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Ely

Elderly chantry priest at Windsor

At dinner at Windsor, Master Ely complained of laymen who meddled with the scriptures and was challenged by Robert Testwood. When Testwood supported the king's supremacy over the church, Ely called him a heretic, refused to have anything more to do with him and reported him to the dean's deputy. A few days later, the act of supremacy was passed and the dean returned, attacking papal supremacy. 1570, p. 1386; 1576, p. 1182; 1583, p. 1211.

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Ramsey

(d. c. 1541)

Martyred at Salisbury with fellow interlude players Richard Spenser and Hewet

Ramsey was charged with heresy about the sacrament of the altar and burnt at Salisbury. 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174; 1583, p. 1202.

 
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Abingdon
Abyngdon
NGR: SU 495 795

A borough, having separate and exclusive jurisdiction, locally in the hundred of Harmer, county of Berkshire, of which it is the chief town. 6 miles south from Oxford, 26 miles north west by north from Reading. The town comprises the parishes of St. Helens and St. Nicholas, both in the Archdeaconry of Berkshire, Diocese of Salisbury. The living of St. Helens is a vicarage, with the sinecure rectory of St. Nicholas annexed.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Burghley [Burgh] by Stamford

Lincolnshire

OS grid ref: TF 030 067

 
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Ely
Ely
NGR: TL 540 800

A city in the Isle of Ely, county of Cambridge. 16 miles north-north-east from Cambridge. The city is exclusively of the liberty of the College, which is extra-parochial, and comprises the parishes of St. Mary and Holy Trinity, in the peculiar jurisdiction and patronage of the Dean and Chapter, within the Diocese of Ely, of which it is the seat

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Glastonbury

Somerset

OS grid ref: ST 502 384

 
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Kingston upon Thames

[Kingstone]

Surrey (borough of London)

OS grid ref: TQ 185 705

 
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Malmesbury

[Malmesbery]

Wiltshire

OS grid ref: ST 935 875

 
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Ramsey
Ramesey
NGR: TM 213 303

A parish in the hundred of Tendring, county of Essex. 3 miles west-south-west from Harwich. The living is a discharged vicarage in the Archdeaconry of Colchester, diocese of London

English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Scottish information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1846)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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St Amandus Abbey

Elnon, nr Tournai, Belgium

Coordinates: 50° 45' 0" N, 3° 42' 0" E

 
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Tavistock [Thamstock]

Devon

OS grid ref: SX 485 745

 
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Thorney

Cambridgeshire

OS grid ref: TF 285 045

 
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Wilton [Wylton]

Wiltshire

OS grid ref: SU 095 315

 
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Winchcombe

[Wincombe]

Gloucestershire

OS grid ref: SP 022 283

 
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Winchester (Winton; Wenta; Wenton)

Hampshire

OS grid ref: SU 485 295

Historic capital of Wessex; former capital of England; county town of Hampshire; cathedral city

175 [152]

Dunstane. K. Edwyne. K. Edgar. Monkes put out of office.

selfe during the tyme of his gouernement. MarginaliaDunstane made byshop of Winceter and after of London. In his tyme, Dunstane was promooted through the means of Odo the Archbishop, from Abbot of Glastenbury, to be Bishop of Wirceter, and after of London. By the counsayle of this Dunstane, Edrede was much ruled, and too much thereto addicted: In so much that the sayd Edrede is reported in stories to submit himselfe to much fond penance, and castigations inflicted to him of the said Dunstane. Such zelous deuotion was then in princes, and more blynd superstition in bishops. And here agayn is an other miracle as fantasticall as the other before, forged of Dunstane. That whē that Edrede beyng sicke, sent for Dunstane to be hys confessor by the way: Dunstane should heare a voyce declaring to him before, that Edrede was already departed, at the declaring wherof Dunstans horse fel immediately dead vnder hym, with lye and all. MarginaliaWith lye and all.

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King Edwine.

