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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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1054 []

Actes and Monumentes of the church
The disputation of the fourth daye, wherein mayster Harpsfielde, a Bacheler of Diuinite, dyd aunsWer pro forma, to be made Doctour. 
Commentary  *  Close
Block 21: John Harpsfield's doctorial disputation

Following the formal disputations, Cranmer was invited to participate in the disputations held as part of John Harpsfield's receiving his D.D. Foxe included this disputation for two reasons: firstly, the debate was on the eucharist and, secondly, Cranmer did much better in it than he had done in his formal disputation.

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As with Latimer's disputation, Foxe's version of this disputation remained essentially unchanged from the Rerum to the 1583 edition. In this case, however, Foxe seems to have been relying solely on notes taken by an eyewitness to the debate. (Passages in the text indicating that it was based on notes from an eyewitness are 'wherunto maister Ward ... as it is thought he spake them' (1563, p. 988; 1570, p. 1629; 1576, p. 1390; 1583, p. 1461)). The comments, such as the claim that Ward based his argument on Duns Scotus but not on Scripture (1563, p. 988; 1570, p. 1629; 1576, p. 1390; 1583, p. 1461), indicate that this note-taker was protestant in sympathy. (This is also likely because these notes reached Foxe during his exile). The Rerum account of the disputation (Rerum, pp. 997 [recte 697]-704) was translated accurately in 1563, pp. 986-991.

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Harpsfielde.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Harpsfield's 'Forme'

In a departure from the earlier disputations, the beginning of this section consists of a dialogue between catholics, with Harpsfield being presented with various heretical opinions to refute. Thus, the points are all against Foxe: the moment that catholic truth is vindicated is seen as the end of the debate; Foxe wages a campaign from the margins, sniping at logic ('This aunswere doth not satisfie the argument for the conclusion speaketh of a bodyly absence, the aunswere speaketh of a spirituall remayning', '* The argument holdeth a proportione'), emphasising the unity of Christ (with its links to the singleness of his sacrifice) at the gloss '* What maner so euer ye giue to the body, if the substanciall body be here in deede, it cannot be auoyded, but eyther it must needes be false that S. Aug. sayth. Non est hic, or els Christ must haue 2. bodyes in 2. places together present here after one maner, & in heauē after an other maner' and the admission he sees in Harpsfield's speech at the gloss 'Note what Harpsfield here holdeth, that the body of Christ is not present in the Sacrament, but onely to them that receiue him worthely' of the importance of worthy receiving of the sacrament (which he later throws back at Harpsfield in another gloss: 'Harpsfield seemed a little before to note the contrary, where he sayd: that the flesh of Christ to them that receaue him not worthely is not present pag. 1401').

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Once Cranmer is introduced, the marginal glosses seek to convey the impression of arid scholastic confusion which is stronger here than previously. Perhaps this is because of the difference between structure and the occasion: earlier on, the sense of plucky martyrs set against growling interrogators predominated, but the yoking together of Harpsfield's 'forme' and the investigation of Cranmer makes it propitious to emphasise the confusion of the situation. Hence the portrayal of the examiners present as 'Rabines' ('The Rabines could not agree among themselues'), which both picks up on an earlier reapplication to catholics of a Judaizing insult of the protestants by Harpsfield ('* No, but those Iewes, sticking so much to the old custome and face of theyr Church, & not seeking for knowledge, by ignorance of the Scriptures were deceiued & so be you'), and links up with the mockery of the gloss 'The Doctours in a doubt'. These references are closely followed by jibes at the scholastic arguments of the doctors ('M. Ward in the misty cloudes of dunses quiddities' and 'Aristotle must helpe to tell vs how Christ is in the Sacrament'). Although glosses to the earlier disputations emphasise the figurative, tropical aspects of scripture and thus provide an implicit critique of pursuing a scholastic path of enquiry, this is the strongest explicit criticism, and can be seen as part of a shift in the focus of Foxe's attack. It also perhaps helps to defend Foxe's subjects against the charge of doctrinal variety within their ranks. Foxe had given an energetic defence of Luther during Latimer's disputation: the associations between the singleness of Christ's sacrifice and the singleness of the Christian truth adhered to by the martyrs relied upon the unity of the martyrs' doctrine. For mistakes/inaccuracies across editions, see the glosses 'Aprill. 19' and 'Aprill. 1. The iudgement of M. Harpsfield for the best way to vnderstād the Scriptures' (1576 and 1583), 'Aprill. 19' (1570), 'Harpsfield seemed a little before to note the contrary, where he sayd: that the flesh of Christ to them that receaue him not worthely is not present pag. 1401' (1576 and 1583) and 'Harpsfield seemed a litle before to note the contrary, where he sayd: that the flesh of Christ to them that receaue hym not worthely, is not present. pag. 1628' (1570).

