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581 [526]

counsel and wisedome.

Also that all Persons, Vicars and clearkes, hauing churches, chappels or mansions within this deanry, shal bestow yerely hereafter vpon the same mansions or chauncels of their churches being in decay, the v. part of that their benefices, til they be fully repaired, and the same so repaired shal alwaies keepe and maintaine in good estate.

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All which and singuler Iniunctions shall be inuiolablye obserued of the said Deane, Parsons, Vicares, Curates, Stipendaries, and other clarks and beneficed men, vnder the pain of suspension, and sequestration of the frutes of their benefices, vntil they haue doone theyr dueties according to these iniunctions.

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Marginalia1537.IN the beginning of this yere, being the yeare of oure Lord 1537. the most noble and worthy ladye Quene Anne Bullen, after that she had by the space of iii. yeares liued Quene, she was caste into the Towre, together with her brother the lord Rochford, and diuers others, which shortly after were executed the xix. day of Maye, in this present yere. 

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Events of 1536-8

This section was added to, and changed significantly, between the 1563 and 1570 editions. The story of the 24 martyrs burned in Paris is attributed to a letter sent to Erasmus by Bartholomew Lani. However no such correspondent is mentioned by .S. Allen, Erasmi Epistolae and it does not appear in the later editions of Erasmus' correspondence either.

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The text of Henry's proclamation 'abolishing the usurped power' of the pope is replaced with the king's protestation against the proposed General Council. The proclamation had been printed in 1535 (A proclamation concerninge heresie (London: Thomas Berthelet - STC 7785) and would have been available to Foxe.

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Foxe's sources for the history of the early reformation in Scotland, which had already appeared in the Rerum (p. 121), are treated in Thomas S. Freeman, 'Fox, Winram and the Martyrs of the Scottish Reformation', Sixteenth Century Journal 27 (1996), pp. 23-46). Here, Freeman explains that Foxe had drawn on Bale's Catalogus and Boece's Scottorum Historia as his main sources. The latter had been translated into English by John Bellenden and published in Edinburgh around 1540. The stories of Queen Anne's last words and of the murder of Robert Packington are taken from Hall (fols 228 and 231).

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David Loades,Honorary Research Fellow,
University of Sheffield

The words of this moost worthy Lady, at the hour of her death wer these.

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MarginaliaThe last wordes of Quene Anne at her deathe.Good christian people, I am come hether to die, for according to the law, and by the law, I am iudged to death, and therfore I will speake nothing against it. I am come hether to accuse no man, nor to speake any thing of that wherof I am accused and condempned to die, but I pray God saue the king, and send him long to raigne ouer you. For a gentiller, or a more merciful Prince was there neuer, and to me, he was euer a good, a gentle and soueraygne Lord, and if anye personne will meddle of my cause, I require them to iudge the best, & thus I take my leaue of the worlde and of you all, and I hartely desire you all to pray for me. O Lord haue mercy on me, to God I commende my soule, and then she kneled downe, sayinge: To Christ I commend my soule, Iesu receiue my soule diuers times, til that her heade was striken of. Which her last words, declared no lesse the sincere faith, and trust that she had in Christe, then her modestye also did vtter the goodnes of her cause and quarell There were in this Quene besides the comelinesse of her forme and beauty, many other giftes of a well instructed minde, as gentlenes, modestye, and piety toward all men, besides a feruent desire in her hart vnto the true and sincere religion, so that during her life, religion happely flourished and went forward. But I knowe not by what vnhappy desteny, it is geuen vnto thys world, that those thinges which are most excellent, are sonest violentlye taken awaye as vnworthy for the world.

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¶ Fiue burnt in Skotland.

MarginaliaMartyrs of SkotlādSEuen yeres after Patrik Hamelton, whose history is before passed, there were v, burnte in Skotland, in the city of Edenborow, being the Metropolitike citye of al Skotlande, of the which fiue two were dominicane Friers, one Priest, one Gentleman, and the fifthe was a channon, whose iudges and inquisitors were these: Ihon Maior, archbishop of S. Androwes Petrus Chappellanus, and the Franciscane friers, whose labor and diligence is neuer wāting in such matters.

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MarginaliaThe murdering of Robert PackingtōIN this yere 

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Packington was murdered on 13 November 1536. Foxe gives the correct year for Packington's death in the Rerum (p. 146), but misdates it to 1537 in his first edition and to 1538 in subsequent editions.

Robert Packington mercer of London, a man of greate substannce 
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The details of Packington's murder was reported, mostly verbatim, from Hall's chronicle (Edward Hall, The unyon of twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York [London, 1550], STC 12723a, fo. 231v). Foxe went further than Hall, however, in identifying the mastermind behind the murder. Where Hall simply blamed the clergy, Foxe accused first Bishop John Stokesley and subsequently Dean Incent of responsibility for the crime.

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, yet not so riche as discreate and honest. This man dwelled in Cheape side, and vsed daily at iiii. of the clocke winter and sommer to go to praier at a church 
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Hall stated that Packington went daily to Mass (Edward Hall, The unyon of twoo noble and illustre families of Lancastre and York [London, 1550], STC 12723a, fo. 231v); Foxe here rewrites this inconvenient passage.

then called S. Thomas of Acres, but nowe named mercers chappell. And one morning amongest all other, being a great mistye morning, suche as hathe seldome beene sene, euen as he was crossinge the streat, from his house to the church, he was sodenly murthered with a gunne, whiche of the neighboures was plainly hard, and by a great noumber of labourers there standinge at Soper lane end, he was both sene go forthe of hys house, and the clappe of the Gonne was harde, but þe dede doer was neuer espied or known. Many wer suspected, but none could be found fauty: how be it truth it is, that for as much as he was knowen to be a man of great courage, and one that could both speake, & also woulde be hard, for at the same time he was one of the Burgesies of the Parliament for the Citye of London, and had talcked somewhat agaynste the couetousnesse and cruelty of the cleargye, wherfore he was had in contempt with them, and most like by one of them thus shamefully murthered. The cause of whose distructyon was one D. Vincent Deane of Poules, who hired a certain straunger for lx. crownes to do the dede 
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In the Rerum (p. 146), Foxe claimed that John Stokesley, the bishop of London, ordered the murder of Packington. In 1563, Foxe amended this to claim that John Incent, the dean of St. Paul's, ordered the murder, adding the detail that the killer was an Italian. In neither case, should it be assumed that Foxe was inventing these details; instead he was almost certainly relating hot gossip about the murder. (Note Foxe's claim that he could produce witnesses in support of his story; see next comment). Yet the fact that there were rumours implicating Stokesley and Incent in Packington's murder does not, of course, make them true. (For the background to the murder see Peter Marshall, 'The Shooting of Robert Packington' in Religious Identities in Henry VIII's England (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 61-79).

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, thinking it to be well doone to make such a man away. But afterward repēted the fact at his death by his confesseon to his ghostly father, as we are creadibly informed by mē, both of great creadit & worshipful estimation.

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Marginalia1538.IN this yere folowing, being the yeare of oure Lorde 1538. the kinges maiestye by his vicegerent the Lord Cromwell, sent out certain Iniunctions vnto the spiritualtye for the reformation of religion, for the maintenaunce of the reading of the Bible in English, for taking downe of Images, with suche other like. The tenor wherof for the worthinesse of the matter, to the praise of the LORD, we thoughte here in these our Commentaryes to expresse.

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¶ Iniunc-