MarginaliaK. Edwyne. EDwine the eldest sonne of king Edmund afore mētioned, after his vncle Edrede, began his raigne about the yere of our Lord, 955. MarginaliaAnno. 955. being crowned at Kingston by Odo the Archbishop of Caunterbury. Of this Edwine it is reported of diuers writers, that the first day of his coronation, sitting with his Lordes, brake sodainly from them & entred a secrete chamber, to the company of a certaine woman, whom he inordinately retained (being as some say an other mans wife) whose husband he had before slayne, as other say being of his aliance, to the great mislikyng of hys Lordes, and especially of the Clergy. Dunstane was yet but Abbot of Glastenbury, who following the king into the chamber, brought him out by the hand, and accused him to Odo the Archbishop, causing him to be separate from the company of the foresayd partie, by the which Odo, the king was for his fact suspended out of the Church. MarginaliaThe king suspensed by the Archbishop. K. Edwyne an enemye to Monkes. By reason whereof the king beyng with Dunstane displeased, banished him his land, & forced him for a season to flee to Flanders where he was in the monastery of S. Amandus. About the same season the Monasticall order of Benedict Monkes or blacke monkes (as they were called) began to multiply and encrease here in England. In so much, that where before tyme other priestes & Canons had bene placed. there monkes were in their roumes set in, and the secular priests (as they then were called) or Canōs put out, But king Edwine for the displeasure he bare to Dunstan, did so vexe all the order of the said monkes, that in Malmesbury, Glastenbury, & other places mo, he thrust out the monkes, and set in secular priestes in their stead. MarginaliaMonkes put out, and seculer priestes placed in their roomes.

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Notwithstanding it was not long, but these priestes and Canons were agayne remooued, and the said monkes in their stead restored, both in the foresayd houses, and in diuers other Churches Cathedrall besides, as the next story of Kyng Edgar (Christ willyng) shall at more large appeare.

MarginaliaThe death of K. Edwyne. In fine kyng Edwine beyng hated by reason of certaine his demeanours, of all his subiectes (especially the Northumbrians and Mercians) was by them remooued from his kingly honour, and his brother Edgar in his steade receiued: so that the Riuer of Thamis deuided both theyr kingdomes. Which Edwine after he had raigned about the terme of foure yeares departed, leauing no heyre of hys bodye. Wherefore the rule of the lande fell to Edgar his younger brother.

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¶ King Edgar. 
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Edgar and Edward the Martyr

Foxe had scarcely done more in the 1563 edition of his martyrology than point to the period after the death of King Athelstan as the one in which 'shepheardes and watchmen became wicked Wolues, Christes frendes chaunged into ennemies. To be shorte here came in the time,that the reuelation speaketh of, whan Sathanas, the old serpent, beyng tied vp for a thousand yere, was losed for a certaine space' (1563, pp. 10-11). Foxe thus linked this, the 'third age' of the church, with the accomplishment of the first millennium of Christian history and the prediction contained in Revelation, 20: 6-8. By the 1570 edition, the history of Kings Edgar and Edward the Martyr were completely reworked in a lengthy passage which makes no mention of any underlying millennial interpretation. Instead, it concentrates on the coming of a new form of monasticism to England, associated in general terms with the 'middle age' of the church (Foxe had already used the term in the 1563 edition, although here he ascribes it to a broader period). He elaborates the development in ways that explicitly and intentionally reveal his protestant colours. Foxe was careful to distinguish between the Celtic and Augustinian monasticism of the 'second age' of the church - godly men (Foxe rarely mentions female monasticism at all) who were lay people, often married, who accepted monastic discipline - and the 'prodigious superstition' that accompanied the 'monkes of the middle & latter age of the church' - Cluniac monasticism and its successors. Foxe consciously restrained his urge to elaborate on that theme at greater length, not least because he was anxious to emphasize other, more insidious, elements in the development. These included the much greater social weight and presence of the new monasticism, its urban setting and competitive variety (Foxe makes a good deal of the latter, gently mocking the different colours and rituals of the monastic orders), and its growing political weight. The latter is emphasised in Foxe's narrative explicitly - in his account of the role of Dunstan, in his nuanced assessment of the achievements of King Edgar, and his interpretation of the the reaction of the Anglo-Saxon nobility to the growing power of the new monasticism after the death of King Edgar and the resulting turmoil of that of his successor, King Edward. The latter, 'called the Martyr' is treated by Foxe in a particularly negative fashion in order, at least by implication, to indicate that one of the Satanic elements of the new monasticism was to manufacture martyrdom to its own purposes, manipulating the historical record to further its own cause. Foxe is consistently aware, throughout this passage, of the potential bias of the monastic sources that he is often compelled to rely upon for his narrative, consciously revealing to his audience the critique that he is subjecting them to. This is particularly evident in the passage where he proves, at least to his satisfaction, that King Edward was, in reality, an illegitimate child of King Edgar, a secret consciously withheld in the 'Monkish stories' to sustain the credit of Dunstan and 'the reputation of the Churche of Rome'.