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MarginaliaApryll. 19 I Am not ignorant what a weighty matter it is, to entreate of the whole order, & trade of the scriptures: and moste harde it is to, in the great contention of religion, to shew the ready way, wher by the scriptures maye bee best vnderstanded. For the often readyng of them, doth not bryng the true vnderstandyng of them. What other thyng is there then? Verelye this is the readye way, not to folowe our owne heades, and senses, but to geue ouer oure iudgement vnto the holy catholike church, who hath had of old yeares the truthe, and alwaies deliuered the same to their posteritie: but if the often readinge of the scriptures, and neuer so painfull comparyng of places should brede the true vnderstanding, thē diuers heretikes might preuayle, euen agaynste whole generall counsels. The Iewes did greatly bragge of the knowledge of the lawe, and of the Sauiour, that they wayted for. But what auailed it thē? Notwithstanding I know right wel, that diuers places of the scripture do much warne vs, of the often readyng of the same, and what fruit dothe thereby folowe: as (scrutamini. &c.) Search the scriptures: for they do beare witnes of me. &c. Lex domini. &c. The law of the lord is pure, able to turne soules. And that saying of sainct Paule: Omnis scriptura &c. All scripture inspired from aboue, dothe make that a man may be instructed to all good workes: howbeit, doth the law of the Iewes conuerte their soules? are they by reading instructed to euery good work? The Letter of the olde Testament is the same that we haue. The heretikes also haue euer had the same scriptures, whiche we haue, that be catholikes. But they ar serued as Tantalus, that the Poets doe speake of, who in the plentye of thinges to eate and drinke, is said to be oppressed with hunger, & thirst. The swifter that men do seke the scriptures, withoute the catholyke church, the deper they fal, and finde hel for theyr labor. Saint Ciprian, neuer swaruyng from the catholyke churche saith: He that doth not acknowledge the churche to be his mother, shall not haue god to be his father. Therefore it is true Diuinitie, to bee wyse with the church, where Christe sayeth: Nisi manducaueritis. &c Vnlesse ye eate my fleshe, and drynke my bloude: ye haue no lyfe in you.

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If he had ment of onely eating bread & drinkyng wyne, nothyng had bene more pleasaunt to the Capernaits, neyther would they haue forsaken hym. The flesh profiteth nothing, to them that doe so take it. For the Capernaits did imagine Christ to be geuen in such sort, as he liued: But Christe spake highe thinges: not that they shoulde haue hym as fleshe in the markette, but to consider his presence with the spirit vnder the fourmes, whereby it is geuen. As there is an alteration of bodies by courses, and times of ages, so there is no lesse varietie in eatyng of bodies.

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These thynges whyche I haue recyted briefly, maister Harpsfield did with many more

woordes set out: and herevpon maister Westondisputed agaynst hym.

VVest. Christes reall bodye is not in the Sacrament.

Ergo you are deceyued.

Harps. I denye the antecedent.

west. Iohn the. vi. Dico veritatem vobis. &c. I speake the truthe vnto you. It behoueth me that I goe awaye from you. For vnlesse I do depart, that comforter cannot come. &c.

Vpon this, I wyll make this argument.

Christ is so gone awaye as he dyd sende the holy ghost.

But the holy ghost dyd verely come into the worlde.

Ergo Chryste is verely gone.

Harps. He is verelye gone, and yet remayneth here.

west. Sayncte Augustine sayeth, that these woordes. Ego ero. &c. I wil be with you, euen to the ende of the worlde, are accomplyshed (secundum maiestatem,) accordyng to his maiestye: But (secūdū præsentiā carnis, non est hic,) by the presence of his fleshe he is not here. The church hath hym not in fleshe, but by beliefe.

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Harps. We muste diligently weyghe that there are two natures in Christ: the diuine nature, and mannes nature. The dyuine nature is of suche sort, that it cannot choose, but bee in all places. Mannes nature is not suche, that of force it muste be in all places, although it be in diuers, after a diuerse maner: so where that the Doctors doe entreate of his presence by maiestie, they doe it to commende the maiesty of the diuine nature, not to hinder vs of the natural presence here in the sacrament.

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west. He sayeth farther. Me autem non est semper habebitis, ye shall not haue me alwayes wyth you, is to be vnderstanded in the fleshe.

Harps. The presence of the fleshe is to bee considered, that he is not here as he was wont to liue in conuersation with them, to be seene, talked withall, or in suche sorte as a manne maye geue hym any thyng: after that sort he is not present.

VVest. But what saye you to this of saynct Augustine: Non est hic. He is not here?

Harps. I doe aunswere out of saint Augustine vppon Iohn, Tractatu. 25. vpon these wordes Non videbitis me. Vado ad panem. &c. I go to the father, ye shal not se me: that is, such as I now am. Therefore I dooe denye the maner of his presence.

west. I wyll ouerthrowe Saincte Austine wyth Sayncte Austine: who sayeth thys also: Quo modo quis possit tenere Christum? fidem mitte & tenuisti.

That is Howe maye a man holde Christe? put fayth vnto it, and thou haste hym.

So he sheweth, that by settyng our faith vnto it, we doe kepe Christ.

Harps. In dede no mā kepeth Chryst, vnlesse he beleue in him: but it is an other thynge to haue Christ mercifull, and fauorable vnto vs,

and