Foxe attempts to develop some points against Phillip in the margin, noting his arrival with sword drawn and the deliverance of the keys of Southampton to him which suggests conquest and (in 'deliuered') reluctance. 1563 has an unusually large number of glosses at the beginning of this section.
In the 1563 edition, this section consists of a fairly lengthy account of Elizabeth's imprisonment in the custody of Sir Henry Bedingfield and a brief account of Philip's arrival in England.
The account of Elizabeth and Bedingfield was severely truncated in 1570. Part of the deleted material was praise for Elizabeth's mercy to Bedingfield. (This includes Elizabeth's oft-quoted quip in dismissing Bedingfield: that if she needed a prisoner straitly kept she would send for him). Possibly the deletion of this praise was one sign of Foxe's growing dissatisfaction with Elizabeth. Also deleted was an anecdote that Dr. John Story argued that Elizabeth should be executed, maintaining that it was useless to lop the branches from the tree without striking at the root. This remark would, in another section of the Acts and Monuments, be attributed to Stephen Gardiner (see 1563, p. 1383).[Back to Top]
This vertuous and noble Ladye, in what feare she was the meane tyme, and in what perill greater than her feare, the Lord onely best dothe knowe, and next it is not vnknowen to her selfe, to whose secrete intelligence, I leaue this matter farther to bee considered. Thys I maye saye whiche euery manne maye see, that it was not without a singular miracle of God, that she coulde or did escape, in suche a multytude of enemies, and grudge of myndes, so greatly exasperate agaynst her: especiallye of Steuen Gardiner, Byshoppe of Wint. whose head and deuises were chiefly bent (as a bowe) agaynste that onely person to make her away. And no doubte would haue brought it by some meanes to passe, had not the Lorde preuented hym with death to preserue her lyfe to the preseruation of this realme. Wherefore it is false that Doctour Storye sayd in the Parliamente house, MarginaliaThe sayinge of D. Story.lamentyng as I heard saye, that when as they went so muche about the braunches, they had not shotte at the roote her selfe. For why, they neyther lacked theyr dartes, nor no good wyll to shoote at the roote, all they possybly myght. But what goddes prouidence wyll haue kepte, it shalbe kept, when all Doctoure Stories haue shotte oute all theyr artillerye in[Back to Top]
vaine. But of this matter it is sufficiente at this present.
MarginaliaIulye. 19.The. xix. of Iulye did Philippe Prynce of Spaine, and Sonne and Heyre vnto Charles the fifth then Emperour, arriue at Southampton.
A brief account of Philip's arrival in England in the 1563 edition was expanded in later editions, with material probably taken from Foxe's lost chronicle source(s). The date of Philip's landing at Southampton is given as 'xix July' in 1563, p. 1004, but as 'xx July' in 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1471. This could be a correction but other sources also give 19 July as the date, so this was probably a typographical error.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaIulye. 25.And the. xxv. daye, being sainct Iames day, (the chiefe patrone of the Spanyardes) Maryage was honourably solemnized betwene thē. At whiche tyme the Emperours Embassador beyng present, openly pronounced, that in consideration of that Mariage, the Emperour had graunted and geuen vnto his sonne, the kingdome of Naples &c.[Back to Top]
Glosses in this section concentrate on political events detailing Phillip's progress and the forward march of the counter-reformation. Foxe uses the glosses to make relatively subtle attacks on the catholics: in contrast to the disputations, where the glosses often gave room to an adversarial voice, here narrative is used to shape events to favour a protestant interpretation. Thus glosses report the removal of English arms for Spanish at Windsor, linking this to Phillip's name, without mentioning the quick reversal of this change, or the fact that Phillip did not order the change, apparent from the text. Winchester is accused of not being able to abide 'Verbum Dei. The precision of the formulation is noteworthy: Foxe does not directly accuse him of hating scripture, but lets the ambiguity between what he reports (Winchester's anger at an image of Henry VIII holding Verbum Dei) and what he implies (Gardiner hates the Bible) go unresolved.[Back to Top]
A harsher note is sounded in calling the rood at St. Paul's Bonner's 'God'. The difference in tone is probably partly due to the fact that Bonner's violent temperament made him an easier target for opprobium; furthermore, it was polemically valuable to link the passionate lack of self-control Bonner later exhibits with the antichristian sensuality of idolatry. Frivolity and self-indulgence are also pointed to on the civic level with the reference to 'vayne pageants', although the Old Testament resonances of the self-indulgence of Israel are applicable.[Back to Top]
☞ Philip and Marye by the grace of God, Kyng and Queene of England, Fraunce, Naples, Ierusalē, and Ireland, defenders of the Fayth, princes of Spain and Cicill, Archdukes of Austrich, Dukes of Millan, Burgundie and Brabant, Counties of Haspurge, Flāders and Tyroll.