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Foxe's use of his sources in this passage is particularly wide-ranging and penetrating. As in previous passages of the 1570 edition of book 3, he consciously plays off the lay chronicles (particularly Roger of Howden (Hoveden) and Fabian's Chronicle against his monastic sources (William of Malmesbury, John of Brompton's Chronicle, Osbern's Life of Dunstan…). Some of his anti-monastic material comes from Bale's Catalogus and the Lives of the English Votaries. But, more interestingly, Foxe also in this passage cites (albeit probably indirectly) from the Church Fathers - the only time he does so outside Book One in the 1570 edition. This section seems to have come from various parts of the Magdeburg Centuries (Century V). As in the case of the other sources which Foxe cites (Eadmer's Life of Dunstan; Osbern of Canterbury's Life of Dunstan; Simeon of Durham's Chronicle; John Capgrave's Life of Saint Edith) there are strong indications that this section had been produced with the active collaboration of members of Archbishop Matthew Parker's household, particularly John Joscelyn. Dunstan's role in the archiepiscopal lineage at Canterbury made this section particularly sensitive from both Foxe's and Parker's point of view.

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Once presented in the 1570 edition, this section did not undergo further changes in the later editions during Foxe's lifetime.

Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

EDgar the second sonne of Edmund, and brother to Edwine being of the age of xvj. yeares, began his raygne ouer the realme of England, in the yeare of our Lord, 959. MarginaliaAnno. 959. but was not crowned till 14. yeares after: 

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The description of King Edgar's coronation and the election of Dunstan as Archbishop of Canterbury, were taken by Foxe from Roger Howden's Chronicle (W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houdene 4 vols, Rolls Series [London, 1868], 1, pp. 61-2). His general approach, however, to the reign of King Edgar reflects the point of view taken by Bale in the Catalogus (pp. 137-41) and the English Votaryes (pp. 61-66) though Foxe does not directly borrow from either of these sources.

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the causes whereof here vnder follow (Christ willing) to be declared. MarginaliaK. Edgar called Pacificus. In the beginning of his raigne he called home Dunstane, whome king Edwine before had exiled. Then was Dunstane, which before was Abbot of Glastenbury, made bishop of Worcester, & then of London. MarginaliaDunstane made Bysh. of Worceter, and of London. Ex hist. Rog. Houenden. Not long after, this Odo the Archbishop of Cant. deceaseth, after he had gouerned þe Church 24. yeares. After whom Brithelinus bishop of Winchester, first was elected. But because he was thought not sufficiēt to furnish þt roome: Dunstane was ordained Archb. and the other sent home agayne to his old Church. MarginaliaSpirituall liuinges geuen by the king, and not by the Pope. Where note by the way, how in those dayes the donatiō and assignyng of ecclesiasticall dignities remayned in the kings hand, onely they fet their palle frō Rome, as a token of the Popes confirmation. So Dunstane beyng by the kyng made Archb. tooke hys iourny to Rome for his palle of Pope Iohn the 13. which was about the beginning of the Kings raygne. Thus Dunstane obtayning his palle, shortly after his re-turne agayne from Rome, entreateth King Edgar, that Oswaldus (who, as is said, was made monke at Floriake, and was nephew to Odo late bishop of Cant.) might bee promooted to the bishoprike of Worcester, which thyng to him was granted. MarginaliaOswaldus byshop of Worceter and after of Yorke, Ethelwoldus byshop of Wint. a great maintayner of Monkery. An. 963. And not long after, through the means of the sayd Dunstane, Ethelwoldus (whom stories doe fayne to be the great patrone of Monkery) first Monke of Glastenbury, thē Abbot of Abbendon, was also made Bysh. of Winchester. Of this Ethelwold, Gulielmus libro de gestis pōtificum recordeth, MarginaliaEx Guliel. Malmesberiens de gestis pontifi. Ang. that what tyme he was a Monke in the house of Glastenbury, the Abbot had a vision of him which was this. 
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Foxe's elaboration on the dream which led King Edgar to patronize the new monasticism come from a variety of sources. The interesting reference to Emperor Charles V's dream, and 'how he was led by a thred to see the tormentes of hell' has not been identified. That of Furse comes from Bede, Book 3, ch. 19; The dream of Astyages, king of the Medes, came (directly or indirectly), from Herodotus' Histories, book 1 (second part). Ethelwold's dream sequence itself is taken from William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (N. E. S. A. Hamilton, ed. William of Malmesbury. Willemesbiriensis Monachi De Gestis pontificium Anglorum [...] [London: Rolls Series, 1870], book 2, ch. 75, p. 263). The remaining material on the monastic foundations of King Edgar ('Burga by Stanford' = Peterborough; 'Ramsey' might be Rumsey in Hampshire, which was founded by King Edgar, although it could equally be Ramsey Abbey in Huntingdonshire, which was refounded by him) is taken from Roger of Howden's Chronicle with a direct quotation (W. Stubbs, ed. Chronica magistri Rogeri de Houdene 4 vols, Rolls Series (London, 1868), 1, p. 62); Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], col. 867) and William of Malmesbury's Gesta Pontificium (Ibid., book 1, ch. 18.4, p. 34).

