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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
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1118 [149]

haue we added to the forsaid storye of Laurence Saunders, the communication which in the begynnyng of his trouble, was betwene hym and Doctour Pendleton, by the example whereof, such as stand, may learne to vnderstand and take hede with dew feare, and not to bragge: to leane to the grace of the lorde, and not to presume in themselues.

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A certayne communication betwene Laurence Saunders and Doctor Pendleton, in the beginning of Queene Maries tyme.

AT the change of religion in this realme, & the beginning of Quene Maries reign, Doctour Pendleton, and Maister Saunders men knowen to the worlde: not onely to be learned, but also earnest preachers of gods word in the time of blessed king Edward, mette together in the countrey, where by occasion they wer at that tyme, and as the case required (by reason of the persecution that was then at hand) fell to debate what was best for them to do, in so daungerous a season. Wherupon maister Saunders whether thorough verye frailtie in deede of hys weake fleshe, that was lothe to tast of the bitter cuppe, 

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Saunders is referring to Christ's words in the garden of Gethsemane (see Matthew 26:39, Mark 14:36 and Luke 22:42).

though his spirite wer ready therunto or whether it were vppon the mistrust of hys owne strength, that he might receiue þe greater power frō aboue: or whether it wer not for any one of þe said causes alone, but for both together, or suche like: seemed so feareful and feble spirited, that he shewed hymselfe in appearance, lyker eyther to fall quite from god and his worde, which he had taught, or at least to betake him to his heeles, & to flye the lande, rather then to stycke to hys profession and abyde by his tackle. So as Doctour Pendleton (who on the cōtrary side, appered not so big of body, but as bold in courage, nor so earnest before in pulpit, but as redy now to seale þe same with his bloud) tooke vpon him to comfort maister Saunders all þt he might, admonishing him (as he coulde do it verye well) not to forsake cowardly his flocke, when he had moste neede to defend the wolfe from them: neither hauing put his hand to gods plough, to start now asyde, and geue it ouer, nor yet (that is worst of all) hauing ones forsaken Antichrist to fal eyther himself, or to suffer others by his example to return to their vomite againe. After which and such like persuasions bidding him be of good comforte, & to take a good hart vnto him: What mā quoth he, there is a great deale of more cause in me to be afeard then in you, for as much as you se I cary a greater masse of flesh vpon my back then you do, & being so laden wt a heuier lōpe of this vile carcasse ought therfore of nature to bee more fraile then you: And yet sayth he, I wil see þe vttermost drop of this grease of mine molten away, and the last gobbet of this pampered flesh cōsumed to ashes, before I wil forsake god and his trueth. Whervnto thother answering but litle, and wishing þt almightye god would geue him more strength,

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then he presently felt in himself, aknowledging his own weakenes, consented notwithstanding though it were somewhat faintly, to ioine wyth him in the profession of the gospel, and so to goe vp to London, and set forth the same: whervpon they gaue eche other their hands. Now whē thei were come to London, lord what a great change was there betwene these two persōs. The poore feble faintharted Saunders, by þe goodnes of almighty god, taking hart of grace to him, seeking the same in humilitie, boldly and stoutely confirmed his flock out of the pulpet, where his charge lay, mightely beating doun Antichrist, & lustely preached Christ his master, for þe which he afterward suffred most willingly as is afore declared Wheras on the other side Pendleton the proud, who as it appeared by the sequele, had ben more stout in wordes, then constant in dedes, & a greater bragger, then a good warriour, folowed Peter so iustely in crakes, howe soeuer he didde in repentance (whiche God onelye knoweth) that he came not so soone to London but he changed his typpette, 

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Literally, he changed a garment which he wore as part of his clerical dress. Apparently this was a popular proverb negatively characterizing a change of behaviour (see OED), but Foxe is also taking a jab at the wearing of clerical vestments.

and played the Apostata,  
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Apostate or traitor.

preaching in stede of sound doctrine, nothing almost but errours and lyes, aduauncing Antichriste, and ouerthrowing pore Christ with al his mainy. So that his former boldnes came to nothing, vnles it were a contrary key, becomming of a faithful pastour a false runnagate, and of a true precher a sworne enemy of gods euerlasting testament, to the great offence of his brethren, the hurte of his flock, and the vtter vndoyng, without gods greater mercy, of his owne soule. Wherin are specially to be considered the depe and meruailous iudgements of god, who as he can & dothe make stronge whome it pleaseth him when he seeth his time, and most commonly suche as appeare most feblest: euen so contrary wise throweth he down other some, seme they neuer so stout stand they neuer so much in their own conceits. Wherfore let him that standeth take hede he fal not: and let vs pray cōtinually to almighty god though we haue faith, þt he will helpe & encrease our faith, that in him it may be made strōg which of it self is so weake, þt it is soone ouerthrowen.

