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Thematic Divisions in Book 5
1. Preface to Rubric 2. The Rubric 3. Mary's First Moves 4. The Inhibition5. Bourne's Sermon 6. The True Report7. The Precept to Bonner 8. Anno 15549. From 'The Communication' to 'A Monition' 10. Bonner's Monition11. Mary's Articles for Bonner 12. The Articles 13. From Mary's Proclamation to the 'Stile'14. From the 'Stile' to the 'Communication' 15. The 'Communication' 16. How Thomas Cranmer ... 17. Cranmer18. Ridley 19. Latimer20. Harpsfield's Forme 21. 1563's Disputational Digest22. Political Events up to Suffolk's Death 23. Between Mantell and the Preacher's Declaration 24. The Declaration of Bradford et al 25. May 19 to August 1 26. August 1 - September 3 27. From Bonner's Mandate to Pole's Oration 28. Winchester's Sermon to Bonner's Visitation 29. Pole's Oration 30. From the Supplication to Gardiner's Sermon 31. From Gardiner's Sermon to 1555 32. From the Arrest of Rose to Hooper's Letter 33. Hooper's Answer and Letter 34. To the End of Book X 35. The Martyrdom of Rogers 36. The Martyrdom of Saunders 37. Saunders' Letters 38. Hooper's Martyrdom 39. Hooper's Letters 40. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 41. Becket's Image and other events 42. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 43. Bonner and Reconciliation 44. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 45. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 46. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White47. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 48. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 49. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 50. Judge Hales 51. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 52. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 53. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 54. The Letters of George Marsh 55. The Martyrdom of William Flower 56. Mary's False Pregnancy57. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 58. John Tooly 59. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]60. Censorship Proclamation 61. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 62. Letters of Haukes 63. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 64. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain65. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 66. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 67. Bradford's Letters 68. William Minge 69. The Martyrdom of John Bland 70. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 71. Sheterden's Letters 72. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 73. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 74. John Aleworth 75. Martyrdom of James Abbes 76. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 77. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 78. Richard Hooke 79. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 80. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 81. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 82. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 83. Martyrdom of William Haile 84. Examination of John Newman 85. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 86. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 87. William Andrew 88. William Allen 89. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 90. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 91. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 92. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 93. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 94. John and William Glover 95. Cornelius Bungey 96. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 97. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 98. Ridley and Latimer's Conference 99. Ridley's Letters 100. Life of Hugh Latimer 101. Latimer's Letters 102. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed103. More Letters of Ridley 104. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 105. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 106. William Wiseman 107. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 108. John Went 109. Isobel Foster 110. Joan Lashford 111. Five Canterbury Martyrs 112. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 113. Letters of Cranmer 114. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 115. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 116. William Tyms, et al 117. The Norfolk Supplication 118. Letters of Tyms 119. John Hullier's Execution120. John Hullier 121. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 122. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 123. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 124. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 125. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 126. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 127. Thomas Rede128. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 129. William Slech 130. Avington Read, et al 131. Wood and Miles 132. Adherall and Clement 133. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 134. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow135. Persecution in Lichfield 136. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 137. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 138. John Careless 139. Letters of John Careless 140. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 141. Guernsey Martyrdoms 142. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 143. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 144. Three Men of Bristol145. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 146. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 147. John Horne and a woman 148. Northampton Shoemaker 149. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 150. More Persecution at Lichfield 151. Exhumations of Bucer and Phagius along with Peter Martyr's Wife152. Pole's Visitation Articles for Kent153. Ten Martyrs Burnt at Canterbury154. The 'Bloody Commission'155. Twenty-two Prisoners from Colchester156. Five Burnt at Smithfield157. Stephen Gratwick and others158. Edmund Allen and other martyrs159. Edmund Allen160. Alice Benden and other martyrs161. Richard Woodman and nine other martyrs162. Ambrose163. The Martyrdom of Simon Miller and Elizabeth Cooper164. Rose Allin and nine other Colchester Martyrs165. John Thurston166. Thomas More167. George Eagles168. Richard Crashfield169. Fryer and George Eagles' sister170. John Kurde171. Cicelye Ormes172. Joyce Lewes173. Rafe Allerton and others174. Agnes Bongeor and Margaret Thurston175. Persecution at Lichfield176. Persecution at Chichester177. Thomas Spurdance178. Hallingdale, Sparrow and Gibson179. John Rough and Margaret Mearing180. Cuthbert Simson181. William Nicholl182. Seaman, Carman and Hudson183. Three at Colchester184. A Royal Proclamation185. Roger Holland and other Islington martyrs186. Richard Yeoman187. John Alcocke188. Alcocke's Epistles189. Thomas Benbridge190. Stephen Cotton and other martyrs191. Alexander Gouch and Alice Driver192. Three at Bury193. The Final Five Martyrs194. William Living195. The King's Brief196. William Browne197. Some Persecuted at Suffolk198. Elizabeth Lawson199. Edward Grew200. The Persecuted of Norfolk201. The Persecuted of Essex202. Thomas Bryce203. The Persecuted in Kent204. The Persecuted in Coventry and the Exiles205. Thomas Parkinson206. The Scourged: Introduction207. Richard Wilmot and Thomas Fairfax208. Thomas Greene209. Bartlett Greene and Cotton210. Steven Cotton's Letter211. Scourging of John Milles212. Scourging of Thomas Hinshaw213. Robert Williams214. Bonner's Beating of Boys215. A Beggar of Salisbury216. John Fetty217. James Harris218. Providences: Introduction219. The Miraculously Preserved220. Christenmas and Wattes221. Simon Grinaeus222. John Glover223. Dabney224. Alexander Wimshurst225. Bosom's wife226. The Delivery of Moyse227. Lady Knevet228. Crosman's wife229. Congregation at Stoke in Suffolk230. Congregation of London231. Robert Cole232. Englishmen at Calais233. John Hunt and Richard White234. Punishments of Persecutors235. Tome 6 Life and Preservation of the Lady Elizabeth236. The Westminster Conference237. Nicholas Burton238. Another Martyrdom in Spain239. Baker and Burgate240. Burges and Hoker241. Justice Nine-Holes242. Back to the Appendix notes243. A Poor Woman of Exeter244. Those Burnt at Bristol: extra material245. Priest's Wife of Exeter246. Gertrude Crockhey
Critical Apparatus for this Page
Commentary on the Glosses
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959 [(870)]

