister whatsoeuer, after his ordination, should at any time reenter to the chamber of his owne wife, in paine of loosing his Ministery in the Church. &c. MarginaliaDist. 81. Ministri. Ministers restrayned from their own wiues. Eusebius in his vij. booke, making mention of the death of Lucius, and not of his Martyrdome, saith that he sate but eight moneths. But Damasus in his Martyrologe holdeth that hee sat thre yeares, MarginaliaEusebius and Damasus vary in time. & was beheaded the second yeare of Valerian and Galienus Emperours. And so doth also Marianus Scotus, and Nauclerus, with other that folow Damasus, affirme the same. MarginaliaLucius Byshop of Rome, martyr.

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MarginaliaStephanus Byshop of Rome, martyr. After him came Stephanus next Bishop of Rome following Lucius: whome Damasus, Platina, and Sabellicus, affirme to haue sit vij. yeares fiue monethes, & to die a martir. Contrary Eusebius and Volateranus holding with hym, giue him but two yeares, which part commeth most neare to the truth, I leaue to the readers iudgement, of his two Epistles decretall, and of his ordinaunces out of the same collected, I nede not much to tary, for two respects, eyther for that concerning these decretal Epistles suspiciously intituled to the names of the fathers of the primitiue church, sufficiently hath bene said before: or els because both the phrase barbarous and incongrue and also the matter it self therin contained is such, that although no testimony came against it, yet it easely refelleth it selfe. MarginaliaThe censure of the decretall Epistles and ordinaunces of Stephanus. As wherein the second Epistle he decreeth, that no Byshop being expulsed out of hys seate or depriued of his goodes, ought to be accused of anye, or is bound to aunswere for himselfe, before that by the lawe regularly he be restored agayne fully to his former state, and that the Primates and the Synode render to him agayne all such possessions and fruites, as were taken frō him before his accusation, as is agreeing both to the lawes Canon & also seculare. First here I would desire þe Reader a little to stay, & this to consider wt himself, who be these here ment, which either vsed or might despoile these bishops of their goods, & expulse thē frō their seates for such wrōgfull causes, MarginaliaNo Byshop ought to be accused, after he be expulsed, before he be restored agayne. but only Kings & Emperours, which at this time were not yet Christened nor vsed any such proceedinges against these Bishops, in such sort as either Primates or Synodes coulde restore them again to their places and possessiōs. Againe what priuate goodes or possessions had Byshops then to be taken from them, when as Churches yet neither were indued wyth patrimonies nor possessions. And if any treasures were cōmitted to the church, it pertained not properly to þt Byshop, but went in general to the subuention of the poore in the Church, as in the Epistle of Cornelius to Fabius maye appeare, alleaged in Eusebius. Lib. 6. cap. 43. where he spea-king of his Church, & declaring how there ought to bee but one Byshoppe in the same, inferreth mention of xlvj. Priestes, vij. Deacons, with vij. Subdeacons, xlij. Acoluthes, of widowes and poore afflicted persons to the nūber of a 1500, and aboue, MarginaliaThe uumber of the poore found at Rome by the Church goodes. founde and nourished in the same Church, by the mercifull benignitie and prouidence of god Eusebius. Lib. 6. cap. 43. It followeth more in the ende of the said Canon. which thing is forbidden both by the lawes Ecclesiastical, & also seculer, &c. Now what lawes seculer were in the time of Stephen, for bishops not to be charged wt any accusation before they were restored againe to their state, let any Reader marking well the state of the Heathen lawes that then were, iudge, and in iudgeing, I doubte not but this matter alone, though there were no other, will be ynough to descry the vntruth hereof.

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Moreouer, by diuers other probable notes and arguments in the saide seconde Epistle of Stephanus, it may be easely espied, this Epistle to be fained and muauthoured, especiall by the fift Canon of the saide Epistle, where hee so solemnely entreateth of the difference betweene Primats, Metropolitanes, and Archbyshops, MarginaliaPrimates, Metropolitanes, Archbishops. which distinction of degres and titles, sauoring more of ambition, then of persecution, giueth me verily to suppose this Epistle not to be written by this Stephen, but by some other man, either of that name or of some other time when the Churche began to be setled in more prosperitie, and orders therein to bee taken, for euery man to know his degree and limits of his authoritie according as is specified by the vj. and vij. Canon, of Nicene Councell decreeing of the same matter.

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The like estimation may be cōceiued also of the seuenth Canon of the said Epistle, where he willeth and appointeth all causes iudiciarie to be decided & determined within the precinct of their owne proper Prouince, and not to passe ouer the boundes therof, vnlesse (saith he) the appeale be made to the Apostolical sea of Rome: MarginaliaLawfull to appeale to Rome: which sauoreth in my nose, rather of a smacke of Popery then of the veine of Christianity, especially in these times, during this terrible persecution among þe Byshops of Christ. And thus much of the second decretall Epistle of Stephanus: although of the first Epistle also written to Hilarius, some thing may be said, as where he speaketh in the said Epistle of holy vestimentes, and holy vessels, and other ornaments of the aulter, MarginaliaVestiments and holy vessels seruing for the aultare. seruing to diuine worship, and therfore not to be touched nor handled of any mā, sauing of Priests alone. Concerning all which implements, my opinion is this, that I thinke the Church of Rome not to haue beene in so good state thē, that either Stephanus or Sixtus before him beyng occupied about other more earnest maters, and scarce able to hide their owne heades, had any minde or cogitation to studie vpon such vnnecessary inuentions, seruing in publike Churches. Neither doe I see howe the Heathen in those daies would haue suffered these ornaments to be vnconsumed, which would not suffer the Bishops themselues to liue amongst them. Notwithstanding Isidorus and Polydorus iudge the contrary. Betweene this Stephen and Cyprian Byshop of Carthage was a great contention, about rebaptising of heretickes, whereof more hereafter (Christ willing) shall be saide.

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Besides these Byshops aboue specified, diuers other there were also sent into banishmēt vnder the forenamed Emperonrs Gallus & Volusianus, as appeareth by Dionysius writiug to Hermammon ou this wise: MarginaliaByshops banished in the time of Gallus. that Gallus not seeyng the euill of Decius, nor foreseeing the occasion of his seductiō and ruine, stumbled himselfe also at the same stone, lying open before his eyes. For at þe first beginning when his Empire went prosperously foreward, and all thinges went luckely with him, afterward he draue out holy men, which praied for his peace and safegarde, and so with them reiected also the praiers which they made for him. &c. Eusebius. Lib. 7 cap. 1. Otherwise of any bloudshed, or any Martirs that in the time of this Emperour were put to death, we doe not read.

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MarginaliaGallus and Volusianus Emperours slayne. After the raigne of which Emperour Gallus and of his sonne Volusianus being expired who reigned but ij. yeares, Emelianus which slewe them both by ciuill sedition, succeeded in their place, who reigned but three monethes, & was also slayne. MarginaliaEmelianus Emperour three monethes. Next to whom Valerianus, & his sonne Gallienus were aduaunced to the Empire. MarginaliaValerianus and Gallienus hys sonne Emperours.

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About the chaunging of these Emperours, the persecution which first began at Decius, & afterwarde slacked in the time of Gallus, was now extinguished for a time, MarginaliaPersecution ceased for a tym. The good beginning of Valerian. partly for the great plague raigning in all places, partly by þe change of the Emperors, although it was not very long. For Valerianus in the first entraunce of the Empire for the space of iij. or foure yeres, was right courteous and gentle to the people of God, & well accepted to the Senate. Neither was there any of all the Emperors before him, no not

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of
F.iiij.