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Acleah [Oclea]PortsmouthRochester
 
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Acleah [Oclea]

Hampshire

Possibly Oakley, nr Basingstoke [Richard Coates, 'The Battle at Acleah: a Linguist's Reflection on Annals 851 and 871 of the Anglos-Saxon Chronicle', Language History and Linguistic Modelling, ed. R

 
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Portsmouth
Portesmouth
NGR: SU 655 010

A seaport, borough, market town and parish, having separate jurisdiction. Locally in the hundred of Portsdown, Portsdown division of the county of Hampshire. 18 miles southeast by east from Southampton. A principal naval and military base. The living is a vicarage in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Winchester. There is also a garrison chapel

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Rochester
NGR: TQ 730 686

An ancient city, having separate jurisdiction, locally in the lathe of Aylesford, county of Kent. 8.5 miles north from Maidstone. The city is the seat of the bishopric, and comprises the parishes of St Nicholas and St Margaret, both in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Rochester. St Margaret's is a vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and St Nicholas is a vicarage in the patronage of the bishop.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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162 [139]

The Epistle of Hulderike. Priestes mariage. The Danes.

and incest, and also Sodomitry: yet shame not to say, that the chaste mariage of Priestes doe stincke before them. And as voyde of all compassion of true righteousnesse, doe not desire or admonish their Clerkes, as their fellow seruauntes to abstayne, but commaund them and enforce them as seruauntes, violentlye to abstayne: MarginaliaThe absurde saying and contrary during of papistes. Vnto the whiche imperious commaundement of theirs or counsell (whether you will call it) they adde also thys foolishe and filthy suggestion, saying: that it is more honest, priuily to haue to doe with many women, then apertly in the sight and conscienses of many men, to bee bounde to one wife. The which truely they would not say, if they were eyther of hym, or in him, which saith, wo to you Phariseis which do all thinges before men. And by the Psalmist: because they please men, they are confounded: for the Lord hath despised them. These be the men, who rather ought to perswade vs, that we should shame to sinne priuily in the sight of him, to whē all things be open, thē to seeme in the sight of men for to be cleane. These men therfore, although through their sinful wickednes, deserue no counsell of godlines to be giuen thē: yet we not forgetting our humanitie, cease not to giue them counsell by the authoritie of Gods word, which seketh al mens saluation, desiring thē by the bowels of charitie, & saying with the wordes of Scripture: Cast out thou hypocrite first the beame out of thine owne eye, and then thou shalt see to cast our the mote of the eye of thy brother.

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Moreouer, this also we desire them to attend, what the Lord saith of the aduouterous woman: which of you that is without sinne let hym cast the first stone against her. As though hee would say, if Moses bid you, I also bid you. But yet I require you that be the competent ministers and executors of the law: Take heede what yee adde thereunto, take heede also I pray you, what you are your selues: for if (as the Scripture saith) thou shalt well consider thy selfe, thou wilt neuer defame or detract an other.

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Moreouer it is signified to vs also, that some there be of them, which (when they ought like good shepherds to giue their liues for the Lordes flocke) yet are puffed vp, with such pride: that without all reason they presume to rent and teare the Lords flocke, with whippings and beatings, whose vnreasonable dooynges Saint Gregory bewailing,, thus saith: MarginaliaGregorius. Quid fiat de ouibus quando pastores lupi fiunt? That is, what shall become of the sheepe when the pastors themselues be Woolues? But who is ouercome but he which exerciseth cruelty,? Or who shall iudge the persecutor, but he which gaue patiently his backe to stripes? And this is the frute which commeth to the Church by such persecutors, also which commeth to the clergy, by such despitefull handling of their Byshoppes or rather Infidels. For why may ye not call them Infidels, of whome Saint Paule thus speaketh and writeth to Tymothie? Marginalia2. Tim. 3. that in the latter dayes there shall certaine depart from the faith, geue heede to spirits of errour and doctrine of deuils, of them that speake false through hypocrisie, and hauing their consciences marked with an hote yron, forbidding to marry, and commaunding to abstaine from meates. &c. And this is if it be well marked, the whole handfull of the darnell and cockell growing amongest the corne: this is the couente of all madnes, that whiles they of the Clergye, be compelled to relinquish the cōpany of their own lawful wiues: they become afterward fornicators and adulterers with other women, and wicked ministers of other sinnefull filthinesse. These bee they which bring into the Church of God this heresie (as blinde guides leading the blinde) that it might be fulfilled which the Psalme speaketh of: as foreseeing the errors of such men, & accursing thēafter this maner, let their eyes be blinded that they see not, & bow down alwais their backe. For as much the (O Apostolical Sir) as no man which knoweth you, is ignorant, that if you, through the light of your discretion had vnderstanded and seene, what poysoned pestilence, might haue come into the Churche thorough the sentence of this your decree: they would neuer haue consēted to the suggestions of certaine wicked persons. Wherefore we counsell you by the fidelitie of our due subiection, that wyth all diligence, you would put away so great slaūder from the Church of God: through your discret discipline, you will remooue this Pharisaicall doctryne from the flocke of God: so that thys onely Sunanite of the Lords (vsing no more adulterous husbāds) do not separate the holy people, and the kingly Priesthoode from her spouse which is Christ, through and vnrecouerable diuorsement; seing that no man without Chastitie (not only in the virgines state, but also in the state of matrimony) shall see our Lord, who with the father and the holy ghost, lyueth and raigneth for euer. Amen. MarginaliaInuenitur hcc Epistola in vetustis mēbraneceis libris (testāte Illyrico in Catologo) Meminit eiusdem Epistolæ Aeneas Syluius, in sua peregrinatione, & Germaniæ descriptione.

