Navigate the 1563 Edition
PrefaceBook 1Book 2Book 3Book 4Book 5
Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the GlossesCommentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1134 [165]

The historye of Doctour Rowland Tailour, whiche suffred for the truth of Gods woord, vnder the tiranny of the Romayne Byshop. Anno. 1555. the. 9. day of February. 
Commentary  *  Close
Rowland Taylor's Life and Martyrdom

Foxe did not really have an account of Rowland Taylor in the Rerum; he had a collection of a documents: Taylor's account of his examination on 22 January 1555(Rerum, pp. 418- 20); Taylor's letter defending his beliefs on clerical marriage and the eucharist (Rerum, pp. 420-22) and Taylor's last will and testament (Rerum, pp. 422-23). Grindal's team had managed to collect some important writings by Tayor but almost no information about him.

[Back to Top]

Foxe remedied this in his first edition, largely through the extensive use of oral sources. The account of Taylor's parish of Hadleigh, the martyr's background and behaviour as pastor of Hadleigh, Taylor's quarrel with catholic residents of the town, his refusal to flee, his arrest and journey to London, his examinations by Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner, his imprisonment and his deprivation were all added to the 1563 edition. After reprinting the Rerum documents, Foxe then also added accounts of Taylor's condemnation and degradation, his encounter with his family in prison and the very detailed accounts of his final journey to Hadleigh and his execution were also added to 1563.

[Back to Top]

The account of Taylor's initial examination by Gardiner and his examination by Bonner as well as the descriptions of his deprivation and degradation are almost certainly based on Taylor's account of these events, possibly transmitted orally or more probably in letters, sent to friends or family. The account of Taylor's condemnation is taken from a copy of the official record of this, which survives in Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 421, fos. 41v-42r). All of the other material added in this edition is drawn from oral sources.

[Back to Top]

In the second edition, Foxe's most important addition was a letter from Taylor to his wife, which was reprinted from the Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 641-45). Denunciations of individuals - Robert Bracher, Sir John Shelton and John King - are also added to 1570. Apart from some minor rewriting, especially involving John King's activities, the narrative of Taylor's martyrdom remained unchanged in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

[Back to Top]

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

A distinctive feature of this section is the relatively large number of glosses in the 1563 edition. In many cases these glosses were expanded in later editions. Several glosses, including some of those present in all editions at the start of the section, emphasise Taylor's pastoral effectiveness and the misery of the people of Hadley at his death ('Hadly towne commended'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'; 'The carefull zeale of Doctor Taylour for Hadley'). Other glosses dwell on the pernicious influence of Taylor's successor and Taylor's concern about this ('Syr Robert Brachers cōming to Hadley'; 'A popishe Sermon of Syr Robert Bracher'; 'This packet was Syr Robert Bracher preaching popish doctrine at Hadley'; 'The Popes packeware: Iustification by workes. Corporall presence, Praying for soules, Auricular confession'). Alongside his pastoral concern, the other main feature of the presentation of Taylor in the margins is his boldness, and the robustness verging on aggression of his responses to those questioning and maltreating him ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'D. Taylours prayer agaynst the pope and his detestable enormities'; 'D. Taylour prayeth a gayne agaynst the Pope and his detestable enormities'). A gloss in the 1570 edition, and later dropped, draws the reader's attention to Bonner's fear of physical reprisal at striking Taylor as part of the degradation ceremony ('Cowardly Boner durst not strike according to his Canon'). Taylor's confutation of his enemies could take the form of praying against the pope and also mocking his tormentors by joking about recantation ('D. Taylor maketh a iest of death, with a meete answere for such Doctours and Councellours'; 'D. Taylor maketh a iest of death').

[Back to Top]

