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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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1238 [1169]

The history of Iohn Ardley and Iohn Symson, of the Parish of Wygborow the great, in Essex. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Ardley and Simpson

There is some evidence that John Simpson was a more important figure among the Marian protestants then even Foxe realized. He had been one of the organizers of the Bocking conventicle, a major meeting of evangelicals from Kent, Essex and Suffolk during Edward VI's reign (see Freeman [2002], pp. 130-31). There are also a number of manuscript copies of a letter which Simpson wrote to followers in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 144v-145v and 243r-v as well as ECL 260, fos. 47r-48v, 55r-v and 252v-253v). Interestingly, two other martyrs, John Denley and John Newman, were apprehended journeying from Kent to visit Simpson and Ardley in Essex.

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In the Rerum, however, Foxe confused John Simpson with another Marian martyr, Cuthbert Simpson (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum also states that Simpson and Ardley were both burned on 11 June 1555 (the correct date is 10 June 1555) at Rochford and Rayleigh respectively (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum (p. 462) also contains a story of a false rumour of a riot causing a panic at the condemnation of Ardley and Simpson which would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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Foxe added a great deal of material in his 1563 edition; in fact, all of the information Foxe printed on Ardley and Simpson appears in his first edition. In 1563, Foxe added the letter from Philip and Mary to Bonner, which was copied from Bonner's register. He also added the articles charged against the two martyrs, their answers and an account of their condemnation, all taken from a now lost official record. probably a court book. And in the appendix of the 1563 edition, Foxe added a short account of the defiance of Ardley and Simpson at their condemnation. This came from an eyewitness while the first edition was being printed.

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In the second edition, Foxe did not add any material but he rearranged it. First he placed the overall narrative of Ardley and Simpson in its proper chronological place. Then Foxe conflated the articles and answers of the two martyrs, and he moved the story of the defiance of the two martyrs at their condemnation from the appendix. This version of the account of Ardley and Simpson was printed unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson

The usual narrative pointers are given in the glosses in this section, along with glosses giving summaries of the contents of articles alleged against the martyrs and their answers. As it often does, 1563 uses numbers in the margin to mark out the articles and the answers to them; this is in line with its generally (though not universally) less ambitious attitude to annotation in comparison with later editions. Two notes continue Foxe's campaign to portray Bonner as the slave to his passions: 'Q. Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud' and 'A note of the sodaine fear of Boner'. The first of these is an interestingly unreserved comment on the role of the Queen in the persecutions: she is portrayed as the principal agent in the stirring up of Bonner, even though the letter was also from her husband.

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MarginaliaIhō Simson & Ihon Ardley.IN the same companye aboue mencioned, were also Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardley, who, being producted firste before Boner, B. of London, in his chappell, the. xxii. day of Maye, and there examined vpon certayne articles, wyth theyr answers and handes subscribing to their confession, were afterwarde, the. xxv. daye of the sayd moneth conuented before the sayd B. hauing þe foresaid articles with their answers, and their handes vnto the same layde before them. Whiche as they confessed to be theyr owne answers, with their owne handes subscribed: so they constantly and boldlye denyed to go from that which they had sayd and subscribed. What their articles, and theyr aunswers were, the copy hereof declareth.

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¶ Articles obiected agaynste Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardley, of the parish of Wigborow the great, in Essex, husbandmen, by Boner B. of London, at Fullam. 22. of May. 1555. 
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The articles and answers of Ardley and Simpson were taken from an official record of Bonner's which is now lost, probably a court book. Note that in the second edition Foxe conflated the two sets of identical articles and nearly identical answers.

Marginalia.1FIrst that thou Iohn Simsō, (or Iohn Ardley,) husbādman, of the age of. 34. yeres, or thereabout, wast and art of the parishe of great Wigborow, within the dioces of London, and thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue that there is here in earth one catholike and vniuersal whole church which doth hold and beleue al the faith and religion of Christ and all the necessarye articles and sacramentes of the same.

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Marginalia.2Item, that thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that thou art necessarily bounden vnder the paine of dampnation of thy soule, to geue ful faith & credence vnto þe said catholik & vniuersal church, and to the religion of the same, in al necessary pointes of the said faith & religion, wtout wauering or doubting in the said faith and religion, or in any part therof.

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Marginalia.3Item, that thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue, that that faith & religion, which bothe the church of Rome, Italy, Spain, Englād, Fraunce, Ireland, Scotland, & al other churches in Europe, being true members & parts of the said catholike & vniuersal church do beleue and teach, is both agreing with the said catholicke and vniuersal church, & the fayth & religion of Christ, & also is the very true faith and religion, which al Christen people ought to beleue, obserue, folow & kepe, but contrarywise thou hast beleued, & doest beleue, that that faith and religion, which the said church of Rome, & all the other churches aforesaide haue heretofore beleued, and do now beleue, is false, erroneous and nought, & in no wyse ought to be beleued, obserued, kepte, and followed, of any Christen man.

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Marginalia4.Item, that albeit it be true, that in the sacrament of the altar ther is in substance the very body & bloud of Christ vnder the formes of bread & wine, & albeit that it be so beleued, taught & preached vndoubtedlye in the sayde church of Rome, & al the other churches afore said, yet thou hast not so beleued, nor doest so beleue, but contrarywise thou hast & doest beleue firmly and stedfastly, that there is not in the said sacrament of the alter, vnder the said formes of bread & wine, the very substance of Christes body & bloud, but that ther is onely the substāce of material & common bread and wyne, with the formes therof: and þt the sayd material & comon bread & wine are onely the signes & tokens of christes body & bloud, and by faith to be receiued, onely for a remēbrāce of Christes passiō & death, without any suche substance of Christes body and bloud at al.

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Marginalia5.Item, that thou hast beleued and taughte, and thou hast openlye spoken, and to thy power mainteyned, and defended, and so doeste beleue, thinke, maintayne, and defende, that the verye true receiuinge and eating of Christes bodye and bloud, is onely to take materiall and common bread, and to breake it, & to distribute yt emongest the people, remēbring thereby the passion and death of christ onely.

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Marginalia6.Item, þt thou hast likewise beleued, taught, & spoken, that the masse now vsed in this realme of England, & others the churches afore said, is abhominable and nought & ful of Idolatrie, and is of the ordinaunce of the pope, & not of the institution of Christe, and hath no goodnes in it, sauing the gloria in excelsis & the epistle and the Gospel, and that therfore thou hast not, nor wilte not come and be present at the masse, nor receaue the sacramēt of the alter, or any other sacramēt of the church as they are now vsed in this realme of England, and other the Churches a foresayde.

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Marginalia7.Item, that thou hast in tymes past beleued precisely, and obstinately affirmed, and said, and so doest nowe beleue, & thinke that auricular confession is not nedeful to be made vnto the priest, but it is a thing superfluous and vayne, and ought onlye to be made to God & to none other person: & likewise thou hast condempned as superfluous, vayne, and vnprofitable, all the ceremonies of the churche, and the seruice of the same, and haste sayde that no seruyce in the Churche oughte to be saide but in the englishe tongue, and yf yt be otherwyse said, it is vnlawfull and naught.

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¶ The aunswere of Ihon Symson made before Edmond B. of London, in his chappel at his maner at Fullam the. xxii. day of May. 1555

I Ihon Symson of great Wigborowe in the county of Essex and dioces of London husbandman, of the age. xxxiiii. at the leaste being called vp nowe to London for heresye,

and
MMM.iii.