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¶ By this Epistle of Byshop Huldericke, aboue prefixed, the matter is plaine (gentle Reader) to conceiue, what was then the sentence of learned men, concerning the mariage of ministers, but that here by the way, the Reader is to be admoninished that this Epistle which by errour of the writer is referred to pope Nicholas þe first, in my mind is rather to bee attributed to the name and time of Nicolas the 2. or 3.

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After this pope Nicolas succeded Hadrianus. 2. Ioannesix. Martinus. ij. After these came Hadrian the third and Stephē the v. MarginaliaPope Hadrian the second. Iohn 9. Martine. ij. Hadrian. iij. Steuen v. By this Hadrian it was first decred, þt no Emperour after that time should intermedle or haue any thing to do in the election of the Pope. And thus began the Emperors fyrst to decay, and the Papacie to swell and ryse aloft. And thus much concerning Romish matters for this time.

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The Danish Invasions to Alfred the Great

This section of Foxe's narrative was added in the 1570 edition, and then not subsequently altered in succeeding editions. It was a compendium from various sources, piecing together the history of the early invasions of the Danes from 852 onwards, through the reigns of the Saxon kings Ethelbald, Ethelbright and Ethelred I, to that of King Alfred. Foxe's brief excursion into the narrative of the early Danish invasions is evident from the lengthy quotation from a 'certain old written story, which hath no name', which the marginal gloss cites as 'ex vetusto exemplo histoiae Carianae W.C. 1', and which Foxe almost certainly gleaned from the Flores Historiarum, which had recently been published under the auspices of Matthew Parker (Elegans, illustris et facilis rerum, præsertim Britannicarum et aliarum obiter, notatu dignarum, a mundi exordio ad annum Domini, 1307 narratio, quam Matthæus Westmonasteriensis ... Flores Historiarum scripsit, [London, 1567]) - see H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols (London: Rolls Series, 1890), 1, pp. 416-7. Foxe added a gloss of his own to the passage in order to make the point clear, emphasizing that the Danish invasions were God's vengeance for the 'wickedness' of the Britons in originally resisting Christianity, 'wherefore Gods just recompense falling vpon them, from that time neuer suffered them to be quiet from foreign enemies, till the commyng of William the Normand conqueror'. Thereafter, Foxe's account of Danish barbarity come 'ex histories Iornalens', i.e. from the chronicle attributed to John Brompton, abbot of Jervaulx (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], pp. 802-4. The account of the reign of Kinh Ethelbald comes largely from Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 6, chapters 169-70). Foxe elaborated somewhat on the persecution and martyrdom of St Edmund, 'underking' of the East Angles, an avatar of things to come in his narrative. Here, besides Fabian (lib. 6, cap. 169) he also used Roger of Howden (W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houdene 2 vols, Rolls Series [London, 1868], 1, p. 39), John Brompton (op.cit., p. 805) and William of Malmesbury (R. A. B. Mynors, ed. William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum Anglorum Vol. 1 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), lib. 2, cap. 112).

