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Ravenna
 
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Ravenna

[Rauenna]

Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Coordinates: 44° 25' 0" N, 12° 12' 0" E

169 [146]

Whether the Pope may erre. Sedition amongst Popes. King Edward the elder.

how soeuer Pope Iohn is to be iudged in this matter, to do either wel or not wel, this wold I know, if he did well in so dispriesting and discharactering Formosus, for suche priuate offences? If yea, how then stādeth his doing wyth his owne doctrine, which teacheth the contrary? If he did not well, how then standeth his doctrine with his doings to be true, which teacheth that the Pope with his Synode of Cardinals cannot erre? MarginaliaWhether the pope with hys Cardinals may erre. Moreouer if this Pope Iohn did not erre in his disordering Formosus: howe then did Martinus hys successoure not erre, in repealing the sayd doing of hys predecessour? Or how did not Pope Formosus erre hymselfe, who beyng vnpriested by Pope Iohn: afterwarde wythout reiterating the Character or order of Priesthoode, tooke vppon hym to be Pope, and made actes and lawes in the Churche? Againe, if Formosus nowe Pope did not erre, how then did Pope Stephen hys successoure afterwarde not erre: who did annihilate the consecration, and all other actes of the said Formosus, as erroneous? Or againe, if we say that this Stephen with his Synode of Cardinalles did right: then howe could it be, that Pope Theodore, & Pope Iohn the tenth, which came after the foresayde Stephen, did not plainely erre? Who approuing the consecration of Formosus: did condemne, and burne the acts Synodale, of Stephen and his Cardinals, which before had condemned Formosus: according as in storie here consequently may appeare?

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MarginaliaBonifacius 6. Pope. Stephen. 6. Pope.After Formosus had gouerned the Sea of Rome fiue yeres, succeded first Bonifacius the vj. who continued but 25. dayes, then came Stephen the vj. which so enuyed the name of his predecessor Formosus: that he abrogated and dissolued his decrees: And taking vp his bodye, after it was buried, cut two fingers of his right hande, and commanded them to be cast into Tiber, & then buried the body in a priuate or laymans sepulchre. MarginaliaEx Chroni. Martini pœnitentiarij. Sigebert. Ex Polych. & alijs.

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Thus Stephen after he had sat in the chaire of pestilēce one yeare: succeeded in the same chaire, Pope Rhomanus, and sate iij. monthes: repealing the actes decreed by Stephen his predecessor, against Formosus. Next to whome came Theodorus 2. MarginaliaPope Theodorus. 2. who likewise taking parte with Formosus against the foresaid Stephē, reigned but 20. dayes. Then sate Pope Iohn the 10. MarginaliaPope Iohn. 10. who did fight and repugne against the Romanes. And to confirme the cause of Formosus more surely, did hold a Sinode at Rauenna of 74. Bishops, wt the French king Endo and his Archbishops being present at the same. At the which councel, were ratified all the decrees and doings of Formosus: and the contrary acts of the Synode of Stephen the vj. were burned. MarginaliaOne councell burneth an others decrees.This Pope liued not Pope fully two yeares: after whom succeeded Benedictus the 4. which kept the chaire three yeares. After whom Leo the 5. MarginaliaPope Benedictus 4. Pope Leo. 5. imprisoned and vnpoped by hys own chaplayne. was next Pope, who with in 40. daies of his papacie, was with strong hand taken & cast in prison by one Christopher his own houshold chaplain, whō he had long norished before in his house. Which thing (sayeth Platina) could not be done without great conspiracie and great slaughter of men. MarginaliaPope Christoferus. 1. Which Christofer being Pope about the space of seuen monthes, was likewise himselfe hoisted from his Papall throne by Sergius, like as he had done to hys maister before. And thus within the space of 9. yeares, had bene 9. Popes one after an other. MarginaliaPope Sergius. Then Sergius after he had thrust downe Pope Christofer, and shorne him Monke into a Monasterie, occupied the roume 7. yeares. This Sergius a rude man, and vnlearned, very proude and cruell: had before bene put backe from the Popedome by Formosus aboue mentioned. By reason whereof, to reuenge Formosus againe being nowe in his papacie, MarginaliaPope Formosus after hys death beheaded of Pope Sergius. caused the body of Formosus, where it was buried to be taken vp: and afterwarde set in the Papall sea (as in his pontificalibus) first disgraded him, then commanded his head to be smitten off, wt the other thre fingers that were left (as Sigebertus writeth) which done, he made his body to be throwne into Tiber, deposing likewise all such, as by the said Formosus before had bene consecrated and inuested. This body of Formosus thus throwne into Tiber, was afterward (as our writers say) found & taken vp by certaine fishers, and so brought into s. Peters temple. MarginaliaA false fayned myracle vpon the body of Formosus. Popish miracles not to be credited. At the presence whereof (as they say) certaine images there standing by, bowed downe themselues, and reuerēced the same, with lie and all. But such deceiueable miracles of stocks and images in monkish and frierly tēples, be to vs no newes, especially here in England: where we haue bene so inured with the like, & so many, that such wily practises cannot be to vs inuisible: though this crownshorn generation, thinke themselues to daunce in a nette. But the truthe is, while they thinke to deceaue the simple, these wily beguily most of all deceiue themselues, as they will finde except they repent. By this Pope Sergius, first came vp to beare about the candels on Candelmas day: MarginaliaBearing of candels on Candlemas day how it came vp. for þepurifying of the blessed virgine. As though the sacred conception of Iesus the sonne of God, were to be purified as a thing vnpure, and that with candell light.