In the case of Latin poems, written by John White, the marian Bishop of Lincoln, elegising the marriage of Philip and Mary as well as two sets of verses attacking the marriage and responding to White (1563, pp. 1004-05). The author of the first set of verses is identified as 'James Caufield' in the 1563 edition; this is altered to 'J. C.' in subsequent editions (cf. 1563, p. 1005, with 1570, p. 1642; 1576, p. 1401; 1583, p. 1472). 'Caufield' was probably James Calfhill, the celebrated Elizabethan divine, whose name is variously given as 'Calfill,' 'Calfeld,' or 'Calfilde' (see Foster). The author of the second set of verses, identified as 'I. F.' in the 1563 edition (p. 1005) was almost certainly Foxe himself.[Back to Top]
White's verses celebrate the common ancestry of Philip and Mary through John of Gaunt, ancestor of both the Tudors and the monarchs of Castille. (Interestingly, White anticipated by four decades Robert Person's arguments that Philip III, not James VI, was Elizabeth's rightful heir). In an effort to counter English xenophobia, White maintained that this common ancestry meant that Philip was really English. Those who opposed this marriage were foreigners such as the French and the Scots, and traitors such as Northumberland and Wyatt, 'the Catiline of our age'.[Back to Top]
Calfhill's response denounced the polluting of English royal blood with Spanish and claimed that the marriage was God's punishment for the sins of the English. Northumberland was a hero and Wyatt fought valiantly against the papacy. Interestingly, Foxe in his verses said nothing about Northumberland or Wyatt and emphasised that the marriage was not God's will. Cruelly, Foxe also mocked Mary's childlessness and the failure of her marriage.[Back to Top]
In the 1570 edition, Foxe added two poems by John Parkhurst. Although the poems were added to the 1570 edition, their content makes it clear that they were written at the same time as White's verses. Parkhurst denounced Philip as a foreigner, he denounced Charles V and he was lavish in praise of both Wyatt and Dudley.[Back to Top]
Most unusually, Foxe never provided a translation for these verses. It is not difficult to see why poems praising rebels and discussing the foreign marriage of a queen and the royal succession should remain in the relative obscurity of Latin. It was probably the very topicality of these verses, however, that led Foxe to include, and later increase, them. A Hapsburg marriage was a real possibility in the 1560s and there is some evidence that Foxe discreetly opposed this, and any other marriage of Elizabeth to a catholic. These verses allowed Foxe to attack such a marriage safely. Foxe may also have been happy to take advantage of the opportunity these verses gave him to rehabilitate Wyatt.[Back to Top]
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ILle parens regum Gandaua ex vrbe Iohannes
Somersetensem comitem profert Iohannem.
Somersetensis venit hoc patre dux Iohannes,
Qui Margaretam Richemundi habuit comitissam.
Hæc dedit Henricum, qui regni septimus huius
Henrico octauo solium regale reliquit.
Hoc patre propitio, & fausto quasi sydere nata
Iure tenes sacram, teneasque Maria coronam.