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

Then to returne where we lefte, touching the storye of King Ethelwolfe. About the latter ende of his reigne, the Danes which before had inuaded the Realme, in the time of king Egbert, as is aboue declared: now made there reentre againe, with 33. shippes arriuing aboute Hamshyre: through the barbarous tyranny of whō, much bloudshed and murther happened here among englishmen, in Dorcet shire, about Pourtchmouth in Kent, in Eastangle, in Lindesey, at Rochester, about London, and in Westsexe. where Ethelwolfe the king was ouercome, besides diuers other vnder kings and dukes, whome the Danes dayly approching, in great multitudes in dyuers victories had put to flight. At length king Ethelwofe, with his sonne Ethelbaldus, warring against them in Southrey, at Oclea, draue them to the sea, where they houering a space, after a while brast in againe with horrible rage and crueltie, as hereafter (Christ willing) shall be declared, so much as to our purpose shall serue, professing in this history, to write not of matters externe and politike, but onely pertaining to the Church. The cause of this great affliction sent of God vnto this realme thus I found expressed and collected in a certayne olde wrytten storye, MarginaliaEx vetusto exemplo historiæ, Carianæ. W. G. 1.which hath noe name: the wordes of which writer, for the same cause as he thought to recite them, writing as he saith (ad cautelam futurorum) I thought also for the same here not to be omitted, albeit in all partes of his commendation I doe not fully with him accorde. The wordes of the writer be these.

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MarginaliaThe cause of Gods wrath, whereby the Realme of England was scourged by the Danes. In Anglorum quidem Ecclesia primitiua, religio clarissime, respēduit: ita vt Reges & Reginæ et Principes ac Duces, Consules, & Barones. &c. In English thus.

In the primitiue Church saith he of the Englishmen, Relygiō did most clerely shine, in so much that kings, Queenes, Princes and Dukes, Consuls, Barons, and Rulers of Churches, incensed with the desire of the kingdome of heauen, laboring and stryuing among themselues to enter into Monkery, into voluntarye exile and solitary life, forsoke all and followed the Lord. Where in processe of time, all vertue so much decayed among them, that in fraude and trechery none seemed like vnto them: Neither was to them any thing odious or hatefull but pietie and iustice Neither any thing in price or honor, but ciuill warre and sheddyng of innocent bloud. Wherfore almighty God sent vpon them pagane and cruell nations, like swarmes of Bees, which neyther spared women, nor children, as Danes, Norwagians, Gothes, Sueuians, Vandals, and Fresians. Who from the beginning of the reigne of king Ethelwolfe till the comming of the Normandes, by the space neere of 230. yeares, destroyed their sinfull land from the one side of the sea, to the other, from man also to beast. For why? they inuading England oft times, of euery side, went not about to subdue and possesse it, but onely to spoyle and destroy it. And if it had chanced them at any time to be ouercome of Englishmen, it auailed nothing, when as other nauies still with greater power in other places were ready vpon a sodaine and vnawares to approche vpon them, &c. Historia Cariana.

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Thus farre haue ye the wordes of mine author, declaring the cause, which prouoked Gods anger, whereunto may be adioyned the wickednes, not onely of them but of their forefathers also before them, who falsely breaking the faith and promise made wyth the Britanes, did cruellye murther their nobles, wickedly oppressed their cōmons, impiously persecuted the innocent Christians, iniuriously possessed their land and habitation: chasing the inhabitaunts out of house and country, besides the violent murther of the Monkes of Bangor, and diuers foule slaughters against the poore Brytaines, who sent for them to be their helpers. Wherefore, Gods iust recompence fallyng vpon them from that time, neuer suffered them to be quiet from forreine enimies, till the comming of William the Normande, &c.

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MarginaliaAn other cause rendred, why England was scourged of the Danes. Moreouer, concerning the outward occasiōs giuē ofthe Englishmens parts, mouing the Danes first to inuade the Realme, I find in certain stories two, most especially assigned. The one iniustly giuē, & iustly takē. The other not giuen iustly, and vniustly taken. Of the which two, the first was giuen in Northumberland, MarginaliaThe first entring of the Danes. by meanes of Osbryght, reigning vnder king of Westsaxons, in the north partes. MarginaliaEx historia Iornalensi. This Osbright vppon a time iourneyng by the way, turned into the house of one of his nobles called Bruer. Who hauing at home a wife of great beautie (he be-

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yng
M.iiij.
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