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After Sergius, entred pope Anastasius, MarginaliaPope Anastasius. 3. in whose time the body of Formosus forenamed, is thought to be foūd of fishermen in the riuer of Tiber, & so brought, as is said, into the temple to be saluted of the images, which thing may quickly be tainted as a lie. For how it is to be thought that the body of Formosus so long dead before, and now lying 7. yeares in the riuer: could remaine whole all that while, that Fishers might take it vp, & discerne it to be the same? After Anasius had sate two yeres, folowed Pope Lando, the father MarginaliaPope Lando. 1. (as some stories think) of pope Iohn, MarginaliaPope Iohn. 11. which Iohn is sayde to be the paramour of Theodora a famous harlot of Rome, & set vp of the same harlot eyther against Lando, or after Lando his father to succede in hys roume. MarginaliaHarlots at this time ruled all at Rome. There is a storie writer called Liuthprandus, who wryting de Imperatoribus. Lib. 2. cap. 13. maketh there mention of this Theodora, and Pope Iohn xj. and sayeth moreouer, that this Theodora had a daughter named Marozia: which Marozia had by pope Sergius aboue mentioned, a sonne which afterward was Pope Iohn the 12. The same Marozia afterward it chāced to marry with Guido Marques of Tuscia: through the meanes of which Guido and hys frends at Rome, she brought to passe that this pope Iohn the 11. was smothered with a pillow laid to his mouth, after he had reigned 13. yeares. And so the foresayd Iohn the 12. her sonne, to succede next after him. MarginaliaP. Iohn. 12. P. Leo. 6. P. Steph. 9. P. Iohn. 12. restored. But because þe clergie and people of Rome did not agre to his election, therfore was Pope Leo the 6. in his place set vp. Thus Pope Iohn the sonne of Sergius and Marozia being deiected, reigned Pope Leo 7. moneths. After him Pope Stephen 2 yeares. Who being poysoned, then was Pope Iohn the 12. aboue rehearsed, the sonne of Sergius and Marozia, set vp againe in the Papacie, where hee reigned neare the space of 5. yeres. Of the wickednesse of this strompet Marozia, howe she maried two brethren, one after the death of the other: And howe she gouerned all Rome, & the whole church at that time, I let it passe. Although the latin verses wherewith the sayd Liuthprandus, doeth inuey against such women as marie two brethren, MarginaliaLiuthprandus. Ticinēsis. lib. 3. were neither worthy here to be recited, and perhappes might be further applied then to that Marozia of Rome, but for shortnesse I let them also passe.

