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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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1182 [1113]

weake pece of earth, which is empty of all strength of it selfe. Thou remembrest O lord that I am but dust, and able to doo nothinge that is good. Therfore O Lord, as of thine accustomed goodnes and loue, thou hast bydden me to this banket, and accompted me worthy to the drinking of thyne owne cup, emongest thine electe: euen so geue me strength O lord agaynst this thine element which as to my sight, it is most irksom and terrible: so to my mynd, it maye at thy commaundement (as an obedient seruaunt) be swete and plesaunt that throught the strengthe of thy holy sprite I maye passe through the strength of this fire into thy bosom, according to thy promise. And for this mortal, receiue an immortal, and for this corruptible, put on incorruption: Accept this brent sacrifice and offering, O Lorde, not for the sacrifice, but for thy dere sonnes sake my sauiour, for whose testimonye I offer this free will offering with all my harte and with all my soule. O heauenly father forgiue me my sinnes as I forgiue all the world. O swet sonne of God my sauiour, sprede thy winges ouer me. O blessed and holye ghoste throught whose merciful inspiration I am com hither, conduct me in to euerlasting lyfe.

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Lord into thy handes I commend my sprite. Amen.

MarginaliaIohn Laurence. March. 29.THe. xxix. day of thys moneth being þe next day, the said Iohn Laurence was brought to Colchester, and there being not abel to go, (for that aswell his legges were sore worne with his heauy yrons in the prison, as also his body weakened with euel keping) was borne to the fyre in a chayre, and so sitting, was in his constant fayth consumed with fyre. At the burnyng of thys Laurence, he syttyng in the fyre, the yong children came about the fyre, & cryed (aswell as yong children could speake) sayeng. Lord strengthen thy seruaunt, & kepe thy promys. Lord strengthen thy seruaunt and keepe thy promys: 

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The Venetain ambassador reported on the sympathy of the crowd at Laurence's execution for the martyr (C.S.P. Venetian, VI, i, nos. 45 and 49).

which thinge as it is rare, so is it no small manifestation of the glorye of God, which wrought this in the hartes of these litle ones: nor yet a litle comendation to theyr parentes, which from theyr youthe brought them vp in the knowlege of god and hys truth.

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Amonges the notable workinges, & iudgementes of God, I fynd about this tyme one, not (in my mynde) to be omytted. Whiche is that vpon Shrouesonday, MarginaliaThe person of arundelthe parson of Arundell besides Cauntorbury, (not a lytle reioysing belyke of thys alteration) declared vnto his parishners, al such articles as were then set fourth by the aucthoryty of the Pope, and the commaundement of the Byshops of this Realme. And when he had done, he thanked God that euer he had lyued to see that daye: straight waye (by what occasion I know not,

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I wil referre that to the vnsearcheable iudgements of almighty God) he fel sodenly downe out of the pulpet and neuer spake word after. 

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Nightingale was not named in the 1563 edition; instead he was identified, or misidentified, as the parson of 'Arundall in Canterbury'. Nor was the sermon quoted in the 1563 edition nor was Robert Austen mentioned in this edition. Clearly, Austen read the account in the 1563 edition and sent Foxe further details, clarifying and correcting the original account.

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We haue a lytle ouerpast the tyme and story of Iudge Hales, who although aboute thys tyme most pitefully sought his owne destruction through the cruell handlyng of the malignant Papists, who passe vpon nothing, but vpon their owne dignity, litel caring who perysh besydes, so their estimation maye be magnifyed: yet the vertues & memory of that man is not vnwoorthy eyther to bee nombered with the Saintes that be departed, or at lest not to be forgottē or obliterate among the saintes that be alyue: concerning whose worthy doinges, singulare prudence, and incorrupt ministration of iudgement, with the lamentale troble which after fel vpon that good man, we thoughte here emong manye other histories, somwhat to expresse, desiringe the, good reader, to take that which is to be folowed in that man, the rest to refer to the iudgement of hym which onely is iudge of all.

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The lamentable and pitieful history of Maister Iames Hales Iudge. 
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Judge Hales

In the Rerum, Foxe praised Sir James Hales's prudence, gravity, and excellence as a justice. He also extolled Hales's devotion to the gospel, describing the justices daily scripture readings to his household. The Rerum goes on to relate that Hales insisted on enforcing the Edwardian statutes which prohibited the celebration of mass and because of this he was summoned before Stephen Gardiner, the lord chancellor (Rerum, pp. 261-62). The Rerum then reprinted, in its entirety, a translation of a contemporary protestant pamphlet relating the interview between Hales and Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 262-63, cf. The communication betwene my lordchauncelor and judge Hales in Westminster hall. M. D. Liii. V. of October [London? 1553]). The Rerum continues by relating that Hales was imprisoned and worn downby the catholics and reduced to despair. (Foxe blamed, in some detail, a gentleman of Hampshire named Forster, Bishop Day of Chichester and Sir William Portman, Chief Justice of the King's and Queen's Bench, for putting pressure on Hales). Eventually Hales tried to kill himself with a penknife. (Foxe maintained that this demonstrated that Hales was not in his right mind). Hearing of this, Gardiner publicly denounced protestantism as a 'doctrine of desperation'. Hales was released and returned home where he drowned himself, either from remorse, insanity or to prevent his being forced to attend mass. Foxe disapproved of the suicide, but added that if Hales was out of his wits when he killed himself, then he deserved pity. Foxe also maintained that Hales was not necessarily damned. Foxe claimed that not all suicides were consigned to hell, citing the examples of virgins who killed themselves rather than lose their chastity, including some female Christians praised for this by the great church historian Eusebius (Rerum, pp. 264-65). Foxe also added a poem which he wrote himself, praising Hales (Rerum, p. 265).