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The life and Martirdom of Iohn Hooper Bishop of VVorcester, and Gloucester 
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Hooper's Martyrdom

There are two striking features about the life and martyrdom of Hooper in the Rerum. The first is how little information Foxe has on the martyr's life before Edward VI's reign. There are only two sentences stating that Hooper studied at Oxford and was forced to flee due to the emnity of Dr Richard Smith and that he stayed in Basel until Edward VI's reign (Rerum, p. 279). Surprisingly neither Bullinger nor Zurich are mentioned. One can only conclude that Bullinger did not supply any information about Hooper while Foxe was in exile. (J. F. Mozley argues that Bullinger supplied Foxe with Hooper's writings which Foxe published in theRerum, [John Foxe, p. 125] but he supplies no evidence for this and, in the light of Bullinger's silence at this time on his friendship with Hooper, this must remain doubtful). Hooper's meteoric rise under Edward VI, his struggle with Cranmer and Ridley over vestments (the Rerum account is markedly more hostile to bishops in general than the Acts and Monuments versions would be), his arrest over this issue and release after a grudging capitulation are all recounted in the Rerum (pp. 279-81). The Rerum also contains the praise of Hooper as a bishop, the detailed description of his arrest and examinations, and the very detailed account of his journey to Gloucester and his execution, which would be reprinted without major changes in all the editions of theActs and Monuments. This is the work of Grindal's team and reflects their editorial priorities: detailed accounts, drawn from eyewitnesses, of the final journeys and deaths of themartyrs are very much a feature of the Rerum. (The accounts of Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor provide excellent examples of this).

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The 1563 edition provides little new material. Hooper's marriage is mentioned for the first time, but that is all that is added about his exile. Two interesting documents are added, both concerning the quarrel over vestments in Edward VI's reign: Edward VI's dispensation for Hooper to be ordained as bishop without wearing vestments and Ridley's later letter to Hooper holding out an olive branch on the subject. The first edition also adds an account of Hooper's degradation and a poem by Conrad Gesner memorializing Hooper.

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The 1570 edition saw the inclusion of much new detail on Hooper's early years and his friendship with Heinrich Bullinger. (The farewell to Bullinger and Hooper's prediction of his own martyrdom, now added for the first time, almost certainly came from Bullinger; it is possible that Henry Bull opened the floodgates for this information.) The Earl of Warwick's letter to Cranmer on behalf of Bullinger was also added in this edition. There was no change to this account in the second or third editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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, vvho vvith great constancie vvas burnte for the defence of the gospell.
Anno. M. D. LV. the viii. of February.


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Material similar to the glosses of the previous section can be found in the margins of this section, although they also perhaps reflect what seems to be Foxe's sense that Hooper was a somewhat grander, more confident figure than Saunders (as in the gloss 'Discretion how ministers and preachers ought to behaue themselues' which comments on Hooper's austere manner, framing the point in terms of the difficulties this presented for those who sought spiritual comfort from Hooper). Thus there are glosses linking catholicism and insanity ('This Morgan shortly after fel into a phrensy, and madnes and dyed of the same') and pointing out the catholic reliance on 'force and extremitie' ('The popes religion standeth onely vpoon force and extremitie'). Hooper endures a somewhat more thoroughgoing examination than Saunders and, as a result, some glosses in this section fulfill a similar function to those found in the Oxford disputations section; thus Foxe takes Hooper's point that the Council of Nice ruled that no minister should be separated from his wife as proving that the Council permitted clerical marriage, a rather wider point ('The coūcel of Nice permitteth Priests mariage'); also 'Gardiner exhorteth M. Hooper to returne to the Popes church', (Gardiner says 'Catholique Church' in the text), 'Queene Mary will shew no mercy but to the Popes friendes' (the text says, 'the Queene would shew no mercy to the Popes enemies'). A repetition of the term 'care' in two glosses ('The diligent care of B. Hooper in his Dioces'; 'The care of M. Hooper in instructing his family') show how the marginalia could be used to make a point with economy and subtlety; in this that there was a profound analogy between Hooper's godly governance of his home and his concern for his pastoral flock, a point which made the catholic opposition to marriage appear all the more destructive and misguided. There are also some glosses which are badly positioned in editions after 1570.

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MarginaliaFebruarye. 8.IOhn Hooper at Oxford, haung left the study of the sciences, & falling to the knowledge of diuinity & the gospel, grew in meruelous hatred wt the diuines of Oxford, by whose cruel & mischeuous malice, &, especially at the procuremēt of one D. Smith, he was cōpelled to fly into Germany: 
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This is extremely unlikely. Hooper apparently left Oxford in 1519 and entered the Cistercian monastery at Cleve, Somerset. One of the commissioners in charge of suppressing Cleve was Sir Thomas Arundel, who visited the house in 1537. David Newcombe suggests that this was when Hooper entered Arundel's service. Newcombe also points out that Hooper was rector of Lidington, Wiltshire, from 1537 to 1550, a living which was in Arundel's gift. (Newcombe, pp. 12-18). Richard Rex has suggested that Hooper was a friar (Rex, p. 47); in the weight of Newcombe's evdence this seems lesslikely, but it still involves Hooper having left Oxford well before Richard Smith's heyday there.

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where he remaining certain yeres, returned in þe beginning of king Edward the 6. his reign into England (wt his wife a Burgonsō woman born,  
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Apparently Foxe means by this that she was from Bruges, or that she was Burgundian. (The Low Countries were part of the old Duchy of Burgundy). Anna Hooper was from Antwerp.

and of great parentage, whom he

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