Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. English ecclesiastical affairs 1330-6458. Anti-papal writers59. Quarrel among mendicants and universities60. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
Beverley in Holderness
NGR: TA 032 400

A borough, market town and head of a liberty, having separate jurisdiction in the East Riding of the County of York. 9 miles north-east from Kingston upon Hull, Beverley comprises the parishes of St John, St Martin, St Mary and St Nicholas, all within the Archdeaconry of the East Riding and diocese of York. The living of St John is a perpetual curacy with that of St Martin united. The living of St Mary is a vicarage, with that of St Nicholas united.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Durham
NGR: NZ 274 425

City and capital of the County Palatine of Durham. Seat of the Bishopric. 67 miles west north west from York. The City comprises the parishes of St Giles, St Mary le Bow, St Mary the Less, St Nicholas, St Oswald and St Margaret; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Durham. St Giles is a perpetual curacy, St Mary le Bow a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Archdeacon of northumberland, St Mary the Less a rectory not in charge in the patronage of the Crown, St Nicholas a perpetual curacy, St Oswald a vicarage in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter, and St Margaret a perpetual curacy annexed to the vicarage of St Oswald.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

 
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Exeter
NGR: SX 920 925

A city and county of itself, locally in the hundred of Wanford, county of Devon, of which it is the chief town. 10 miles north-north-west from Exmouth, 44 miles north-east from Plymouth. The city comprises 17 parishes, two chapelries, and the extra-parochial precinct of the cathedral; all in the Archdeaconry and Diocese of Exeter, of which the town is the seat. 14 of the livings are discharged rectories; St John is a rectory not in charge; St David and St Sidwell are perpetual curacies.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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Lincoln
NGR: SK 975 715

A city and county of itself, locally in the county of Lincoln, of which it is the chief town. Seat of the Bishopric of Lincoln. 132 miles north by west from London. Lincoln formerly contained 52 parish churches, of which 34 were destroyed prior to the reign of Edward VI. It comprises the parishes of St Benedict, St Botolph, St John Newport, St Margaret in the Close, St Mark, St Martin, St Mary Wigford, St Mary Magdalene, St Michael on the Mount, St Nicholas Newport, St Paul in the Bail, St Peter at Arches, St Peter in eastgate, St Peter at Gowte, and St Swithin; all in the Archdeaconry and diocese of Lincoln. Of which St Mary Magdalene, St Paul in the Bail and St .Peter at Arches are discharged rectories; St Mary Wigford is a discharged vicarage; St John Newport is a vicarage not in charge; and the remainder are perpetual curacies.

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Lewis, Samuel, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

 
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Nottingham [Notingham; Notyngham]

County town of Nottinghamshire

OS grid ref: SK 565 415

 
Person and Place Index  *  Close
York
NGR: SE 603 523

A city and county of itself, having exclusive jurisdiction; locally in the East Riding of the county of York, of which it is the capital. 198 miles north-north-west from London. The city is the seat of the Archbishop, and comprised originally 33 parishes, reduced by amalgamation to 22; of which 33, 17 were discharged rectories, 10 discharged vicarages, and 6 perpetual curacies; all within the diocese of York.

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English information from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of England (S. Lewis & Co: London, 1831)

Welsh information taken from Samuel Lewis, A Topographical Dictionary of Wales(Lewis & Co: London, 1840)

The reason for the use of these works of reference is that they present the jurisdictional and ecclesiastical position as it was before the major Victorian changes. The descriptions therefore approximate to those applying in the sixteenth century, after the major changes of 1535-42. Except for the physical locations, which have not changed, the reader should not therefore take these references as being accurate in the twenty-first century.

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194 [171]

THE FOVRTH BOOKE CONTEINING other 300. yeares from William Conquerour, to the tyme of Iohn Wickliffe, wherein is described the proude and misordered raigne of Antichrist, beginning to stirre in the Church of Christ.

