In the 1570 edition, Foxe states that George Shipside was the source for this material. The reference to Bonner 'extorting' possesions is to Bonner's refusal to accept the validity of leases which Ridley had made, as bishop of London, granting episcopal property to Alice Ridley and her husband. These leases were a subject of vital importance to Ridley; almost his last act on earth was to petition Mary toconfirm them.[Back to Top]
A Bocardo is a type of syllogism whose logic was supposed to be impossible to escape. The Oxford gaol, on the north gate of the city, was nicknamed the Bocardoin consequence.
This 'conference' is not really a conference at all. This is the second (with a portion of the first) of two 'conferences' written by Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer while they were imprisoned in the Tower of London from September 1553 until March 1554. Although the work would be published posthumously (as A copy of Certain godly learned and comfortable conferences'between Latimer and Ridley [Emden, 1556], STC 21047.3), its original purpose was more private and pragmatic. It was written by the two bishops to prepare themselves for imminent examinations and debates. It should be remembered that Ridley and Latimer were confined separately when this work was written and were not actually talking together; instead the writings of one bishop would be taken to the other bishop for comment, probably by Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis, who is known to have been present in the Tower with Latimer (see APC IV, pp. 345-46).[Back to Top]
In the first 'conference' Ridley penned eleven reasons why he had refused to attend mass. He then sent these to Latimer, who wrote down his comments after each of the reasons and added an exhortation not to attend mass at the end. The second 'conference' was written in the expectation that the two bishops would shortly be examined by 'Diotrephes and his warriors' (possibly Stephen Gardiner and his adherents). This time Ridley anticipated fourteen objections to his earlier argumentsand sent his responses, with an explanatory note at the end of the piece, to Latimer. Latimer added comments to nine of Ridley's answers. Ridley's purposes in this exercise were apparently, as Latimer suspected, not only to obtain Latimer's approval for Ridley's arguments but also to prime the older and less academically learned man with responses for imminent debates.[Back to Top]
Foxe printed the second 'conference' in its entirety, but added much of Latimer's exhortation against attending the mass, from the first 'conference' to the end of the second 'conference'. The resulting 'conference' was not printed in the Rerum but appeared in the 1563 edition. It was dropped from the 1570 and 1576 editions, but re-inserted in the 1583 edition. A manuscript copy of both 'conferences' survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 147r-170v).[Back to Top]
This is not a real person but a figure created by Ridley to voice possible objections to Ridley's arguments. As Ridley explained, the name was taken from that of an Arian bishop who persecuted Trinitarian Christians in the Vandal kingdom of North Africa during the fifth century. Ridley may also have intended a dig at Stephen Gardiner, who had used the pen name 'Marcus Antonius'.[Back to Top]
Victor was a Trinitarian historian of the late fifth century who wrote the Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae, an account of the persecution of Trinitarian Christians by the Arian authorities in fifth-century North Africa.
MarginaliaN. Ridlei.JN wryting agayne ye haue done me an vnspeakeable pleasure, and I pray that the Lord may requite it you in that day. For I haue receyued great comforte at your woordes: but yet I am not so filled with al, but that I thurst much more now then before to drynke more of that cup of yours, wher in ye myngle vnto mee profitable with pleasaunt. I pray you good father let me haue one draughte more to comforte my stomacke. For surely except the Lorde assist me with his gratious ayde, in the time of hys seruice, I know I shall playe but the part of a whyte lyuered
cause to fight lyke a man.
Probably Stephen Gardiner; the name is a malicious reference to 3 John 9.
MarginaliaAnton. obiect. 1.Al men maruel greatlye, why you, after the liberty which you haue graunted vnto you, more then the rest, do not go to masse which is a thing (as you know) now much estemed of al men, yea and of the Quene her selfe.
MarginaliaN. Ryd. Answer.Because no man that layeth hande on the plough and loketh back is fytte for the kingedome of God, MarginaliaLuc. 9. and also for the selfe same cause why saint Paule would not suffer Titus to be circumcised, which is that the truth of the gospell might remayne with vs vncorrupte Gal. the second: and agayne, MarginaliaGala. 2.If I builde agayne the thinges which I destroyed, I make my selfe a trespasser. This is also another cause, leaste I should seme by outewarde facte to allowe the thinge, which I am perswaded is contrary to sound doctrine, and so should be a stumblinge stocke vnto the weake. But wo be vnto him by whom offense commeth: it were better for him that a milnestone were hanged about his neck and he caste into the myddes of the sea. MarginaliaMath. 18. Mark. 9.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaH. Latimer.Except the Lord healp me ye saye. Truth it is. For without me (saith he) ye can do nothing MarginaliaIohn. 15. much lesse suffer death of our aduersaries, through the bloudy law now prepared against vs. But it foloweth, if ye abyde in me, and my worde abyde in you aske, what ye will, and it shal be done for you. What can be more comfortable? Syr, you mak aūswer your selfe so wel that I cannot better it. Syr, I begin now to smell what you meane by traueling thus with me. you vse me as Bilney dyd ones when he conuerted me: pretending as though he would be taught of me, he soughte wayes and meanes to teach me, and so do you.
Apart from being a fascinating autobiographical reference to the conversion of Latimer in Cambridge by the evangelical preacher Thomas Bilney (d. 1531), this passage also indicates that Latimer suspected that Ridley was subtly coaching him.
MarginaliaAnton. obiect. 2.What is it then that offendeth you so greatly in the masse, that ye wyll not vouchsafe ones eyther to heare it, or se it? And from whence cōmeth thys newe religion vpon you? haue not you vsed in tymes past to say masse your selfe?
MarginaliaN. Rid. answer.I confesse vnto you my fault and ignoraūce: but know you that for these matters I haue done penaunce longe agoo, both at Paules crosse and also openly in the Pulpyt at Cambrydge, MarginaliaHe meaneth his own confession openly preaching and I truste God hathe forgeuen mee thys myne offense: for I dyd it vppon ignoraunce. Marginalia1. Timo. 1. But if yee be desirous to knowe, and wyll vouchsafe to heare, what thinges doo offend mee in the Masse, I wyll rehearse vnto you those thinges which be moste cleare, and seme to repugne mooste manifestly against goddes woord. And they be these. The straūge tounge: The want of the shewing of the Lordes death: MarginaliaMath. 26.The breaking of the lords cōmaun[Back to Top]