near Stonehenge, Wiltshire
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OS grid ref: SU 385 405
after the same, that king Edward, whom the writers describe to be a vertuous and a meeke prince, much pitifull & beneficiall to the poore, about the iiij. yeare of hys raigne, came vpon a season from hunting in the forest alone, with out the company of his seruaunts, to the place in the West countrey, where Alfrith his mother, with her sonne Egelred did lye. MarginaliaThe horrible wickednes of the Queene the mother.When the Queene the mother was warned of his comming by her men, anone she calleth a sernaunt of hers, which was of her speciall trust, opening to hym all her conceiued counsaile, & shewyng him all pointes how & what to do for the accomplishing of her wicked purpose. Which thing so done, she made towards the king, and receaued him with all curtesie, desiring him to tary þt night. But he in like curtesie excused himselfe, and for speede desired to see his brother, and to drinke, vpō his horse sitting, the which was shortly brought.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaK. Edward traterously murdered by hys stepmother and her seruant.And while the cup was at his mouth, the seruaunt of the Queene (before informed) strake him in the body with a long two edged dagger. After the which stroke the king tooke the horse with the spurres, and ran toward the way, where he supposed to meete with his company. But he bled so sore, that with faintnes he fell from hys horse, hys one foote beyng in the styrrup. By reason whereof, he was drawen of his horse ouer fieldes and landes, till he came to a place named Corysgate, where he was found dead. MarginaliaK. Edward found dead, and buried, not knowne to be king. Coref Castle.And for that, neither the maner of his death, nor yet he himselfe, for the king was knowen, was buried vnhonourably at the towne of Warham, where the body remayned þe space of iij. yeares, MarginaliaThe body of king Edward after three yeares honorably taken vp and translated to Shaftesbury.and then after was taken vp by Duke Alfere aboue mentioned, and with pompe and honor accordingly, was remoued to the Minster of Shaftsbury, and there bestowed in the place called Edwardstow. Many tales runne (moe perchaunce then be true) concerning the finding and taking vp of his body, which our most common histories ascribe to myracles and great wonders, wrought about the place where the king was buried. As first how a poore woman borne blynde, receyued her sight by the meanes of S. Edward, there where he did lye. Also how a piller of fire from heauen, descended ouer the place of his buriall. Then how the foresaid Queene Alfrith taking her horse to goe to the place, was stopped by the way, that neither her horse could be driuen by any meanes, nor she her selfe on foote was able to approch neare to the place where the corpes of S. Edward was. Furthermore, how the sayd Queene in repentaunce of her facte, MarginaliaTwo Nunneries founded vpon murther.afterward builded two Nunneries, one at Amesbury by Salisbury, the other at Werewell, where she kept her selfe in continuall repentaunce all the dayes of her lyfe. And thus as ye haue heard, was this vertuous yong king Edward murthered when he had raigned almost iiij. yeares, leauing no issue behynd him, wherby the rule of the land fell to Egelredus his brother. MarginaliaAn. 979.[Back to Top]
¶ But here by the way is to be noted (vpon the name of this Edward) that there were MarginaliaThree Edward kinges before the conquest.three Edwardes before the conquest. The first, was kyng Edward the Senior. The second, king Edward the Martyr, which was this kyng. The third, was king Edward called the Confessor, whereof hereafter shall follow (Christ willyng) to be declared.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaContinuation of the romish Bishops or Popes.In the order and course of the Romain Bishops, mētion was made last of Agapetus the second.
Foxe's source for this increasingly and cumulatively negative account of 'the rages & tumults of the Romish church' is taken from Bale's Catalogus, pp. 131-139, with some signs of additional confirmation filleted in from other sources, possibly from Matthew Parker's library.
Foxe had scarcely done more in the 1563 edition of his martyrology than point to the significance of this period as one in which 'shepheardes and watchmen became wicked Wolues, Christes frendes chaunged into ennemies. To be shorte here came in the time,that the reuelation speaketh of, whan Sathanas, the old serpent, beyng tied vp for a thousand yere, was losed for a certaine space' (1563, pp. 10-11). Foxe thus linked this, the 'third age' of the church, with the accomplishment of the first millennium of Christian history and the prediction contained in Revelation, 20: 6-8. By the 1570 edition, the turn of the first Christian millennium was treated in a more historicised and implicit fashion. Beneath Foxe's narrative there still lay the implication that there was a deeper significance to be attached to the 'greate miseries vpon this English nation' around the year 1000AD, exemplified by the successful Danish invasions, weak and ill-advised kings, and the divisions among the Anglo-Saxon nobility. Foxe was prepared, albeit with caution, to include in his narrative the ominous prophecy of Dunstan at the coronation of King Ethelred ('They should not be without bloudsheding & sword, til there came a people of an vnknown tongue, and should bring them into thraldome: Neither should that trespass be clensed without long vengeance, &c') and the sinister dream of Edward the Confessor ('God would geue this realme to the hande of others'). The reign of Edward the Confessor was treated as God's granting of brief respite to the kingdom before 'God of his vnknowen iudgementes suffred the Normandes thus to preuail' in the Norman Conquest'. Foxe no doubt wanted the reader to appreciate some of the implied parallels between the pious rule of Edward the Confessor, and the godly laws which he enacted, and that of Edward VI.[Back to Top]