MarginaliaWilliam Conquerour.WILLIAM Duke of Normandie, surnamed Conqueror, base sonne of Duke Robert, the sixth Duke of Normandie, & nephew vnto king Edward: 

Commentary  *  Close
Lanfranc

The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008). This commentary will become available in due course from the 'Late Additions and Corrections' page of the edition.

after the foresaid victorie against Harold & the Englishmen obtained, was receiued king ouer the Realme of Englande, not so much by the assent, as for feare and necessitie of time. For els the Londiners had promised their assistance to Edgar Atheling to the vttermost of their power. But being weakened & wasted so greatly in battailes before, and the Duke comming so fast vppon them, fearing not to make their partie good, submitted themselues. Whereupon the saide William (of a Duke made a King) was crowned vpon Christmas day the yeare of our Lorde 1067. MarginaliaAnno. 1067. by the handes of Aldredus Archb. of Yorke. Forsomuch as at that time Stigandus Archb. of Canterb. was absent, or els durst not, or woulde not come in the presence of the king. A litle before the comming in of this Duke, MarginaliaA blasing starre.a terrible blasing starre was seene, the space of 7. daies, which was the yere before. In record wherof, as well of the conquest of the Duke, as of the blasing starre, these verses yet remaine.

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Sexagenus erat sextus millesimus annus.
Cum pereunt Angli, stella monstrante cometa.
 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Lanfranc Verses (Battle Abbey)
Foxe text Latin

Sexagenus erat ... comæta.

[1563 only adds: Dux Normanorum transit mare, vicit Heraldum.]

Translation

John Wade, University of Sheffield

It was the year 1066 when the English perished, a comet star showing. The duke of the Normans crossed the sea and conquered Harold.

Comment

This forms the introduction to the Battle Abbey Roll, a Latin inscription which was originally displayed in the abbey, but known to us only from sixteenth century versions of it published by Leland, Holinshed and Duchesne (cf. Encyclopaedia Britannica).

Which king thus being crowned, did reigne ouer the realme of England the space of 21. yeres, and one moneth, with great seuerity & cruelnes, towarde the Englishmen, burdening them with great tribute and exactions, MarginaliaTribute. which was to pay of euery hide of grounde, containing 20. acres 6. shillings. By meane wherof certaine parties of the land rebelled, and specially the citie of Exceter. But at last William ouercame them, and wan the city and punished them grieuously. But for that & for other sterne deedes of William, diuers of the Lordes departed to Scotland: MarginaliaRebellion. Erle Marcarus, and Eerle Edwyne, Edgar Atheling, with hys mother, & ij. sisters. Margaret, and Christian fled into Scotland. wherfore he kept the other Lordes that taried the straiter, and exalted the Normanes, geuing to them the chiefe possessions of the land. And for so much as he obteyned the kingdome by force and dent of sword, he chaunged the whole state of the gouernance of this common weale: MarginaliaNew king new lawes.and ordeined new lawes at his owne pleasure, profitable to himself, but greuous & hurtful to people: abolishing the lawes of king Edward. MarginaliaKing William forsworne in abolishing King Edwardes lawes.Wherunto notwtstanding he was sworn before, to obserue & maintaine. For the which great commotions and rebellions remained long after among the people, as hystories record: to haue the sayd lawes of king Edwarde reuiued againe.

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Ouer and besides this, he builded 4. strong castles, 2. at Yorke, one at Notingham, another at Lincolne, which garrisons he furnished with Normanes.

About the third yere of his reigne, Harold & Canutus sonnes of Suanus, King of Denmarke, entered into the North countrey. The Normanes wythin Yorke fearing that the Englishmen woulde aide the Danes, fired the suburbes of the towne. Wherof the flame was so big, and the winde so strong, that it tooke into the city, and brent a great part therof, with the minster of S. Peter. MarginaliaYorke with the minster of S. Peter brent. Where no doubt many worthy workes and Monuments of bookes were consumed. In the time whereof, the Danes by fauour of some of the citizens entred the citie, and slew more then iij. M. of the Normanes. But not long after King William chased them out and droue them to the ships, & tooke suche displeasure with the inhabitaūtes of that countrey, that he destroied the land from Yorke to Durham, so that 9. yeres after, the prouince lay wast and vnmanured, onely except S. Iohns land of Beuerley, & the people therof: so straitly being kept in penurye by the warre of the king, that (as our English storie sayeth) they eate rats, cats, and dogs, and other vermine.

