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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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957 [(877)]

The fifth section or Tome of this Ecclesiasticall historie conteynyng the horrible and bloudye tyme of Queene Marye.
The Preface to the Reader.

 

Commentary  *  Close
Blocks 1 and 2: The Rubric of the Mass

Much of this section on the origins and development of the mass (1563, pp. 889-900, and 1583, pp. 1397-1405, omitted from the editions of 1570 and 1576) is based on three works: John Bradford's The Hurt of Hearing Mass; John Bale's Scriptorum Maioris Brytanniae ... Catalogus and Polydore Vergil's De inventoribus Rerum. There are also a number of works on which Foxe drew for isolated passages in this section. These definitely include: Platina's papal history; Walafrid of Strabo, Gulielmus Durandus's Rationale divinorum officiorum, Johann Sleidan's Commentaries and Gratian. But although Foxe added some material out of his not inconsiderable knowledge of canon law, liturgy and church history, the framework of this section is from the words of Bradford, Bale and Vergil. It is important to note that the source citations Foxe gives are not reliable guides to the sources Foxe actually consulted.

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What Foxe did in this section was to join together two previous types of protestant polemic: denunciation of the elements of the mass as superstition (although few writers are as witty in this attack as Foxe) and an attack on the elements of the mass as papist inventions. Its placement at the beginning of Book 10 indicates Foxe's determination to use this book as a sustained attack on the mass. This idea was temporarily abandoned when the section was omitted from the 1570 edition in an effort to maintain a manageable edition. The section was restored in the 1583 edition, together with other material omitted from the edition of 1570, because Foxe felt that it should be a part of what he regarded as the definitive edition of his work. When it was reprinted, it was completely unchanged, another indication of Foxe's satisfaction with this section of his work.

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FOrasmuch as we are come now to the time of Quene Mary, when as so many were put to death for the cause especially of the Masse, & the sacrament of thaltar (as they cal it) I thought it conuenient vpon thoccasion geuē, in the ingresse of this foresaid storie, first to prefixe before, by the way of preface, some declaratiõ collected out of diuers writers and autors, wherby to set forth to the reader the great absurditie, wicked abuse, and perilous idolatry of the Popish masse, declaring how & by whom it came in, clouted & patched vp of diuers additions, to the intēt that the reader, seing the vaine institutiõ therof, & waying the true causes why it is to be exploded out of al churches, may the better therby iudge of their death, whiche gaue their liues for þe testimony & the word of truth.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Preface to Rubrick

All of the glosses in this section are in 1563 and 1583 only. It seems probable that 1583 was (carefully) composed with a copy of 1563 to hand. The comprehensive nature here and later of the 1563 glosses can be compared to the much more barren pages that follow for much of the rest of Book 10. Many of the glosses point to the three terms of a syllogism. Many others give patristic and historical references. Some of the glosses summarise the points of an argument. The arguments and the glosses are centred around the unnecessary nature of the mass given the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice and the content of scripture.

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First cõcerning the origine of this word Missa, whether it came of Missath in Hebrue. Deu. 16. or Mincha, Leui. 6 which signifieth oblatiõ: or whether it came of sending away the Catechumeni, & persons vnworthy out of the place of ministratiõ (as certain writers suppose) MarginaliaIsidorus libr. 6. Erym. Hugo in speculo eccles. Tertull. cõtra Marc. l. 3. Cipria. de bono patient.or els, ex missis donariis & symbolis quæ in offertorio proponebantur: that is, of giftes & oblations wont to bee offred before the communion: or whether Missa is deriued of Remissa, which in the former writers was vsed pro remissione: or whether Missa, pro licentia dimittendi populum, is takē of sending away the cõgregation by the wordes of the deacon, Ite missa est: or whether Missa hath his denomination of that which the Grecians call ἄφεοιο τομ λὰον, dimissiõ of the people, alluding to the story of the Hebrues, licēsed of Pharao to depart out of captiuitie after the eating of the Pasche lamb, as I read in an old Popish boke, intituled de Sacramētis Sacerdotalibus: or what terme soeuer it be els, either Laten, Siriã, Doutch, or French: or how so euer els it taketh his appellation, as there is no certainty emonges thēselues that most magnify the masse, so it is no matter to vs that stãd against it. To my iudgement and cõiecture this latter exposition of the word semeth more probable: both for that it is ioyned with the word Ite, which signifieth departing: & also the time & order in speaking the same agreeth wel therunto. For as the olde Hebrues after the supper of the lamb, & not before, wer set at liberty streight way, to depart out of captiuitie: so belyke to declare our mistical deliuerance by Christ, offred & slain for vs, first goeth before the actiõ of the holy supper, that done, thē the prest or deacõ saith, Ite missa est: meaning therby the deliuerance & liberty which is spiritually wrought in vs, after that the body of Christ hath bene offered for vs. Or els, if Missa otherwyse should signify the celebratiõ of the action of the supper, it would not be said Ite, but venite, missa est &c. Moreouer besides other argumēts, there be certain places in MarginaliaCassianus de canonicis orationibus. li. 3. c. 7.Cassianus which seme to declare that Missa signifieth dimissiõ of the cõgregation: as where he writeth of him which cõmeth not in time to the howers of praier, saying it not to be lawfull for him to enter into the oratory, sed stãtē pro foribus cõgregationis, missa præstolari debere. i. that he ought

