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741 [741]

to one ward, some to an other. Boner of London was committed to the Marshalsee, and eft sones for his comtempt and misdemaner deposed from his bishopprike as in further processe foloweth to be sene, Gardiner bishop of Win. wt Tõstol of Duresme was cast into the towre for his disobedience where he kepte his Christmasse iii. yeres together 

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Stephen Gardiner was imprisoned in the Tower from 30 June 1548 until 3 August 1553.

, more worthy of some other place wythoute the Tower, if it pleased God otherwyse not to haue owen a further plage to thys realm by that manne. But these meke and gentle times of king Edward, haue thys one commendation proper vnto them for that among the whole nomber of the popyshe sort, of whome some priuely did steale oute of the realme, many wer crafty desemblers, some were open and manifest aduersaries, yet of all that multitude, there was not one man that loste hys lyfe. 
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Note that Foxe restricts this to 'papists'; two radical Protestants, Joan Bocher and George van Parris, were burned during Edward VI's reign.

In sūme, during the whole time of the vi. yeres of this king, much tranquility, and as it were a breathing time, was graūted to the whole churche of England: So that the rage of persecution, seasing, & the sword taken out of the aduersaries hande, there was nowe no daunger to the godly, onlesse it were onlye by wealth and prosperity, which many tymes bringeth more domage in corrupting mennes mindes, than any time of persecution or affliction. Briefly duringe al this time, neyther in Smithfield, nor anye other quarter of this realme, any was hard to suffer for anye matter of religion, either Papist or protestant, eyther for one opinion or other 
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Thomas Dobbe

This is one of the rare times when the account Foxe started with in the Rerum ended up being larger than what was printed in any of the editions of the Acts and Monuments. In the Rerum (on p. 201), Foxe gave the account of Thomas Dobbes, which was translated and reprinted in each edition of the Acts and Monuments. But Foxe also printed (on p. 202) brief accounts of the executions of two religious radicals, Joan Bocher and George van Parris, who were executed in 1550 and 1551. He also printed two stories condemning these executions. In the first story, John Rogers, who would become the first Marian martyr, was approached by an unnamed friend (generally assumed by scholars to be Foxe himself) and urged to intercede on behalf of Joan. When Rogers not only refused to intervene, but also defended burning as merciful, given the heinousness of heresy, his friend bitterly (and prophetically) told him that one day he might receive such gentle treatment himself (Rerum, p. 202). Foxe also included an account of Humphrey Middleton, another future Marian martyr, being accused of heresy by Cranmer during Edward VI's reign, and grimly prophesying that Cranmer would one day find himself in a similar position (Rerum, p. 202).

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All of these stories are an indication of the strength of Foxe's aversion to punishing heretics with death. Yet only the account of Thomas Dobbes was reprinted in the Acts and Monuments. (The executions of Joan Bocher and George van Parris are merely mentioned in the Acts and Monuments, see later in Book 9). Foxe was unwilling the surrender the moral high ground by admitting that his martyrs were persecutors themselves. And an admission that Protestants persecuted each other, only served to support the validity of Catholic charges of Protestant disunity. However, Foxe did add one short account to this section, that of John Hume. This, however, did not end in an execution and was thus fairly innocuous.

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Most of Foxe's sources for these persecutions drew on his own experiences or on accounts from informants. However, Foxe's limited knowledge of the case of John Hume, was entirely based on the sparse entry on the case in Cranmer's register.

Thomas S. Freeman

, except onlye two, one an English woman called Ione of Kent, and the other a Dutche man named George: who died for certain Articles straunge and dissonãt from the assertion of the churche, which here I omit to speake of for causes reasonable. 
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These articles included beliefs that Foxe himself regarded as heretical, such as denial of Christ's human nature and denial of the Trinity. Foxe was reluctant to even rehearse such deviant theology.

