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Carhampton [Carrum]

Somerset

OS grid ref: ST 005 425

 
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Chester
NGR: SJ 404 665

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Broxton in the County Palatine of Chester, of which it is the capital. 17 miles south from Liverpool. The city comprises the parishes of St Bridget, St John Baptist, Little St John, St Martin, St Peter, St Michael and St Olave; all in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Chester, of which it is the seat.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)

Hampshire

OS grid ref: SU 485 295

Historic capital of Wessex; former capital of England; county town of Hampshire; cathedral city

 
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Wroughton (Ellendun) [Elinden]

Swindon, Wiltshire

OS grid ref: SU 145 805

158 [135]

THE THIRD BOOKE CONTEINING THE next 300. yeares, from the raigne of King Egbertus, to the tyme of William Conquerour.

 

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Egbert and his successors

In the 1563 edition of the martyrology, Foxe's periodisation had been presented with stark clarity. The period before 1033 corresponded to 'the third age of the Church' 'where vpon cometh the latter age of the church. Here nowe beginneth the fresh flouring blud of the churche to fainte and strength to defaile, opprest with cold humors of worldly pompe, auarice, & tiranny. Here nowe commeth in blinde superstityon with cloked hipocrisye, armed with rigorous lawes, and cruell murderinge of sainctes' (1563, p. 10). By the 1570 edition, however, the 'third age of the church' had become a whole book - 'the thirde booke conteynyng the next 300 yeares, from the reigne of K. Egbertus to the time of W. Conquerour'. Foxe's preferred form of structuring his material was the 'compendium', or 'table'. He put it to good use in this passage, placing in sequence a 'table of the Saxone kinges', defined as those who 'ruled alone', and then later (albeit not in tabular form) a list of the holders of the papal see. His table of the Saxon rulers was one which he appears to have compiled himself, albeit drawing material from Fabian's Chronicle (which has a different table), Henry of Huntingdon's Chronicle, lib. 5, ch. 3 and lib. 6, ch. 4 (which has the same list, but with different lengths of the reigns), and the Polychronicon, lib 5 (cap. 333).

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His subsequent material on King Egbert was drawn from Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 6, ch. 152-8), with likely additions from Roger of Howden's Chronicle (W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houdene 2 vols, Rolls Series [London, 1868], 1, pp. 26-33). The material on King Ethelwolf came from Fabian's Chronicle, book 6, ch. 152) with the addition of the Charter ('The priuileges and donations geuen by king Ethelwulfus to the clergie') which Foxe abstracted from the Flores Historiarum. The latter was, of course, even more readily available to Foxe by the time of the 1570 edition because it had been published under the auspices of Matthew Parker (Elegans, illustris et facilis rerum, præsertim Britannicarum et aliarum obiter, notatu dignarum, a mundi exordio ad annum Domini, 1307 narratio, quam Matthæus Westmonasteriensis ... Flores Historiarum scripsit, [London, 1567]) - see H. R. Luard, ed. Flores Historiarum 3 vols (London: Rolls Series, 1890), 1, p. 423-6. Foxe emphasised the point of included this text in his own interpolation: 'Hereby may it appeare, how & when the churches of England, begamn first to be indued with temporalities & landes: also with priuilegies and exemptions enlarged'. The passage on Louis the Pius, tucked in the middle of the history of King Ethelwulf, comes from Ranulph Higden's 'Polychronicon' (J. R. Lumby, ed. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis: together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century [London: Rolls Series, 1879], lib 5, cap. 29), Fabyan's Chronicle, lib. 6, ch. 160-161. R. A. B. Mynors, ed. William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum Vol. 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), lib. 2, cap. 108; D. Prest, ed. William of Malmesbury: The Deeds of the Bishops of England (Gesta Pontifiicum Anglorum) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), lib 2, pp. 160-1.

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The pontifical list that closes the section comes exclusively from John Bale's Catalogus (J. Bale, Illustrium Maioris Britanniæ scriptorum, hoc est, Angliæ, Cambriæ, ac Scotiæ summarium in quasdam centurias diuisum, cum diuersitate doctrinarum atque [...] 2 vols (Basel: Oporinus, 1557-9), pp. 114-8. Bale's - and Foxe's - interest in the mythical Pope Joan has been further explored by this project in T. S. Freeman, 'Joan of Contention. The myth of the Female Pope in Early-Modern England.' In Religious Politics in Post-Reformation England: essays in honour of Nicholas Tyacke, ed. by Kenneth Kincham and Peter Lake (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2006), ch. 4.

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As presented in the 1570 edition, Foxe's text did not substantially change in the subsequent editions.

Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

NOW remayneth likewise as before I did in describing, the discent and diuersitie of the seuen kings altogether raigning and ruling in this land, so to prosecute in like order the lineal succession of them, which after Egbert king of Westsaxones, gouerned and ruled soly, vntill the conquest of William the Normand: first expressing their names, & afterward importing such acts as in their tyme happened in the Church worthy to be noted. Albeit, as touchyng theactes and doyngs of these kings, because they are sufficiently and at large described, and taken out of Latine writers into the English tong by sondry authors, and namely in the story or Chronicle of Fabian. I shall not spende much trauaile therupon, but rather referre the reader, to him or to some other: where the troublesome tumults betwene the Englishmen and the Danes at that tyme may be seene, who so listeth to read them. Onely the table of their names and raigne, in actes done vnder their raigne, I haue compendiously abridged, vsing such breuitie, as the matter would suffer.

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¶ A Table of the Saxon Kings, which ruled alone from King Egbert, vnto William Conquerour.
woodcut [View a larger version]
Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The descent of Anglo-Saxon kings, like the preceding map, reflect the emphasis on the significance of Anglo Saxon precedents for the English church and its dectrine, that had been increasing since the first edition of the Acts and Monuments.

Here is to be noted, that before the raigne of Edward the confessor, the Danes obtayned the crowne vnder their captaine Canutus who raigned yeares 19.

Haraldus Harefoote, sonne of Canutus.4
Hardeknoutus sonne of Canutus.2
Edwar. the confessor, an englishmā, sonne of Etheldred.24
Haraldus sonne of Erle Godwine an vsurper.1
William Conqueror a Normand.
¶ King Egbertus.

MarginaliaEgbert king of the Westsaxons, afterward Monarke and king of the whole Realme.IN the raigne of Brigthricus a little before mentioned, about the yere of grace 795. there was in his dominion a noble personage, of some called Egbert, of some Ethelbert, of some Athelbright, who being feared of the same Brigthricus, because he was of a kingly bloud, & nere vnto the crowne, was by the force & conspiracie of the forenamed Brigthricus, chased & pursued out of the land of Britain into Frāce, where he endured till the death of the sayd Brigthricus. MarginaliaIn this tyme came in the Danes, first into the North parts and were driuen out agayne. After the hearing whereof, Egbert sped him eftsoones out of Fraunce, vnto his countrey of Westsaxe, where he in such wise behaued himselfe, that he obteined the regiment and gouernance of the abouesaid kingdom.

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Bernulphus king of Mercia aboue mentioned, with other kings, had this Egbert in such derisiō, that they made of him diuers scoffing gestes, and scorning rimes, al which he susteined for a time. But when he was more established in his kingdome, MarginaliaAnno. 807. & had proued the mindes of his subiects and especially God working withall: he afterward assembled his knights, and gaue to the saide Bernulphus, a battaile in a place called Elindē, in the prouince of hāton. MarginaliaExample what it is to despise other. Example of patience. And notwithstanding in that fight was great oddes of number, as 6. or 8. against one, yet Egbert (through the might of the Lord which giueth victory as pleaseth him) had the better and wan the field: Which done he seased that Lordship into his hand. MarginaliaAnno. 826. And that also done, he made war vpon the Kentish saxons, and at lenth in like wise, of them obtained the victory. MarginaliaOf this victory went a prouerb, Riuus cruore rubuit ruina restitit, fœtere tabuit. And as it is in Polychronicon testified, he also subdued Northumberland, and caused the kings of these three kingdomes to liue under him as tributaries or ioyned them to his kingdome. Ex Flor. Hist. This Egbert, also wan from the Britons or Welshmē, the town of Chester, which they had kept possession of, till that daye. After these & other victories, he peaceably enioying the land, called a Councell of his Lords at Winchester, where by their aduises he was crowned king & chief Lord ouer this land. which before that day was called Britaine: MarginaliaThis land first called Anglia. but thē he sent out into all the coasts of the land his commaundements and cōmissions, charging straightly þt from that day forward the Saxons should be called Angles, and the land Anglia.

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About the 30. yeare of the raigne of Egbert, MarginaliaAnno. 833. the heathenish people of the Danes, which a little before had made horrible destruction in Northumberland, & especially in þe Ile of Lindefarne, where they spoyled the Churches, and murthered the ministers, with men, women, and children, after a cruell maner, entered now the second tyme with a great host into this land, MarginaliaDanes now the second tyme entred in this land. and spoyled the Ile of Shepy in Kent, or nere to Kent, where Egbert hearing therof, assembled his people and met with them at Carrum. But in that conflict sped not so well as he was woont in tymes before, but with his knights was compelled to forsake the field. Notwithstanding in the next battail, the sayd Egbert with a small power ouerthrew a great multitude of them, and so droue them backe. The next yeare followyng, the sayd Danes presuming vpon their victory before, made theyr

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returne
M.ij.
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