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MarginaliaP. Steph. 7. P. Leo. 7. P. Steph. 8. P. Martin. 3. P. Agapetus. 2. After Ioan. 12. followed Pope Stephen three yeares. Pope Leo 3. yeares and 4. monethes. Pope Stephen the eight 3. yeres and 4. moneths. Pope Martine 3. yeres and 6. monthes. After him Pope Agapetus 8. yeres and 6. monethes. About whose time or a little before began first the order of monkes called Ordo Cluniacensis, &c. MarginaliaOrdo Cluniacensis beginneth.

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But nowe to leaue of these monstruous matters of Rome, and to returne againe to our country of England, where we last left before.

 
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Edward the Elder to Edgar

Foxe's sources for the history of Anglo-Saxon England after the death of Alfred the Great remained something of the same mix as they had for the earlier sections of book 3 in the 1570 edition (which is the first edition in which he treats these matters in detail). He continued to rely on Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559]) and John Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden (London, 1652)) as his baseline source-textsm, supplementing them with other chronicles in a way that suggests a continuing diligence in comparing the various extant accounts open to him. In one respect, however, his diligence was less than complete. Foxe continued to use John Brompton as his source for the Anglo-Saxon law-codes, even though his own printer, John Day had published in 1568 the edition of them prepared in translations directly from Old English by William Lambarde (William Lambarde, Archaionomia [London: 1568]). Foxe certainly used this source for his argument against the Six Articles later on, but he does not seem to have had access to it whilst he was revising the earlier parts of the Acts and Monuments (books 1-2) and here he seems only to have used it in respect of the Epistle to King Lucius, which may have been abstracted for him by someone in Archbishop Matthew Parker's household, or passed on by Nowell or Lambarde himself.

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Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

King Edward the elder.

 

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Foxe's use of his sources here was quite rich. In addition to Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], p. 831), the first few sentences come directly from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (J. S. Brewer, and C. T. Martin, 'William of Malmesbury: Gesta Regum.' In Reigistrum Malmesburiense. The Registor of Malmesbury Abbey, ed. by J.S. Brewer and C.T. Martin (London: Rolls Series, 1869-1880), book 2, ch. 125). He also may have cross-referenced to Matthew Paris' Flores (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthew Paris. Flores Historiarum 3 vols [London: Rolls Series, 1890], 1, p. 478) and Henry Huntingdon's Chronicle (T. Arnold, ed. Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154 [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 5, ch. 14).

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AFter the reigne of the famous king Alfred, hys sonne Edward succeeded, surnamed the elder. MarginaliaKing Edward the elder. Where first is to be noted, that before the Conquest of the Normandes, there were in England 3. Edwardes, first this Edwarde the elder. 2. Edward the martyr. 3. Edward the confessor. Whereof hereafter (by the grace of Christ) shall followe in order, as place shall geue to be declared. MarginaliaThe Edwardes before the cōquest. This Edwarde began his reigne, the yeare of our Lord. 901. and gouerned the land right valiantly and nobly 24. yeares. In knowledge of good letters and learning, he was not to be compared to his father. Otherwise, in princely renowne, in ciuile gouernment, and such like martiall prowesse, he was nothing inferior, but rather excelled him. MarginaliaA comparison betweene Alfrede, and hys sonne Edward. Through whose valiant actes, first the princedome of Wales, and kingdom of Scotland, with Constantine king thereof were to hym subdued. He adioyned moreouer to his dominion the coūtrey of Eastanglia, that is, of Norfolke, Suffolke and Essex. All Merceland also he recouered and Northumberlād out of the hands of the Danes. In all his warres he neuer lightly wēt without victory. The subiects of his prouinces and dominions were so inured, and hardened in continuall practise and feates of warre: MarginaliaVse and long exercise of things maketh perfectnes. that when they hearde of any ennemies comming (neuer tarying for any bidding from the king , or from his dukes) straightwayes they encountred wyth them: both in number, and in knowledge of the order of warre excelling alwayes their aduersaries. Guliel. de Regi. Ita hostes militibus contemptui, Regi risui erant. To meane, So was the comming and assaulting of theyr ennemyes to the people and common Souldiours but a trifle, to the king but a ridicle. MarginaliaClyto Ethelwold rebelleth agaynst K. Edward. Among other aduersaries which were busie rather then wise, in assailing this king:

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