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MarginaliaThomas Dobbe inprysoned, & in prysonne dyed.Besides these two, there was none els in all king Edwardes raign, þt died in anye manner cause of Religion, but that one Tho. Dobbe, who in the beginninge of this kinges raygne was apprehended for speaking against the Idolatrye of the masse, and in the same prison died, as in story here ensueth to be sene. 

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Foxe first printed this account of Thomas Dobbe in the Rerum (p. 201), which means that he obtained this account during his exile. The account, which must have been received from a informant, is rather puzzling. Two of the individuals named (John Taylor and Roger Hutchinson) were prominent evangelicals and are very unlikely to have objected to Dobbe's wishing to marry. Perhaps there were other, more personal reasons, for Dobbe's bad relations with the other fellows. Perhaps Dobbe's religious beliefs were more radical than Foxe describes. In any case, it would seem there is more to this story.

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This Thomas Dobbe beinge a student and a master of Art in Cambridge, was brought vp in the Colledge, called s. Ihons Colledge, and fellow of the same. Where he increased in the study of good letters, among his equales very forward, of nature and disposition, simple and modest, of zeale toward God feruent, pacyent in iniuries, iniurious to no man, of much lyke sort & condition, as is in Doues, which wythout all bitternesse of gall, are more apte to receiue iniury, than to worke wrong to any. MarginaliaDoues as Philosophers natural do wryt haue no gall.At length this godly man intendinge wyth hym self, and addicting his minde to the Chrysten state of matrimony, resorted to a certen maidē not farre of where he dwelte. For the whyche cause he was greatly molested, and wyckedlyabused by iii. of þe Colledge, whose names wer Hutchinson, Pīdare, and Tailer, who wt their malitious handeling, scornful dealing, opprobries, rebukes, and cõtumelies in so much vexed the vertuous simplicity of the man, & neuer left him, til at lēgth they wearied him oute of the Colledge. Who there hauinge no rest nor quyetnesse, by reason of the vnreasonable and virulent hãdling of his aduersaryes, was driuen to forsake the house, and seeke some other place to sattle him self. Vpon thoccasion wher of comminge vp to London, it chaunced hym to passe through the church of Paules, wheras it happened, at the Southside of the church at the same time, there was a priest at Masse more busy then well occupied, being at the eleuation, as he passed by. The yonge manne repleat with godly zeale, pitying the ignoraunce and Idolatry of the people in honoringe that so deuoutly, which the Priest lifte vp, was not able to forbear, but opening his mouth, & turning to the people, exhorted them not to honor that visible bread as God, which neither was God, nor yet ordained of god to be honored &c. wyth such other wordes mo of Christen information. For whych cause straightway he was apprehended by the Mayre. And after accused to the bishop of Canterburye was committed to the counter then in Breadstreate, where he not long continued, but falling into a sycknes how or whervpon I can not tell, shortly vpon the same chaunged this mortal lyfe. Whose pardon notwithstanding was obtained of the Lord Protector by Ione aforenamed, & should haue bene brought him, if he had continued. And thus much concerninge Thomas Dobbe and other.

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THese thinges premissed, now seing we are come to King Edwards time, keping thorder of yeares so nye as we may, fyrste we wyll begin with his iniunctions mooste godlye and Christenly sette out by hym in the fyrste yeare of hys raygne, for the redresse of religion, the tenor and copy wherof here followeth.

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But before we enter ther vnto, because in þe beginning of the said Iniunctions mention is made of certē iniūctiõs of king Hēry his father concerning the abolishing of Images, & referreth vs to the same, therfore for the better opening of the matter, it shall not be out of the purpose, here by the way to infer the copy therof, although not of the same iniunctiõs set out at large by act of parliament (which wold be to lõg) yet a certē draught therof which the sayd kyng directed vnto Boner for thabolishing of the same, whervnto the hand & consent of the said Bishop is also annexed, wherby it maye appeare, what he was contente to doo than, howsoeuer his doing is now to the contrary.

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The copy & effect of a certen leter or mãdat directed by king Henry the viii. to Boner, concerning the extinguishing of idolatry, & abolishing of images out of churches.
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