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In the first edition of the Acts and Monuments, all of this material was reprinted without change, except that two lines were added to the poem, expressing the hope that Hales's soul, no matter how blemished, might be cleansed and blessed through divine mercy.

In 1566, Nicholas Harpsfield, Foxe's most important contemporary critic, attacked Foxe's account of Hales. Harpsfield criticized Foxe for praising Hales as a martyr. In particular, Harpsfield criticized Foxe for maintaining that Hales might not be damned and for comparing Hales with early Christian martyrs who killed themselves rather than be forced to surrender their chastity and worship idols (DS, pp. 748-49).

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In his second edition, Foxe responded by eliminating the discussion of Hales's background and virtues from his narrative on the judge. He replaced this with a denunciation of the illegality of the arrest of Hales and of other allegedly illegal catholic persecutions of protestants. The interview between Hales and Gardiner was reprinted without change. But the long discussion of Hales's cruel treatment in prison is replaced by a terse declaration that 'it is thought' that Day and Portman subjectedHales to pressure. (Foxe may have been under some pressure himself about his accusations of Portman and Forster; the latter is not mentioned in this edition). The description of Hales's attempted suicide is repeated, as is Gardiner's denunciation of protestantism. Foxe also repeats his claim that Hales deserved pity if he was out of his wits and his citation of suicides by early Christians. However, Foxe added a sentence to this edition refusing to excuse 'the hainous fact' of Hales's suicide. Foxe also changed the last four lines of his poem praising Hales; the new lines are more guarded about the fate of Hales's soul, praying that on the Day of Judgement, when no one will be without sin, Hales's sins will not weigh too heavily against him.

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In his second edition, Foxe was concerned to arrange events in chronological order and the account of Hales was moved accordingly. The account of Hales in the second edition of the Acts and Monuments was repeated without change in the third and fourth editions.

 

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Judge Hales

Several glosses reflect the apposite theme of the injustice/illegality of the papists ('The Catholickes proued to doe agaynst the law in Q. Maryes tyme'; 'Iustice Hales for Iustice sake troubled'). The gloss 'Winchester quarelleth with M. Hales religion' perhaps reveals something about Foxe's priorities here: it takes Gardiner's point that Hales's actions were motivated not by legal rigour but by religious bias and uses it in a general attack on Hales's religion, leaving out the legal issue. This has the effect of leaving intact Hales's reputation for commitment to the law whatever the political consequences, and makes the contrast between his legality and catholic illegality all the stronger. The gloss 'Winchester might rather haue sayd how their cruell dealing worketh desperation' implicitly accepts that Hales fell prey to desperation, although the reason for the desperation is laid upon the papists. Later glosses ('The cause of Iudge Hales drowning considered'; 'The case of Iudge Hales drowning considered') reveal Foxe's non-judgemental response to the question of Hales's spiritual destination.

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MarginaliaSir Iames Hayles.WE haue made mencion a litle before of Iudge Hales, who alone takinge Quene Maries parte, would in no wise subscribe to haue any other Quene but her, for that he thought he could not do other wise with a safe conscience, though all the reste in maner had subscribed to Edward the sixt his will and testament: wherby as he did cast him self into manifest ieoperdy of the Duke of Northumberland, to leese both body & goods: so he deserued at Queene Maries handes, & her adherentes maruelous thankes, and reward of his singuler faythfulnes and trewe harte, towardes her. This syr Iames Hales of the coūtie of Kent was both a worshipfull Knighte, and one of the highe iudges of the Realme, which ordered and finished matters of controuersye in the same. Althoughe he dyd not so much excede in noblenes of byrth, and parentage, as he dyd excell all other in vertue, prudence, grauity, and true ministring of iustice, for whych he was in great veneration wyth al men, and was more conspicuous, and knowen to the world therby, then by sight. Ther was in hym by nature grafted a singuler gyft of prudence, which after by much practise he accomplished, and brought to a meruelouse good perfection: besides that, by his assidiouse trauell & exercise, in demurring and pleading of matters, he attayned to the veyne of eloquence, where with he was trimly qualified. In which kind of study, beinge exercised cer-

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