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1590 [1590]

K. Edward. 6. Religion hindered by discorde. Disputations in Oxford.

MarginaliaAn. 1552.and estimation much, and also more empayred & hindered hys owne lyfe and safetie: which was, that hee in condescending to the death of hys brother, followed too rashely the persuasion of certaine, who soeuer they were: for that matter lacked not perchaunce some singular fetch & policie of some, more craftily thē godly disposed persons, as many good men haue supposed. MarginaliaGods chastisement vpon the Duke of Somerset.But what so euer of that matter is to be deemed, credible it is, that the sayd Duke in sufferyng or procuryng this death of hys brother, not onely endammaged hym selfe, and weakened his owne power, but also prouoked the chastisement of Gods scourge and rodde, which did so lyght vpō hym. MarginaliaThe beheading of the Earle of Surrey.Furthermore as touchyng the death and decay of the Lord Henry Earle of Surrey, who suffred also at the Tower, next before the Lord Admirall the Lord Protectours brother, because the castyng of hym was so neare to the death of kyng Henry: as I know not vpon whom, or what cause the same did procede, so I passe it ouer and leaue it to the Lord. 

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Foxe's patron, the fourth duke of Norfolk, was the earl of Surrey's son, so Foxe's circumspection in discussing the case is understandable.

Notwithstanding, as for the Duke of Somerset, what soeuer his other vyces and vertues were, this is certaine, that his end (the Lord so workyng with hym) was constant in Christes truth, as hys lyfe was before a great maynteinaunce of the same.

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MarginaliaSyr Rafe Vane, 

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Fane, Sir Ralph Fane's widow, was a 'sustainer' and correspondent of numerous Marian martyrs, particularly John Philpot.

Syr Myles Partrige, Syr Michaell Stanhop, and Syr Tho. Arundell suffered at Tower hill.Moreouer, on the xxvj. day of February in the same yeare was Sir Rafe Vane, Syr Miles Partrige both hanged at the Tower hill: And Syr Michaell Stanhop, and Syr Tho. Arundell beheaded vpon the Scaffold: all which iiij. were condemned by the sayd Acte of vnlawfull assemblie, & as accessaries vnto the Duke of Somerset.

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Disputation at Oxford

In the disputations on the Sacrament of the Eucharist held at the two universities under the auspices of the Edwardian Privy Council, the problem of biblical and patristic proof-texting arises again and again. Both traditionalist or Catholic and evangelical or protestant - the last term did not come into common usage until the reign of Mary I (1553-1558) - claimed that Scripture and the writings of the Fathers of the Church (the theologians of the approximately the first 500 years of Christianity) upheld their disputed doctrinal stances, and quoted them liberally to demonstrate their claims to the antiquity of those stances. These theologians and indeed Foxe himself falls into the trap of not looking at their sources more critically; such critical study was to been at the heart of the humanist endeavor among scholars, but this seems to have become more and more of an ideal rather than a reality among controversial theologians in the Reformation period. Often the biblical and patristic sources they employed had not been written over a thousand years previously as tools for controversy; but often as sermons or treatises that were more concerned with persuading Christians to a more devout life through rhetoric, rather than through precision of thought.

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William Wizeman, SJCorpus Christi ChurchNew York CityUSA

Not long after the death 
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Edward Seymour was executed for treason in October 1551.

of the Duke of Somerset, in the next yeare folowing deceassed the king hym selfe about the moneth of Iune, 
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Edward VI died on 6 July 1553.

whereof more shalbe sayd (the Lord graunting) in his due order and course hereafter. In the meane season, before we come to close vp the latter end & story of this good kyng, þe place here present seemeth not vnfitte to intermixte by þe way a few other thinges before, happenyng with in the tyme of his reigne, namely concernyng matters incident, of the Church and of Religion. 
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Foxe concludes his discussion of Edward VI's reign and the religious reforms that came with it by reflecting on the state of the Edwardian Church and the Protestant religion its leaders attempted to establish in England.