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MarginaliaThe north countrey wasted. Horrible famine in the north partes.Also in the fourth yeare of this king, Malcolyn king of Scots, entred into Northumberland & destroyed the coūtrey, & slew there much of the people both of men, women and children after a lamentable sorte, MarginaliaSlaughter of Northumbland men. and tooke some prisoners. But within 2. yeares after, king William made such warre vpon the Scottes, that he forced Malcolyn theyr king to doe him homage. MarginaliaScots subdued to K. William.

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And thus much concerning the outwarde calamities of this Realme, vnder this forreine Conquerour. Whych is nowe the fifth time that the sayd land, with the inhabitaunce thereof hath bene scourged by the hande of God. MarginaliaThe continuall affliction and disquietnes of this Realme of England. Fiue conquestes which haue bene in this Realme. Romaines, Scots and pictes, Saxons, Danes, Normandes.First by the Romaines in the time of Iulius Cesar. Then by the Scottes and Pictes (as hath bene shewed) afterwarde by the Saxons. Againe, the Saxons or Englishmen did not enioy the possession of Britain with long quiete, but were brought in as much subiection themselues vnder the Danes, as they had brought the Britaines before (and that muche more) in so muche that throughe all England, if an Englishe man had mette a Dane vppon a bridge, he might not stirre one foote, before the Lord Dane (otherwise Lurdane) were past. And then if the Englishe man had not geuen lowe reuerence to the Dane, at hys comming by, he was sure to be sharpely punished (wyth more) as aboue hath bene declared. And this subiection almoste continued from the reigne of Kinge Ethelwolfus 230. yeares, till the reigne of king Edwarde. And yet the indignation of God thus ceased not: but stirred vp þe Normandes against them, who Conquered and altered the whole Realme after their owne purpose, in somuche that besides the innouation of the lawes, coignes, and possessions: MarginaliaEx Henr. Huntington. Lib. 6.there was in no Church of England almoste anye English bishop, but only Normands & forreiners placed through all their Dioces. To suche miserie was this lande then brought vnto, that not onely of all the English nobilitie not one house was standing: but also it was thought reprochfull to be called an English man. This punishmēt of God against the English nation, writers do assigne diuersly to diuers causes (as partly before is touched) of whō some assigne this to be cause, as foloweth in the wordes of the storie: MarginaliaEx histor. Iornalens.In primitiua Angliæ Ecclesia religio clarissimè splenduit, ita vt Reges & Reginæ, Duces & Episcopi, vel Monachatū, vel exilium pro Dei amore appeterent: processu verò temporis adeo omnis virtus in eis emarcuit, vt gentem nullam proditione & nequitia sibi parem esse permitterent. &c. MarginaliaEngland afflicted and scourged for iniquitie.The meanyng whereof is, that whereas Kings and Queenes, Dukes, and Prelates in the primitiue time of the English church, were ready for Religion, to forsake either liberty or countrey, and giue themselues to a solitarie life: In processe of time they grew to such dissolutenes, that they left no other realme like vnto them in iniquity. &c. Again some writing of the vision of king Edward a litle before the inuasion of the Normāds: testify, MarginaliaThe vision of K. Edward.how the king reporting of his owne vision, should heare, that for the great enormitye and misbehauior of the heade Dukes, Bishops, and Abbats of the realme: the kingdome should be geuen to the hand of their enemies, after the decease of him, for the space of a C. yeres, and one day. Which space was also seene by William conquerour, to be a hundreth yeres & fiftie: and that his progenie so long should continue. Againe, some wryters entreating of this so great wrath of God vpon the Englishe people, declare the cause therof, as foloweth. MarginaliaEnglishmen scourged for their vniust oppression of the Britaines.Nam sicut Angl. Britones, quos Deus disterminare proposuerat (peccatis suis exigentibus) humiliuerant, & a terra Angliæ minus iniustè fugauerant: sic ipsi duplici persecutione. &c. Like as the Englishmen did subdue the Britons (whom God proposed, for theyr deseruings, to exterminate) and them vniustly did dispossesse of their land: so they should likewise be subdued and scourged with a double persecution, first by þe Danes and after by the Normanes. &c. Moreouer to these iniuries and iniquities done, and wrought by the English men

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