Foxe's treatment of his sources at this point continued his practice, already well-established for Book Three in the 1570 edition of a scholarly bricolage from a relatively limited range of sources. It is often difficult to determine from which of the latter he chose to take his material although, where it is possible to do so, it is evident that he preferred the chronicles from lay, rather than from clerical, sources (Roger Howden; Fabian). Where expedient, he used his clerical sources (Henry Huntingdon; Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon; William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum). More occasionally, but critically and with circumspection, he drew on Polydore Vergil's Historia Anglica. Foxe seems, however, to have struggled somewhat with the complexity of the narrative at this point, with his sources giving conflicting accounts in matters of detail which he found difficult to resolve with the resources at this disposal.[Back to Top]
Matthew Phillpott and Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield
After him, the Romains elected MarginaliaPope Benedictus. 5.Pope Benedictus the fift, without the consent of the Emperour. Wherupon the sayd Otho the Emperour beyng not a little displeased for the displacing of Leo, whom he had before promooted, and for the chusing also of Benedict, came with his army, and laid siege to Rome, and so set vp MarginaliaPope Leo. 8.Pope Leo agayne, the viij. of that name. Which Leo to gratifie his benefactor agayne, crowned Otho for Emperour, and intituled him to be called Augustus. MarginaliaThe election of the Byshop of Rome geuen to the Emperour.Also the power which Carolus Magnus had geuen before to the Clergy and people of Rome: this Leo by a synodall decree graunted to the emperor and hys successors: that is, touching the election of the Byshop of Rome. MarginaliaThe donations of Carolus Magnus and Otho to Rome.The Emperor againe restored to the sea of Rome, all such donations and possessions, which either Constantinus (as they falsly pretend) or which Carolus Magnus tooke from the Lombards, and gaue to them.[Back to Top]
After Pope Leo had raigned a yeare and iij. moneths, succeeded MarginaliaPope Iohn. 14.Pope Iohn the 14. agaynst whom (for holding with the Emperor) Petrus the head captaine of the Citie, with two Consuls, xij. Aldermē, and diuers other nobles, gathering their power together, layd hands vpon him, in the Church of Laterane, MarginaliaPope Iohn 14. cast into prison.and clapt the Pope in prison, 11. months. The Emperour hearing this, with all speede returned with his army agayne to Rome: who after execution done vpon the authors and chief doers of that fact, among other committed the foresayd Petrus, to the Popes arbitrement. MarginaliaThe cruell reuenge of the pope.Whom he caused first to be stript naked, then his beard beyng shauen, to be hanged by the haire a whole day together, after that to be set vpon an Asse (his face turned backward, and his hands bound vnder the asses tail) and so to be led through the Citie, that all men might see him: that done, to be scourged with rods, and so banished the Citie. Thus ye see, how the holy father followeth the iniunction of the Gospell: Diligite inimicos vestros, Loue your enemies, Luke. 6. &c. MarginaliaChristening of belles first began.From this Pope proceded first the Christening of bels, an. 971.[Back to Top]
After him followed MarginaliaPope Benedictus. 6.Pope Benedictus the sixt, who in like maner was apprehended by Cynthius a Captayne of Rome, & cast in prison, where he was strāgled, MarginaliaPope Benedict slayne in prison. or as some say, famished to death.
Then came Pope Donus the ij. MarginaliaPope Donus. 2. After whom Bonifacius the vij. MarginaliaPope Bonifacius. 7. was Pope: who likewise seeing the Citizens of Rome to conspire agaynst him, was constrained to hide himselfe, And seeing no place there for hym to tary, tooke the treasure of S. Peters Churche, and so priuily stale to Constantinople. In whose stead the Komaines set vp P. Iohn the xv. MarginaliaTwo Popes together. Pope Iohn. 15. Not long after: Boniface returning agayne from Constantinople, by hys money & treasure procured a garrisō or company to take his part: By whose meanes MarginaliaPope Iohn slayne.the foresayd Pope Iohn was taken, his eyes put out, and so throwne in prison, where he was as some say famished: some say he was slayne by Ferrucius. Neither did Boniface raigne many dayes after, but sodenly dyed: MarginaliaPope Boniface drawne through the streetes of Rome.whose carkase after hys death was drawne by the feete through the streetes of Rome, after the most despitefull maner of the people shriking and exclayming against him. an. 976.[Back to Top]
Next pope after him was Benedictus the vii. MarginaliaPope Benedictus. 7. by þe consent of the Emperour Otho the 2. MarginaliaOtho second Emperour. and raigned xir. yeares. In the tyme of this pope: Hugh Cappet the French king, tooke Charles (the right heyre to the crowne) by the treason of the Bishop of Laon, and when hee had imprisoned him, he also committed to prison Arnoldus Archbishop of Raynes, and placed in hys rowme MarginaliaGilbertus a Necromanser made Archb.Gilbartus a monke of Floriake (a Nicromanser) who was schoolemaister to D. Robert the kinges sonne. But this pope Benedictus, calling a Councell at Remis, restored the sayd Arnoldus agayne: and displaced Gilbertus: which after by the help of Otho was made Archbishop of Reuenna, and at length was Pope, as in processe hereafter (Christ graunting) shalbe declared.[Back to Top]
After Benedictus succeeded in the sea of Rome MarginaliaPope Iohn the 16.Pope Iohn the xvi. & dyed the viij. month of hys Papacy. Next to whom came MarginaliaPope Iohn the xviii.Iohn the xvii. And after him MarginaliaPope Gregory the v.Gregory the. v. in the yeare of our Lord. 995. This Gregory (called before Bruno) was a Germane borne, and therefore þe more malaced of the Clergy & people of Rome. Wherupō, Crescētus with the people and Clergy, conuenting agaynst þe sayd Gregory: set vp Pope Iohn the xviij. Gregory vpon[Back to Top]