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51 [51]

to the Emperour, & he other letted at that time could not come, armed his soldiers, thinking to inuade them ether to destroy them in their Senat house. But this cōming to their knowledge before, the people was all in array, and somuche adoo amongst them. Pope Lucius being also amongst thē in the fight, well pelted with stones and blowes liued not long after. MarginaliaAn. 1145. Spirituall excommunication abused in tēporall causes.Likewyse pope Eugenius after him An. M. Cxlv. pursewing þe Romanes for the same matter, first did curs thē wt excōmunciation. After whē he saw that wold not serue, came with his host. And so compelled them at length to seake his peace, & to take his conditions: which were these, that they shulde abolish their consulls, & take suche Senators, as he by his papale authorititie, should assigne thē.

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Then folowed Anastasius. iiii, and after hym MarginaliaAn. 1154 Hadrianus a Pope an Englisheman.Hadrianus. iiii. An English man, by his name called Brekespere, belonging once to. S. Albōs. This Hadrian9 kept great stir, in like sorte, with the citisins of Rome, for abolishing their consuls, and Senate: cursing, excommunicating, & warring against them, with all power he could make, to the time he hath remoued the consuls out of their office, and brought them all vnder his subiection.

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MarginaliaFredericus Barbarossa Emperoure.In the meane season Fredericus. i. called Barbarossa, successor to Conradus, marched vp to Italy, to subdue there certaine rebells. 

Commentary  *  Close
Frederick Barbarossa

The legend that Pope Alexander III trod on the neck of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa has no basis in fact. It was first circulated by partisans of Alexander III and it was widely repeated throughout the Middle Ages. It was seized upon by the Protestants and joined the humiliation of Emperor Henry IV at Canossa as a classic example of the overweening pretensions of of the papacy to secular jurisdiction. Foxe's account of Barbarossa first appeared in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without change in subsequent editions. Apart from Barbarossa's letter to his subjects, proclaiming his authority to be superior to that of Pope Hadrian IV - and which comes from Matthias Flacius, Catalogus testium veritatis (Strausbourg, 1562), pp. 247-9 - this entire account is taken from John Bale, Catalogus, pp. 178-80 and 200-2.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

The pope hearing that, came with his cleargi, to mete him by the way, in a towne called Sutrium, thinking by him to find ayde against his enemies. MarginaliaThe Pope displeased, that themperoure did not holde his right stirrup:Themperour seyng the Bishop, lighteth of hys horse, to receyue him, holding the stirup to the prelate, on the left side, whan he should holde it on the right: wherat the pope shewed him selfe somwhat agreued. Themperour smiling excuseth him selfe, that he was neuer accustomed to holde stirups. And seyng it was doone only of good will, and of no dewtie, the les matter to be taken, what side of the horse he helde. MarginaliaThe emperour holdeth the Popes stirup.The nexte day to make amēds again to the bishop: themperour sending for him, receiued him, holding the right stirup to the prelate, and so all the matter was made whole, and he the popes owne whyte sonne againe.

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After this, as they were come in, and sat together, Hadrianus þe Pope beginneth to declare vnto him: MarginaliaThe popes olde practise in setting princes together by the eares.How his awnciters before him, suche as soughte to the sea of Rome, for the crowne, were alwayes wont to leaue behinde them som special token or monument of their beneuolēce, for the obteyning therof: as Carolus magnus in subduing the Lombards: Otho the Berengarians: Lotharius, the Normans. &c. Wherfore required some benefite to proceade likewise from him to the churche of Rome, in restoring againe the countrey of Apulia, to the churche of Rome. whiche thing if he wolde doo, he for his part again, wold doo that whiche apperteined to hymto doo: meaning in geuing him the crowne: For at that time the Popes had so brought themperours, to fetche their crowne at their handes. Frederik with his princes perceyuing, that vnles he wold of his owne proper costes and charges fetch in againe Apulia, out of Duke Williams hands, he could not els speade of þe crowne, was faine to promise to all that the Pope required. And so the next day after was crowned

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This doone, themperour returneth into Germany, to refreshe his army and his other furnitures, for the subduing of Apulia. In the meane while Hadrianus thought him self not to be idle first geueth forthe censures of excommunicatiō, againste William Duke of Apulia. Besides not content with this, sendeth also to Emanuel emperour of Constantinople, incensing his to war against the forsaid William. The Duke perceyuing this, sendeth to the pope for peace, promysing to restore to him what so euer he wolde. MarginaliaWar more gainfull to the Pope then peace. Marginalia War stirred vp by the Pope.But the Pope throughe the malignant counsell of his cardinals, wold graunte to no peace, thinking to get more by warre. The Duke seeing nothing but war, prepareth himself with al expedition to the same. To be brief, making all his power out of Sicilia, he arriueth at Apulia. There putteth Emanuell þe emperour to flight. This donne he proceadeth to the Citie Bonauēture, wher the Pope wt his cardinalles, wer loking for victorie. MarginaliaThe Pope driuen to intreat for peace.He planting there his seyge, so streitly pressed the citie, that the Pope with hys cardinalls wer glad to intreate for peace, which they refused before. The Duke granted to theyr peace vpon certain conditions, þt nether he shuld inuade such possessions as belonged to Rome, & the pope should make him king of bothe Sicills. so the matter concluded, and they departed. The bishop comming to Rome, was no les troubled there about their Consulles and Senators. In so muche that when his curses and excommunications coulde not preuayle nor serue, he was faine to leaue Rome, and remoued to Ariminū.

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The Emperour, all this while, sitting quietly at home, began to considre with him selfe, how the pope had extorted from Emperours his predecessors, the inuesting and induing of prelates. how he had pilled and polled all nations by his Legates, and also haue ben the sower of seditiōs throughe all his Imperie, MarginaliaThe Godly proceadings of Friderick Emperour against the Pope.began therfore to require of all the Bishops of Germany homagiū, and othe of their alleagēce: Commaunding also the popes Legates, yf they came into Germany, without his sending for, not to be receyued: Charging moreouer all his subiectes, that none of them should appeale to Rome. Besides this in his letters he sent and prefixed his name, before the Popes name. Wherupon the Pope beyng not a littell offended directed his letters to the forsaid Friderick Emperoure, after this tenor and forme as foloweth.

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¶ The