C3 proconsul in Africa; persecutor of Christians
Paternus Aspasius banished Cyprian of Carthage during Valerian's reign. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.
(d. 258) [Catholic Encyclopedia]
Teacher of rhetoric; bishop of Carthage (249 - 58); there was opposition and schism in his see. Early Christian writer; in conflict with Pope Stephen I over the efficacy of baptism by heretics; executed
Cyprian was born in Carthage, grew up a pagan and became a skilled rhetorician. He was converted by a priest and baptised. Not long after he became a priest, he was made bishop of Carthage. 1570, p. 98; 1576, p. 69; 1583, p. 69.
Cyprian was called 'papas' or 'father'. 1570, p. 11; 1576, p. 8; 1583, p. 8.
Cyprian favoured the rebaptism of those baptised by heretics; in this he disagreed with Pope Stephen. 1570, p. 101, 1576, p. 71, 1583, p. 71.
Cyprian complained that many of the faithful, without having been subjected to any torture, through cowardice voluntarily agreed to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 92; 1576, p. 64; 1583, p. 64.
Novatian was a priest under Cyprian in Carthage, where he appointed Felicissimus deacon without Cyprian's knowledge and stirred up factions. Novatian opposed the reinstatement of lapsed Christians. 1570, p. 93; 1576, p. 65; 1583, p. 64.
Cyprian was banished from Carthage during the reign of Gallus due to sedition within the church there. 1570, p. 95; 1576, p. 66; 1583, p. 66.
Cyprian returned from exile in the reign of Valerian. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.
Cyprian received visions warning him of the persecution of Valerian. He wrote an Apology in defence of the Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.
He was banished a second time. When he refused to sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.
Foxe discusses his writings. 1570, pp. 99-101; 1576, pp. 70-71;1583, pp. 69-71.
Constantine fulfilled Cyprian's vision of a time of peace for the church. 1570, p. 144; 1576, p. 106; 1583, p. 105.
C3 proconsul in Africa; persecutor of Christians
Galerius Maximus succeeded Paturnus as proconsul. He arrested Cyprian of Carthage and commanded that he sacrifice to the gods. When Cyprian refused, Galerius had him beheaded. 1570, p. 99; 1576, p. 70; 1583, p. 69.
(1434 - 1520)
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 65, 85, 91, 97, 104, 128, 132; 1576, pp. 38, 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 96; 1583, pp. 38, 58 40, 59, 63, 68, 73, 92, 95.
(d. 261/262) [C. Koerner www.roman-emperors.org]
Prefect of Egypt (259 - 61); responsible for implementing Valerian's laws against the Christians
Supported the rebellion of the Macriani against Gallien (260 - 61); proclaimed emperor in Egypt; captured and executed
Aemilianus was one of Valerian's chief persecutors of Christians. 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.
Aemilianus banished Dionysius of Alexandria and his deacons because they refused to sacrifice to the gods. 1570, p. 102; 1576, p. 72; 1583, p. 72.
C3 persecutors of Christians
They are mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.
C3 official in Rome; persecutor of Christians
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.
C3 persecutor of Christians
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 97; 1576, p. 68; 1583, p. 68.
(c. 155 - c. 230) [Catholic Encyclopedia]
of Carthage; Christian convert and writer, church leader
Tertullian was a man of learning and eloquence who defended the Christians under persecution. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.
Tertullian commended Irenæus for his learning. 1570, p. 80; 1576, p. 55; 1583, p. 55.
Tertullian recorded that Christianity came to Britain in the time of Pope Eleutherius in C2. 1570, p. 145; 1576, p. 107; 1583, p. 106.
Tertullian was a married priest, according to Jerome. 1570, p. 1319; 1576, p. 1128; 1583, p. 1154.
(d. 1264) [Catholic Encyclopedia]
Dominican friar; French scholar; compiled encyclopedia of all knowledge
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 62, 68, 80, 88, 106; 1576, pp. 38, 45, 55, 61, 76; 1583, pp. 38, 45, 55, 60, 75.
of thē which openly professed Christ, that shewed himselfe so louing and familiar toward the Christians as he did: in so much that (as Dionysius, writing to Herman doth testifie MarginaliaEx Dionysio citante Euseb. Lib. 7. cap. 10. & Nicepho. Lib. 6. cap. 10. ) all hys whole courte was replenished wt holy Saintes & seruantes of Christ, and godly persons, so that his house might seeme to be made a Church of God. But by the malice of Sathan, through wicked counsell these quiet dayes endured not very long. For in processe of tyme this Valerianus beyng charmed or incensed by a certayne Egiptian, MarginaliaWicked counsell What euill it doth. a chiefe ruler of the Heathen Synagoge of the Egiptians, a mayster of the Charmers or inchaunters, who in deede was troubled, for that he could not do his Magicall feates for the Christians, was so farre infatuated and bewitched, that through the detestable prouocations of that deuilishe Egyptian, he was wholly turned vnto abhominable Idols, and to execrable impietie, in sacrifising young infāts and quartering bodies, and deuiding the entrals of childrē new-borne, and so proceeding in his fury, moued the eight persecution, agaynst the Christians, whom the wicked Egyptian coulde not abide, as being the hinderers and destroyars of hys Magicall enchauntinges, about the yeare of our Lord. 259.[Back to Top]
The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).