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How that there appeared to him in hys sleepe a certayne great tree, the branches wherof extended through out all the foure quarters of the Realme, which branches were al couered with many little Monkes coules, where, in the top of the tree was one great maister coule, which in spreading it selfe ouer the other coules, inclosed all the rest, which maister coule in the tree top, myne Author in the interpretation applyeth to the lyfe of this Ethelwold. MarginaliaMonkishe dreames. Of such prodigious fantasies, our monkish histories bee full, and not onely our histories of England, but also the Heathen histories of the Gentiles be stuffed with such kynd of dreames of much like effect.

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Of such a lyke dreame we read of the mother of Ethelstane, how the Moone did spring out of her wombe, & gaue light to all England. Also of king Charles the Emperour, how he was led by a threed to see torments of hel. Like wise of Furceus the Heremite mentioned in the third booke of Bede, who sawe the ioyes of heauen and the 4. fires that should destroy the world: the one of lying, for breakyng our promise made at Baptism. The second fire was of couetous. The third of dissention. The fourth was of the fire of impietie and wrongfull dealing. Item, in like sort of the dreame of Dunstane, and of the same Ethelwold, to whom appeared the three bishops, Bristanus, Birinus, and Swithinus, &c. Itē, of the dreame of the mother of this Ethelwold, who beyng great with him, did see a golden Egle flee out of her mouth, &c. Of the dreame likewise, or the vision of Kyng Edgar concerning the falling of the two apples, and of the pots, one being full of water, the other empty, &c. Also of king Edward the Confessor, touching the ruine of the lande by the conquest of the Normands. We read also in the history of Astiages, how he dreamed of Cyrus. And likewise of many other dreames in the bookes of the monkes, & of the Ethnike writers. For what cannot either the idle vanitie of mans head, or the deception of the lying spirite worke by man: in foreshewing such earthly euentes as happen commonly in this present world? MarginaliaDreames not necessary to be regarded. Difference of dreames. But here is a difference to be vnderstood betwene these earthly dreames, speaking of earthly things, and matters of humaine superstition, & betwene other spiritual reuelations sent by God touching spirituall matters of the Church, pertayning to mans saluation. MarginaliaHow and whē monks first began to swarme in England. Dunstane, Ethelwold, Oswald, three setters vp of Monkishe religion. But to our purpose, by this dreame, and by the euent which followed after, it may appeare how & by what meanes the multitude of Monkes began first to swarme in the Churches of England (that is) in the dayes of this Edgar, by the meanes of these three Bishops, Dunstane, Ethelwold and Oswold. Albeit Dunstane was the chiefest ring leader of this race, yet Ethelwold beyng now Bishop of Winchester, & Oswold bishop of Worcester, were not much behind for their partes. By the instigation and counsail of these three aforesaid, king Edgar is recorded in histories to build either new out of the ground, or to reedifie monasteries decayed by the Danes, mo then xl. Marginalia40. Monasteries builded and repayred by K. Edger. As the house of Ely, Glastenbury, Abington, Burgh by Stamford, Thorney, Ramsey, Wilton, Wenton, Winchcombe, Thamstock in Deuonshire, with diuers other moe. In the settyng vp and building of the which, the foresayde Ethelwold was a great doer and a founder vnder the king. MarginaliaPriestes thrust out of Cathedrall houses, and monkes set in. Moreouer, thorough the motion of this Dunstane and his fellowes, kyng Edgar in diuers great houses and Cathedrall Churches, where Prebendaries and priestes were before, displaced the priests, and set in Monkes. Wherof we read in þe chronicle of Rog. Houeden, in wordes and forme as followeth: MarginaliaRoger Houeden lib. Continuationum, post Bedā. Hic namq; Ethelwoldus Regem cuius eximius erat consiliarius, ad hoc maximè prouocauit, vt clericos à Monasterijs expelleret, & monachos sanctimonialesq; in eis collocaret, &c. That is, Ethelwold bishop of Winchester, who was then one of the kings coūsaile, did vrge the K. chiefly to expel Clerks out of Monasteries, and in their rowmes to bestow Monks and Nunnes, &c. whereunto accordeth likewise Historia Iornalensis, containing the like effect in these wordes: MarginaliaChronicon Iornalense. Hoc anno Ethelwoldus Wint. & Oswaldus Wygornensis Episcopi, iussu Regis Edgari (clericis de quibusdam maioribus Ecclesijs expulsis) Monachos instituerunt, aut de eisdem clericis & alijs monachos in eisdem fecerunt. Gulielmus also writing of the tyme of Dunstane, MarginaliaGuliel. de gestis pontifi. lib. 1. maketh the matter somwhat more plain

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