Which state of Religion began well to growe, and to come happely forwarde duryng this kynges dayes, MarginaliaReligion hindered by discorde.had not the vnhappy troubles of the outward state amongest the Lordes not agreyng within thē selues, disquieted the good towardnes of thinges begon. But the malice of the deuill how subtilly worketh it, if mē could see it? So long as the Lords agreed in concorde among them selues, Wynchester and Boner, with all that faction was cut short, and began to condescende to good conformitie 
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According to Foxe the English nobility were conforming to Protestant changes in religion, once Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, and Edmund Bonner, Bishop of London, the leaders of traditional or Catholic faith in England, had been imprisoned in the Tower of London.

. But afterward perceauyng the states and nobles of the Realme to be among them selues diuided, and the Lord Protectour the Kynges Vncle displaced, and his brother the Admirall before beheaded, and the young kyng now left in that case, they began vpon some hope to take more hart vnto them, till at last it came to passe, as they them selues desired. MarginaliaDiscord what decay it worketh in a common wealth.And thus though nothyng els will lead vs, yet experience may teach vs what discorde worketh in publicke weales: and cōtrary, what a necessary thyng concorde is to the aduauncement especially of Gods matters apperteinyng to his Church. Examples wherof in this kyngs dayes be not farre to seeke. For as touchyng the successe of the Gospell of peace, while publicke peace and the Gospell did ioyne together, maruelous it was how errour and Popery were in them selues confounded, and ashamed almost to shewe their faces. MarginaliaD. Smyth, Chadsey, Standish, Younge, Oglethorpe, reclamed from their errours.In so much that then both Doct. Smith, Chadsey, Standish, Yong, Oglethorpe, with many mo recanted their former ignoraunce, whose recātations I haue to shew 
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Richard Smyth, William Chedsey, John Standish, John Young, Owen Oglethorpe were among the leaders of Catholic or traditional belief in England who seemingly conformed to the Edwardian Church. Smyth had been the Henrician Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford, and fled into exile after recanting. Chedsey was a canon of St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. John Standish had published a book on traditional religion under Henry, but became Archdeacon of Colchester under Edward. John Young assisted in the foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge in Henry's reign. Owen Oglethorpe was President of Magdalen College, Oxford. They all became leading members of the Catholic Church hierarchy under Mary I. Only Standish conformed to the Elizabethan Settlement in 1559, the rest undergoing exile or imprisonment.

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. Boner then with his owne hand subscribed to the kinges supremacie, and promoted his Iniunctions 
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Bonner acceded to the Royal Supremacy in religious matters under both Henry VIII and Edward VI, and initially administered the Edwardian royal injunctions regarding religion in his Diocese of London. In a short time he refused to conform to the religious changes, however, and was tried, convicted, deprived of his diocese and imprisoned in the Tower.

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. The same also did Steuen Gardiner, subscribyng with his owne hand to the first booke of the kynges procedynges, and no doubt had done no lesse to the secondbooke also set forth by þe kyng 
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The second edition of the Book of Common Prayer appeared in 1552 with significant changes, which made more explicit the Protestant doctrines contained in the 1549 edition. Contrary to Foxe, there is no evidence that Gardiner intended to subscribe to the second Prayer Book. He was already imprisoned partly for his Catholic interpretation of the first, which incurred the wrath of Archbishop Thomas Cranmer and encouraged him to bring forth the second edition.

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, MarginaliaThe Gospell how it flourished so long as peace continued.had not þe vnfortunate discorde fallen amongest the nobles in a time so vnfortunate, as thē it did. Briefly duryng all that tyme of peace and concord, what Papist was found in all the realme, which for the Popes deuotion woulde or dyd once put hys necke in the halter to dye a Martyr for his sake? 
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The Edwardian regime was careful to imprison Bonner and Gardiner and to apply pressure to Mary to conform to religious changes; but they were careful not to make martyrs of them.

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MarginaliaPeter Martyr, Martyn Bucer, & Paulus Phagius, placed in the Vniuersities.I shewed before how in these peaceable dayes of kyng Edward, Peter Martyr, Martine Bucer, Paulus Phagius with other learned mē mo, were enterteined, placed and prouided for in the two Vniuersities of this Realme Oxford and Cambridge 

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Peter Martyr, Martin Bucer and Paul Fagius were important theologians of the Reformation on the Continent, and fled to England from the Holy Roman Empire after Charles V's victories over the Protestant nobility. They were given important professorships in theology at England's two universities: Martyr at Oxford and the others at Cambridge.