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stãding without the dores to wait for the misse of the cõgregatiõ. And again in the next chapter folowing, he inferreth the same vocable Missa in like sense: Cõtēti, inquit sõno qui nobis post vigiliarum missa vsque ad lucis indulgetur aduētū. i. Cõtēted (saieth he) with so much slepe as serueth vs for the misse, or breaking vp of the nighte MarginaliaVigils wer called in the olde time the assēblies of the congregatiõ in the night in cõmõ prayer & fastyng.vigill, vnto the comming of the day &c.

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Marginalia
Socra. eccl. hist. 1. 2 c. 13
Epiph. trip. hist. li. 4. c. 13.
Sozom. li. 2 cap. 32.
Epiph trip. hist. 1. 3. c.
Marginalia
Socrat.. 1. 3. cap. 9.
Epiph. trip. hist. 1. 6. c. 23.
Marginalia
Socrat. 1.5. cap. 15.
Χαὶ χαδξ αυτὃς εχχλκοὶαςεὶν
Epiph. trip. hist. li. 7. ca. 13 & apud seipsos missarum celebrari solēnia &c.
Item collectas agūt & quod Socrates græce li. 5. cap. 22. inquit.
ῶερὶ δὲ συ νάξεὶον συνάξοὶςπο ιὃσιν
But to let passe these cõiectures, this by þe way I geue to the reader to note & vnderstãd, that as this word Misssa neuer yet entred into the church nor vsage amõg the Grekes: so it is to be obserued emõg our Laten interpretors, such as haue trãslated of old time the anciēt greke autors, as Eusebius, & the Tripartite history, and others: that wher the Greke writers haue these terms σμνὰγειν, σμνὰξεισ ποὶεῖν εχχλκσιὰςειν þt is, to call the cõgregatiõ, to conuēt assēblies & to frequēt together, the old translator of Epiphanius and other trãslate vpõ the same Missas facere, collectas agere, missas celebrare &c. wherby it is not obscure to be sene, that this word masse in the old time, was not only & peculiarly applied to the action of consecration, but aswel to al christē assēblies collected, or congregations conuēted, according as in the doutch lãguage this name (Messe) signifieth any solēne frequēcy, or panagyrie, or gathering together of the people. But of the name inough, and to muche.

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To expresse now the absurdity of the said masse & the irreligious applicatiõ therof, vnsemely, & perilous for christiãs to vse, I wil bring two or thre reasons of the worthy seruant and Martir of god Iohn Bradford, to whiche manye more may be also added out of others. MarginaliaThe masse a double enemi agaynst christ The masse iniuriouse to the priesthod of christ.

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First the masse, saith he, is a most subtile & perniciouse enemy agaynst Christe, & that double waies: namely agaynst his priesthode, & against his sacrifice, which he proueth by this way. For the priesthod of christ, saith he, is an euerlasting priesthod, and such an one as cannot go to another But the masse vtterly putteth hym out of place, as thouh he were dead for euer: and so god wer a lier, which said that christ should be a priest for euer: which briefly commeth vnto this argument.

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Fes.
That thing is not perpetual, nor standeth not a-
lone which admitteth succession of other to do the same
thing, that was done before.
ti.
But the masse priests succede after christ, doing the
same sacrifice (as they saye) which he dyd before.
no.
Ergo the masse priests make Christs priesthode
not to be perpetuall.

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An other argument.

MarginaliaMaior. Ba.
Al priestes either be after the order of Aron, or after
thorder of Melchisedech, or after the order of the apos-
tles. or after that sprituall sorte wherof it is written,
vos estis spirituale sacerdotium. &c.
MarginaliaMinor. ro.
But our masse priests neither be after the ordre of
Aaron, (for that is to resume that which christ hath a-
bolyshed:) neither after the order of Melchisedech (for
that is peculiar onely to Christ:) neither after thorder
of the Apostles (for then should they be mynisters, not
massers, not priestes but preachers: (and which of the
Apostles was euer named by the title of a prest?) Again
neither ar they after þe general sort of the spritual pryest
hod. For after that prerogatiue, euery true christiã is a
spiritual priest as wel as they, offering vp spiritual, not

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bodily
LLl.i.
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