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neither of the kingdome of heauen, neither yet of hel, neither ought any Christiā to esteme his censures any more thē as a thing of no force. Yea albeit the Pope should peraduenture interdite the Realme, yet could he not hurt, but rather profite vs, for so muche as thereby we should be dismissed from the obseruation of his lawes, and from saying of Seruice according to the custome of the churche.

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Marginalia5 Vowes.If any man do make an othe or vowe, to kepe perpetuall chastitie, or doo any thing els whereunto God hath not appointed him, geuing him grace to performe his purpose, the same vowe or othe is vnreasonable and vndiscrete, neither can any Prelate compelle him to kepe the same, except he will do contrary vnto Gods ordinaunce, but ought to committe him vnto the gouernaunce of the holy Ghoste, and of his owne conscience, for so muche as euery man whiche will not fulfill his vowe or othe, can not doo it for that cause.

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Marginalia6 The charge of priesthodWhosoeuer taketh vpon him the office of priesthod, although he haue not the charge of soules committed vnto him according to the custome of the churche, not only they may but ought to preache the Gospell frely vnto the people, otherwyse he is a thiefe, excommunicated of God and of the holy Churche.

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Marginalia7 Against trāsubstātiatiōThat Innocentius the third Pope, and sixe hundred Bishops, and a thousand other Prelates, with all the rest of the Clergie, whiche together with the same Pope, agreed and determined, that in the Sacrament of the Aultar after the conuersion of the bread and wyne into the body and bloud of Christ, that the accidentes of the said bread and wyne, to remaine there without any proper subiect of the same. The whiche also ordeined that all Christians ought to confesse their sinnes once a yeare, vnto a proper priest, and to receiue the reuerent Sacrament at Easter, and made certain other lawes at the same tyme, all they in so doynge, were fooles & Blockheades, Heretikes, Blasphemers and Seducers of the Christian people, wherfore we ought not to beleue their determinations, or of their successors, neither ought we to obey their lawes or ordinaunces except they be plainly grounded vpon the holy scripture, or vpon some reason whiche can not be impugned.

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Richard Wiche.

Marginalia1400.ABout the same tyme also was one Richard Wiche 

Commentary  *  Close
Richard Whiche

Foxe's account of Richard Wyche was first printed in the 1570 edition. Foxe listed two sources for his account, Robert Fabian's chronicle, and an old English chronicle he borrowed from someone named Permynger. This last named item is impossible to identify, particularly since Foxe's account is taken virtually word-for-word from Fabian. (See Fabyan's cronycle [London, 1559], STC 10664, p. 436). In the 1583 edition, Foxe added a royal proclamation to the sheriffs of London and Middlesex, ordering them to suppress the cult of Richard Wyche. How Foxe obtained a copy of this document is unknown, but the document survives and Foxe printed it accurately. (See the summary of the proclamation in Calendar of Close Rolls. Henry VI. Vol. III. 1435-1441, pp. 385-6).

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Foxe assumes, as almost every scholar examining the incident has, that Wyche was executed for Lollard beliefs and that his cult was generated by other Lollards. For a compelling case that neither assumption is true, and for the best account of the episode, see Richard Rex, 'Which is Wyche? Lollardy and Sanctity in Lancastrian London' in Martyrs and Martyrdom in England, c. 1400-1700, ed. Thomas S. Freeman and Thomas F. Mayer (Woodbridge, 2007), pp. 88-106.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

a priest of Herford, who after he had a certaine season professed and preached the Gospell he was at the laste by the byshop of Durham, driuen to recant, whose articles whiche he recanted, we haue thought good to anexe here vnder as fo-loweth worde for worde.

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Marginalia1.First, Images are not to be worshipped.

Marginalia2.God of his ordinarie power can not make an Image bleede.

Marginalia3. This article sauorith sōwhat of þe popish timeIf thou must be confessed, be not confessed vnto a wicked priest, but chose vnto thy selfe a discrete confessor, of a good liuing, vnto whom if thou doo fully confesse thy selfe, he may also fully absolue thee.

Marginalia4.Euery laie man, is bounde to vnderstande & knowe the Gospel, and after that he dooth vnderstande the same, to preache it, either openly or priuatly, according to his habilitie.

A laye man ought to praie altogether in his owne tongue, that he may vnderstande what he praieth, for by suche praier he shalbe moste acceptable.

Marginalia5Euery priest according to his capacitie or vnderstanding is bounde to knowe the whole scriptures, according to the foure senses of the same, & by his office he is boūde to preache it.

Marginalia6 Pylgrimages.The pilgremages to Hierusalem or Rome, are but in vaine: For what so euer thou shalt haue there, thou shalt also finde at home, as our baptisme for the washing awaye of originall sinne, may be as well had here as in other places, with many other thinges more.

Marginalia7Men and wemen going vpon their iourneis, ought to haue all their communication vpon the holy scriptures.

Marginalia8No priest ought to beg any thing.

Marginalia9Aulmes is to be geuen vnto suche as are lame, feble, & sicke, or that haue bene spoyled.

Marginalia10The crosse wherupon Christ died, is not to be worshipped.

Marginalia11Euery place is as fit for prayer as an other.

Marginalia12They doo against the lawe whiche burne men.

William Sautrey.

Marginalia1400.IN lyke maner in the yeare of our Lorde M. iiii.C. As Fabiā writeth during the persecution of Wicklieffe, we doo vnderstande that one William Sautrey was put to death, of whose innocentie & other good giftes, it is not nedefull to speake muche, for that the matter it selfe doth sufficiently declare what maner of mā he was. This man being a priest, and as it semed altogether inflamed with the zeale of true Religion, required in the Parliament that he might bee hearde for the commoditie and profit of the whole Realme. Suerly his request was very honest, and peraduenture would haue bene no lesse profitable vnto the whole Realme, if he might haue bene heard. But the matter being before smelt of the Byshoppes, they obtained that the matter should be put to their hearing and iudgementes, by whom at the last he was

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