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, who there with their diligent industrie did much good. The learned and frutfull disputations of whom I haue lykewise present in my handes here to inserte, but that the bygnes of this Volume driueth me to make shorte, especially seyng their disputations be so long and prolixe as they be, & also in Latin, and requyre of them selues a whole Volume to comprehend them.

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First Peter Martyr beyng called by the kyng to the publicke readyng of the Diuinitie lecture in Oxford, amongest hys other learned exercises did set vp in the publicke scholes iij. conclusions of Diuinitie to be disputed and tryed by Argument. MarginaliaThe kings Visitors at the disputation in Oxford.At which disputations 

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Disputations were held at both universities on the subject of the Eucharist, one of the most divisive issues of the Reformation. These debates were set pieces to convince fellows, students and local aristocracy of Edwardian religious positions.

were present the kynges visitours, to wytte, Henry Byshop of Lincolne, Doctour Coxe Chauncellour of that Vniuersitie, Doctour Haynes Deane of Exceter, M. Rich. Morison Esquier, Christopher Neuynson Doct. of Ciuill law. The conclusions propounded were these. MarginaliaThe conclusions to be disputed in Oxford.1. In the Sacrament of thankes geuing there is
no transubstantiation 
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Transubstantiation is the Roman Catholic doctrine that maintains that in the mass the bread and wine are completely transformed into the real, substantial body and blood of the Christ, born of the Virgin Mary, crucified and risen from the dead.

of bread and wyne in-
to the body and bloud of Christ.
2. The body and bloud of Christ is not carnally
or corporally in bread and wine, nor as other
vse to say, vnder the kindes of bread & wyne.
 
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Impanation (Luther's view that Christ's body and blood are present together with the bread and wine, often called consubstantiation) and Transubstantiation, in which only the outward signs of bread and wine remain), are denied.

3. The body and bloud of Christ bee vnited to
bread and wyne Sacramentally.
 
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Another denial of impanation is presented.

MarginaliaDisputers on the contrary parte agaynst Peter Martyr.

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They which were the chiefe disputers agaynst hym on the contrary side were Doct. Tresham, D. Chadsey, and Morgan 

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William Tresham, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford until the beginning of Edward's reign, William Chedsey, Canon of St George's Windsor, and Henry Morgan, who became Marian bishop of St David's in Wales, upheld the traditional views on the Eucharist.

. The reasons and principall Argumentes of Peter Martyr here vnder folow.

¶ The Argumentes of Peter Martyr vpon the first conclusion.

MarginaliaThe first argumēt of Peter Martyr agaynst transubstātiation.The Scriptures most plainly do name and acknowledge bread and wyne. In the Euāgelistes were read that the Lord Iesus tooke bread, blessed it, brake it, and gaue it to his Disciples. S. Paul lykewise doth oftimes make mention of bread.

Ergo, we also with the Scriptures ought not to exclude bread from the nature of the Sacrament.

Cyprianus. 
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De caena Domini was a medieval sermon falsely ascribed to St Cyprian by both Catholics and Protestants at this time.

MarginaliaCyprian. in sermon. De cœna Domini.As in the person of Christ, his humanitie was seene outwardly, and his Diuinitie was secret within: so in the visible Sacrament the diuinitie inserteth it selfe in such sorte as can not be vttered, that our deuotion about the Sacramentes might be the more religious.

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Ergo, as in the person of Christ: so in the Sacrament both the natures ought still to remayne.

Gelasius

MarginaliaGelasius cōtra Eutychen.The Sacramentes which we receaue of the bodye and bloud of Christ, are a Diuine matter: by reason wherof, we are made partakers by the same, of his Diuine nature, and yet it ceaseth not still to be the substaūce of bread and wyne. And certes the representation and similitude of the body and bloud of Christ, be celebrated in the action of the mysteries. &c.

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Augustinus.

MarginaliaAugust. De consecrat. dist. 2 ex Sententijs Prosperi.As the person of Christ consisteth of God and man, whē as he is true God, and true mā. For euery thyng conteineth in it selfe the nature and veritie of those thynges whereof it is

made.