As is common in the marginal glosses concerned with the martyrs towards the end of their lives, Taylor's joy at his impending death is mentioned more than once ('D. Taylour is ioyfull in his way'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'). His abilities in civil law are advertised in the glosses (e.g. 'D. Taylour learned in diuinitie, and also in the ciuill lawe'), and this is perhaps because of the extensive discussion of marriage. The presentation of the popish enemy follows familiar lines. Gardiner is subjected to considerable criticism, much of it concerned with his past allegiances and the contrast with his position under Mary ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia'); he is also attacked for 'rayling', a favourite charge used by Foxe to suggest both defeat in argument and lack of self-control ('Gardiner agayne rayling'). Foxe also uses the glosses to characterise ironically the use of force by the enemies of Taylor as 'argument', which is another way of demonstrating the unreasonable nature of popery ('The Papistes argumentes wherewith they maintaine their doctrine'; 'Winchesters strong argument cary him to prison'). Other attacks on popery are concerned with cavilling, obsequiousness, the analogy between popery and darkness and errors in debate: ('Secretary Bourne cauilleth a-agaynst the religion set forth in K. Edwardes dayes'; 'A testimony of the book of seruice set out in K, Edwardes dayes'; 'Winchester belyeth the Councell'; 'Tonstall helpeth Winchester at neede'; 'Gardyner denyeth his owne Canonist and calleth it a patched lawe'; 'Christs aduersaryes worke all by darkenes'). In a gloss in all editions ('Marke how vnwillingly the people were to receiue the papacy agayne'), Foxe presents opposition to the mass as reluctance to receive the papacy again, thus demonstrating the link between ceremonial and political allegiance; in the gloss ' The Masse the Popes youngest daughter', a reference to antichrist in the text is glossed as the pope in the margin. In a gloss with resonances for Elizabethan vestarian disputes, Foxe recalls the sending of a round cap to Taylor by Coverdale ('This cap was a roūd cap sent by M Couerdale to D. Taylor by his wyfe'). In a gloss concerned with the 'Queenes proceedings' and the nature of Satan, Foxe seems to have problems deciding how to characterise and criticise the political role of the queen in the persecutions. In this gloss and the next ('D. Taylor here playeth a right Elias. 3. Reg. 18'), Foxe steers the reader's thoughts away from political realities/authority to consider a higher law, just as the martyrs exemplify a state of being which transcends the worldly.

[Back to Top]

Many glosses are better placed in 1563 and 1570 than in 1576 and 1583 in this section. The gloss 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia' would seem to suggest that the 1583 edition was composed with reference to the 1570 edition as well as the 1576. In line with usual practice, the glosses 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleys disputations' [1583]; 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleyes disputations pag. 1377' [1576]; 'Of this memoriall cloke, read before in D. Ridleys disputacions pag. 1615' [1570] contain references to other places in the text which are accurate in 1570 and 1576 and not specific in 1583. 'D. Taylour confesseth the truth, and confirmeth the same wyth hys bloud' [1570]; 'An other Apophthegma of Doctour Taylour' [1576] shows a correction of the gloss of 1570 in 1576. A mistaken name in 1563 is corrected in later editions ('Gardiner. Clopton. Boner. Capon. Tunstall' [1563]; 'Gardiner. Hopton. Boner. Capon. Tonstall').

[Back to Top]
MarginaliaHadleye towne commended.THe towne of Hadley was one of the firste that receyued the woorde of God in al England at the preachynge of Mayster MarginaliaThomas Bylney,Thomas Bylney: and suche gracious successe had it, that a great number of that parishe became excedyng well learned in the holy scriptures, as wel women as men, so that a man myghte haue founde amonge them many that had often red the whole Bible thorow, and that could haue sayde a great part of S. Paules Epistles by hart, and verye wel and readely haue geuen a godlye learned sentence in any matter of controuersy. Their Children and seruauntes were also broughte vp, and trayned so diligentlye in the ryghte knowledge of Gods woorde, that the whole towne seemed rather an Vniuersitye of the learned, then a towne of Clothmaking, or laboring people. And that moste is to be commended, they were for the more part faithfull followers of Gods woord in their lyuyng. 
Commentary  *  Close

Recently John Craig has qualified Foxe's rosy picture of Hadleigh as a model godly town. He has demonstrated that the progress of protestantism in Hadleigh was slow and that bitter divisions existed in the town between Taylor's followers and religious conservatives (Craig, pp. 169-75). Upon a careful reading of Foxe's narrative these divisions become apparent.

[Back to Top]

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaDoctour Taylour, a doctoure in both lawes & a diuine.In this town was Doctor Rowland Taylour Doctor in both the Ciuil & Canō lawes, and a ryght perfecte Diuine, parson. Who at his first entring into his benefice, dyd not (as the common sort of beneficed men do) let oute his benefice to a Farmar, that shoulde gather vp the profites, and set in an ignorant vnlearned Priest to serue the cure, and so they maye haue the fleece, lyttle or nothing care for feedyng the flocke: but contrarylye he came hym selfe from the MarginaliaThomas Cranmer Archb. of Canturb.Archbishop of Canturburye, 

Commentary  *  Close

The phrase 'of blessed memory' appears here in the 1563 edition. Its removal from subsequent editions may be an indication that Foxe's opinion of Cranmer was more negative in later editions.

of blessed memorye Thomas Cranmer, wyth whom he before was in housholde, 
Commentary  *  Close