Marginalia The eight persecution. Anno. 259. IN the which persecution the chiefe administers and executours were Emilianus President of Egipt, Paternus and Galerius Maximus, Proconsuls in Aphrica, Bergomensis also maketh mention of Paternus. Vicegerent of Rome, and of Perennius. Vincentius speaketh also of Nicerius, and Claudius Presidentes. &c.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaThe chiefe executours of this persecution. The speciall causes of this persecution. What was the chiefe originall cause of this persecution, partly is signified before, where mention was made of the wicked Egiptian. But as this was the outward and politicall cause, so S Cyprian sheweth other causes more speciall, and Ecclesiasticall, in his iiii. booke. Epist. 4. MarginaliaCypria Lib. 4. Epist. 4. Whose wordes be these: but we (sayth he) must vnderstand and confesse, that thys turbulent oppression & calamite, which hath wasted for the most part all our whole company, and doth dayly consume, riseth chiefly of our owne wickednes & sinnes: while we walke not in the way of the Lord, nor obserue his preceptes left vnto vs for our institution. MarginaliaThe sinnes of the Christians cause of persecution. The Lord obserued the will of his father in all poynts: but we obserue not the will of the Lord, hauing all our minde and study set vpon lucre & possessions, geuen to pryde, full of emulation and dissention, voyde of simplicitie and faythfull dealing, renouncing thys world in word onely, but nothing in deede, euery man pleasing himselfe, and displeasing all other. And therefore are we thus scourged, and worthely. For what stripes and scourges doe wee not deserue, when the confessors themselnes (such as haue byd the tryall of their confession) and such as ought to be an example to the rest of well doyng, doe keepe no discipline? And therfore because some such there be, proudly puft vp with this swelling and vnmannerly bragging of their confession, these tormentes come: such as doe not easely send vs to the crowne, except by the mercy of God, some being takē away by quicknes of death, do preuēt the tediousnes of punishimēt. These things do we suffer for our sinnes and desertes, as by the Lordes censure we haue bene forewarned, saying: If they shall forsake my lawe, and will not walke in my iudgementes: If they shall prophane my institutions, and will not obserue my preceptes, I will visite their iniquities with the rod, and their transgressions with scourges. These rods and scourges (sayth he) we feele, which neyther please God in our good deedes, nor repent in our euill deedes. Wherefore the sayd Cyprian, adding this exhortation withall, exhorted them to pray and intreate from the bottome of their hart and whole minde, the mercy of God which promiseth, saying: but yet my mercy I will not scatter from them. &c. Let vs aske, and wee shall obtayne, and though (sayth Cyprian) it be with tariance, yet for so much as we haue greeuously offended, let vs continue knocking, for to him that knocketh, it shalbe opened, if our prayers, sighinges, aud weepinges knocke still at the dore with continuance, and if our prayers be ioyned together with brotherly agreement &c.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaDiscord and deuision among the brethren. Moreouer, what vices were then principally raygning among the Christians, hee further specifieth in the sayd Epistle: which chiefly were deuision and dissention among the brethren. For when it was spoken to them in a vision, by the wordes Petite & impetrabitis, that is: Pray, and ye shall obtayne, afterward it was required of the congregation there present, to direct their prayers, for certayne persons assigned to them by name:but they could not agree and cōdescend altogether of the names and persons of them which they should pray for, but were dissonant in their consent and petition: whiche thing (sayth Cyprian) did greatly displease hym, that spake vnto them: Pray, and ye shal obtayne, for that there was no vniforme equalitie of voyce and hart nor one simple and ioynt concorde among the brethren, whereofit is written the Psalme. 67.
MarginaliaPsal. 67. God which maketh to dwell in the house together men of one accord. &c. And so by the occasion hereof, he writeth vnto them in the foresayd Epistle, and moueth them to prayer and mutuall agreement. For (sayth he) if it be promised in the Gospell, to be graunted whatsoeuer any two consenting together shall aske, what shall then the whole Churche do agreeing together? or what if this vnanimitie were among the whole fraternitie, which vnanimitie (sayeth Cyprian) if it had bene then among the brethren, non venissent fratribus hæc mala, si in vnum fraternitas fuisset animata
non venissent fratribus hæc mala, si in vnum fraternitas fuisset animata, these euils had not happened to the brethren, if the brethren had ioyned together in brotherly vnanimity. &c.
non venissent fratribus hæc mala, si in vnum fraternitas fuisset animata,
these euils had not happened to the brethren, if the brethren had ioyned together in brotherly vnanimity. &c.
