Navigate the 1563 Edition
PrefaceBook 1Book 2Book 3Book 4Book 5
Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Text
Names and Places on this Page
Unavailable for this Edition
1354 [1285]

not onely quietly enioye their owne, but diuerslye mynishing them of al that they had graunted by the saide theyr brother Byshop Rydleye, onelye by extorte power, and wyth oute order of lawe. 

Commentary  *  Close

In the 1570 edition, Foxe states that George Shipside was the source for this material. The reference to Bonner 'extorting' possesions is to Bonner's refusal to accept the validity of leases which Ridley had made, as bishop of London, granting episcopal property to Alice Ridley and her husband. These leases were a subject of vital importance to Ridley; almost his last act on earth was to petition Mary toconfirm them.

[Back to Top]
And being not with this satisfied, sought by all meanes he coulde her deathe, if God otherwyse had not prouided. Thus you may see the diuersity of the good & wicked nature: hereby you maye vnderstand the fruites of either, and howe one excelled the other in mercye and pity. But now to an ende: the life of this worthy and blessed martir bishop Ridley, spent in godlines and good order, as before is sayd, in the dayes of kinge Henry the eight, and king Edward the syxt, he was immediatly after þe cōming of quene Marye attached and committed to prison, being brought from London to Oxforde after, like a moste haynous traytour and hereticke, wyth the Archbysop of Caunterburye, and Mayster Latimer, accompanied with a great bond of souldiers, where he was cast into the cōmon gaole and prison of Bocardo, 
Commentary  *  Close

A Bocardo is a type of syllogism whose logic was supposed to be impossible to escape. The Oxford gaol, on the north gate of the city, was nicknamed the Bocardoin consequence.

as is before declared and described in this ecclesiasticall story aboue. And thus so much cōcerning the education and life of this vertuous and godly Bishop. Furthermore, as touching his disputations and conflictes had at Oxen. is also sufficientlye mentioned before. Nowe remaineth in like order to declare and sette forth suche thinges as after ensued of his vsage and doinges in prison, and towarde the latter end of his life, where the said disputatiōs in opē schole wer ended, as is aboue rehersed. He was commaunded agayne to the prison, where he remayned from Aprill to the monethe October. Who in the meane tyme wrote many letters and diuers treatises, hauing besides wyth Mayster Cranmere and maister Latimer certain conferences, as here folowethe.

[Back to Top]
A conference 
Commentary  *  Close
The Conference of Ridley and Latimer

This 'conference' is not really a conference at all. This is the second (with a portion of the first) of two 'conferences' written by Nicholas Ridley and Hugh Latimer while they were imprisoned in the Tower of London from September 1553 until March 1554. Although the work would be published posthumously (as A copy of Certain godly learned and comfortable conferences'between Latimer and Ridley [Emden, 1556], STC 21047.3), its original purpose was more private and pragmatic. It was written by the two bishops to prepare themselves for imminent examinations and debates. It should be remembered that Ridley and Latimer were confined separately when this work was written and were not actually talking together; instead the writings of one bishop would be taken to the other bishop for comment, probably by Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis, who is known to have been present in the Tower with Latimer (see APC IV, pp. 345-46).

[Back to Top]

In the first 'conference' Ridley penned eleven reasons why he had refused to attend mass. He then sent these to Latimer, who wrote down his comments after each of the reasons and added an exhortation not to attend mass at the end. The second 'conference' was written in the expectation that the two bishops would shortly be examined by 'Diotrephes and his warriors' (possibly Stephen Gardiner and his adherents). This time Ridley anticipated fourteen objections to his earlier argumentsand sent his responses, with an explanatory note at the end of the piece, to Latimer. Latimer added comments to nine of Ridley's answers. Ridley's purposes in this exercise were apparently, as Latimer suspected, not only to obtain Latimer's approval for Ridley's arguments but also to prime the older and less academically learned man with responses for imminent debates.

[Back to Top]

Foxe printed the second 'conference' in its entirety, but added much of Latimer's exhortation against attending the mass, from the first 'conference' to the end of the second 'conference'. The resulting 'conference' was not printed in the Rerum but appeared in the 1563 edition. It was dropped from the 1570 and 1576 editions, but re-inserted in the 1583 edition. A manuscript copy of both 'conferences' survives among Foxe's papers (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 147r-170v).

[Back to Top]
had betwixt Mayster Ridley, and maister Latimer in pryson, vpon the obiection of Antonian,  
Commentary  *  Close

This is not a real person but a figure created by Ridley to voice possible objections to Ridley's arguments. As Ridley explained, the name was taken from that of an Arian bishop who persecuted Trinitarian Christians in the Vandal kingdom of North Africa during the fifth century. Ridley may also have intended a dig at Stephen Gardiner, who had used the pen name 'Marcus Antonius'.