Taylor was Cranmer's domestic chaplain.

and made hys parsonal abode and dwellyng in Hadley,  
Commentary  *  Close

Actually Taylor was entrusted with a number of offices and assignments which necessitated his absence from Hadleigh. From at least 1552 he farmed out the rectory to two Hadleigh residents (Craig, pp. 164-65).

amonge the people, committed to his charge. Where, as MarginaliaA good shepheard, & hys condicions,a good Shephearde, abiding, and dwellyng among hys sheepe, he gaue hymself wholy to the study of holye Scriptures, moste faythfullye endeuouring hym selfe to fulfyll that charge, which the Lorde gaue vnto Peter saying: MarginaliaIohn ii.Peter louest thou me? Fede my Lambes. Fede my sheepe. Feede my sheepe. Thys loue of Christ so constrayned hym, that MarginaliaFede wyth woorde.no sonday, nor holy day passed, nor other time when he might get the people together, but he preached to them the woorde of God, the doctrine of their saluacion. MarginaliaFede with example.Not onely was his woorde a preaching vnto them: but al hys lyfe and conuersation was an example of vnfayned Christian lyfe, and true holynes. He was voyde of al pride, humble, and meeke, as anye chylde: so that none were so poore, but they mighte

[Back to Top]

boldly, as vnto their father resorte vnto him. Neyther was hys lowlynes anye childysh, or feareful thing: but as occasion, time, & place required, he woulde be stoute in rebuking the synfull and euyll doers: so that none was so riche, but he would tel hym playnly his fault, with suche earnest and graue rebukes, as became a good Curate, and Pastor. 

Commentary  *  Close

Craig has pointed out that Taylor's denunciations of the wealthy residents of Hadleigh created a distance between himself and the town (Craig, pp. 168-69).

He was a man very mild, voide of al rancour, grudge, or euyl wyl, ready to do good to al men, redely forgeuing his enemies, and neuer soughte to doo euyll to anye. MarginaliaFede wyth almes.To the poore, that were blynde, lame, plaged wyth syckenes, bedred, or that had many chyldren, he was a verye father, a careful Patron, and diligent prouider: in so muche that he caused the Parishoners to make a general prouision for them. Wherevnto he hym selfe (besyde the continuall reliefe that they alwaye founde at hys house) gaue an honest portion yearelye, to the common almes boxe. MarginaliaDoctour Taylours wife and hys chyldren.Hys wyfe also was an honest, discrete and sober Matron, and hys chyldren wel nourtred, brought vp in the feare of God, and good learning.

[Back to Top]

To conclude, he was a ryght and lyuelye president of all the vertues, commaunded by Saynte Paule to be in a true Byshoppe, a good salt of the earth, sauourly, byting the corrupt manners of euyll men, a lyght in Gods house, set vpon a Candlestycke, for all good men to imitate and followe.

Thus cōtinued this good shepheard among hys flocke, gouerning, and leading them thorowe thys wyldernes of the wycked worlde, al the dayes of the moste innocent, and holye Kyng of blessed memory, Kyng Edwarde the syxte. But after it hadde pleased God to take Kyng Edwarde from thys vale of misery, vnto hys most blessed rest, to lyue with Christe, and raygne in euerlastinge ioye and felicitye, the Papistes, MarginaliaThe Papistes and theyr naturall woorkes.who euer simuled, and dissimuled, both wyth kynge Henrye the eyghte, and kyng Edward hys sonne, nowe seynge the tyme conuenient for their purpose, vttered their false hipocrisy, openly refusing the churches reformacion, made by the sayde two most godly kynges, 

Commentary  *  Close

The phrase '(worthye therfore [of] eternall and blessed memory)' occurs here in 1563 but was not reprinted in the later editions. The deletion of this phrasewas probably due to Foxe's increasingly critical attitude to Henry VIII. (On Foxe'scriticism of Henry VIII in the 1570 edition, see Freeman and Wall, pp. 1186-89).

[Back to Top]
(woorthye therefore eternall and blessed memorye:) and contrarye to that they had all these twoo kynges dayes preached, taught, wrytten, and sworne, they violently ouerthrew the true doctrine of the gospel, and persecuted with swearde, and fyre, al those that would not agree to receiue againe the Romayne Byshoppe as supreme heade of the vniuersall Churche, and allowe all the errours, superstitions, and idolatries, that before by Goddes woorde were disproued, and iustly condemned, as thoughe nowe they were good doctrine, vertuous, and true religion.

[Back to Top]

In the begynnyng of thys rage of Anti-

christ,