MarginaliaA vision foreshewing persecutiō to come. Cyprian. Lib. 4. Epist. 4. After the causes thus declared of this, or other persecutions, the sayd, S. Cyprian moreouer in the forenamed Epistle (worthy to be read of al men) describeth likewise a certayne vision, wherin was shewed vnto them by the Lord, before the persecutiō came, what should happen. The vision was this: There was a certayne aged father sitting, at whose right hand set a young man very sad and pensiue: as one with an indignation sorrowfull, holding hys hand vpon hys brest, hys countenaunce heauy and vnchearefull. On the left hand sate an other person, hauing in hys hand a net, whiche he threatned to lay to catch the people that stode about. And as he was marueiling that saw the sight thereof, it was sayd vnto him: The young man whō thou seest sit on the tight hand, is sad and sory, that hys preceptes be not obserued. But he on the left hand daunceth and is merry, for that occasion is geuen him to haue power of the aged Father geuen him to afflict men. And this vision was seene long before this tempest of persecution happened, MarginaliaOur sinnes geue Sathā power agaynst vs. Wherein is declared the same that before is sayd, the sinnes of the people to be the cause, why Sathan in this persecution and all other, hath had and hath still such power with hys net of destruction, to rage agaynst the bloud of Christen men, and all because (sayth Cyprian) we forslacke our praying, or be not so vigilant therein as wee shoulde: wherefore the Lord because he loueth vs, correcteth vs, correcteth vs, to amend vs, amendeth vs to saue vs. &c. Cyprian.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaAn other reuelation shewed to S. Cyprian. Furthermore, the same Cyprian, and in the same Epistle, wrtting of his own reuelation or message sent to him, thus sayth: And to hys least seruaunt both sinfull and vnworthy (meaning by himselfe) God of his tender goodnes hath vouched safe to direct this word. Tell him sayth he that hee be quiet and of good comfort, for peace will come. Albeit a litle stay there is for a while, for that some remain yet to be proued and tryed. &c. MarginaliaSpare dyet and sober drinke conuenient in Christian bishops. And sheweth also in þe same place of an other reuelation of his, wherein he was admonished to be spare in hys feeding, and sober in hys drinke, least hys minde geuen to heauenly meditation might be caryed away with worldly allurements, or oppressed with to much surfet of meates and drinkes, should be lesse apt or able to prayer and spirituall exercise.[Back to Top]
Finally in the latter end of the foresayd Epistle, mention also followeth of other reuelations or shewinges, wherein the Lord (sayth Cyprian) doth vouchsafe in many of hys seruantes to foreshew to come the restauring of hys Church, MarginaliaThe peace of the Church to come, foreshewed by the Lord. the stable quiet of our health and safegard, after rayne fayre weather, after darcknes light, after stormy tempest, peaceable calme, the fatherly helpe of his loue, the wont & old glory of hys diuine maiesty whereby both the blasphemy of the persecutors shall be repressed, and the repentance of such as haue fallen be reformed, and the strong and stable confidence of them that stand, shall reioyce and glory. Thus much hath S. Cyprian, writing of these thinges to the Clergy. Lib. 4. Epist. 4.[Back to Top]
As touching now the crymes and accusations in this persecution layd to the charge of the Christians, MarginaliaCrimes and causes falsely layd to the Christians. thys was the principall, first because they refused to doe worship to their Idols and to the Emperours: then for that they professed the name of Christ. Besides all the calamities and euils that happened in the world, as warres, famine, and pestilence, were onely imputed to the Christians. Agaynst all which quarreling accusations Cyprian doth eloquently defend the Christians in his booke Contra Demetrianum: Marginalia The Apology of Cyprian for the Christians. Cypria. contra Demetrianum. Like as Tertulian had done before, writing Contra Scapulam page. 55. And first touching the obiection for not worshipping Idoles, he cleareth the Christians both in his booke Contra Demetr. & also De vanitate idol. MarginaliaCypria. de idolarum vanitate. prouing those Idols to be no true Gods, but Images of certayne dead kinges, which neyther could saue themselues from death, nor such as worship them. The true God to be but one, and that by the testimony of Sosthenes, Plato, and Trismegistus, the which God the Christians doe truely worship. And as concerning that Christians were thought to be causes of publique calamities, because they worshipped not the Gentiles Idoles, he purgeth the Christians thereof, prouing that if there be any defect in increase of thinges, it is not to be ascribed to them, but rather to the decrease of nature, languishing now toward her age and latter end. Agayne for that it hath bene so foresayd and prophecied, that toward the end of the worlde should come warres, famine, and pestilence. Moreouer if there be anie[illegible text][Back to Top]