[Back to Top]
meaning by that name some popish persecutour, as Winchester, alluding thereby to the storye of Victor. lib 3. de persecut. Apri.  
Commentary  *  Close

Victor was a Trinitarian historian of the late fifth century who wrote the Historia persecutionis Africanae provinciae, an account of the persecution of Trinitarian Christians by the Arian authorities in fifth-century North Africa.

MarginaliaN. Ridlei.JN wryting agayne ye haue done me an vnspeakeable pleasure, and I pray that the Lord may requite it you in that day. For I haue receyued great comforte at your woordes: but yet I am not so filled with al, but that I thurst much more now then before to drynke more of that cup of yours, wher in ye myngle vnto mee profitable with pleasaunt. I pray you good father let me haue one draughte more to comforte my stomacke. For surely except the Lorde assist me with his gratious ayde, in the time of hys seruice, I know I shall playe but the part of a whyte lyuered 

Commentary  *  Close

Cowardly, faint-hearted.

knight. But truly my trust is in hym, that in myne infirmity he should try hym selfe strong, and that he canne make the Coward in hys

[Back to Top]

cause to fight lyke a man.

Syr, now I looke dayly when Diotrephes 

Commentary  *  Close

Probably Stephen Gardiner; the name is a malicious reference to 3 John 9.

with his warriours shall assault me: wherefore I praye you good father, for that you are an old Souldiour, and an experte warriour, and God knoweth I am but a yonge Souldiour, and as yet of smal experience in these fyttes, helpe me I praye you to buckle my harnesse. And now I would haue you to thinke, that these dartes are cast at my head of some one of Diotrephes or Antonius sowldiars.

[Back to Top]
The obiection of the Antonian.

MarginaliaAnton. obiect. 1.Al men maruel greatlye, why you, after the liberty which you haue graunted vnto you, more then the rest, do not go to masse which is a thing (as you know) now much estemed of al men, yea and of the Quene her selfe.

The aunswer.

MarginaliaN. Ryd. Answer.Because no man that layeth hande on the plough and loketh back is fytte for the kingedome of God, MarginaliaLuc. 9. and also for the selfe same cause why saint Paule would not suffer Titus to be circumcised, which is that the truth of the gospell might remayne with vs vncorrupte Gal. the second: and agayne, MarginaliaGala. 2.If I builde agayne the thinges which I destroyed, I make my selfe a trespasser. This is also another cause, leaste I should seme by outewarde facte to allowe the thinge, which I am perswaded is contrary to sound doctrine, and so should be a stumblinge stocke vnto the weake. But wo be vnto him by whom offense commeth: it were better for him that a milnestone were hanged about his neck and he caste into the myddes of the sea. MarginaliaMath. 18. Mark. 9.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaH. Latimer.Except the Lord healp me ye saye. Truth it is. For without me (saith he) ye can do nothing MarginaliaIohn. 15. much lesse suffer death of our aduersaries, through the bloudy law now prepared against vs. But it foloweth, if ye abyde in me, and my worde abyde in you aske, what ye will, and it shal be done for you. What can be more comfortable? Syr, you mak aūswer your selfe so wel that I cannot better it. Syr, I begin now to smell what you meane by traueling thus with me. you vse me as Bilney dyd ones when he conuerted me: pretending as though he would be taught of me, he soughte wayes and meanes to teach me, and so do you.  

Commentary  *  Close

Apart from being a fascinating autobiographical reference to the conversion of Latimer in Cambridge by the evangelical preacher Thomas Bilney (d. 1531), this passage also indicates that Latimer suspected that Ridley was subtly coaching him.

I thank you therfore most hartely. For in dede you minister armour vnto me wheras I was vnarmed before and vnprouided, sauing that I geue my selfe to prayer for my refuge.

[Back to Top]

MarginaliaAnton. obiect. 2.What is it then that offendeth you so greatly in the masse, that ye wyll not vouchsafe ones eyther to heare it, or se it? And from whence cōmeth thys newe religion vpon you? haue not you vsed in tymes past to say masse your selfe?

MarginaliaN. Rid. answer.I confesse vnto you my fault and ignoraūce: but know you that for these matters I haue done penaunce longe agoo, both at Paules crosse and also openly in the Pulpyt at Cambrydge, MarginaliaHe meaneth his own confession openly preaching and I truste God hathe forgeuen mee thys myne offense: for I dyd it vppon ignoraunce. Marginalia1. Timo. 1. But if yee be desirous to knowe, and wyll vouchsafe to heare, what thinges doo offend mee in the Masse, I wyll rehearse vnto you those thinges which be moste cleare, and seme to repugne mooste manifestly against goddes woord. And they be these. The straūge tounge: The want of the shewing of the Lordes death: MarginaliaMath. 26.The breaking of the lords cōmaun

[Back to Top]
dement
YYY.i.