MarginaliaConclusion.Ergo the doctrine and institution of the Masse boke tēdeth contrary to Gods holy commaundementes.

An other reason against the Masse.

Item, where saint Paule in expresse wordes wylleth all thynges to bee done in an edifyinge tong, the masse is celebrate in a tong forreyne, straunge, and vnknowen to the people, so that although the matter therin conteigned wer holsome, and consonant to scripture (as muche as disagreing from thesame) yet for the strangenes of the tongue, it geueth but a sound, & worketh no edifying to the ignorant. Now both þe tonge being strange to the eares of the people, and the matter also in the Masse conteined being repugnaunt to Gods woorde, what defence can the masse haue, but vtterly it is to be reiected?

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And forsomuch therfore, as the masse so long vsed in a forreyn lāguage hath not hitherto com to the vnderstanding of the simple and vulgare sort, to thentent they may themselues perceyue the matter, and be their owne iudges, I haue here set foorth the chefest part therof (whiche is the Canon) in English, so as I found it in a certain written copy, by maister Couerdale translated, adioyning withall the Rubricke and circūstaunce of the same in euerye pointe, as is in the Masse booke conteyned.

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* The whole Canon of the Masse with the Rubrick therof, as it standeth in the Massebooke after Salisbury vse, translated woorde by worde oute of Laten into Englyshe.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
The Rubric

Foxe mounts attacks on the catholic eucharistic rite from the margin here. His attacks combine his belief that the mass at one level was nothing more than absurd playacting (and therefore to be mocked) with the recognition that as such it constituted a terrible insult to God (and was therefore to be condemned and scorned). One way in which the marginal glosses insinuate the emptiness of the mass is by comments which emphasise the contingency of various ritual actions. Thus, Foxe asks why so many as five crosses are used at this stage, the implication being that there is no good reason why fewer or more might not be used: comments such as this help to establish Foxe's view of the mass as a free-floating tradition, ungrounded in scripture and subject to the willful alterations of men. Elsewhere Foxe notes that no good reason is given for a particular ritual action. Actions divorced from their professed purpose can be characterised ironically as playacting, and Foxe exploits this possiblilty, using the term 'mumming' at one point; he also mentions 'fond trickes and iuggling gestures. One gloss points to the falseness of the emotion displayed by the priest with the sarcastic comment 'Down greate harte'. Foxe comments that the priest's actions towards the host are motivated by the fact that it would soon be 'his God'. Other glosses support the case against such actions by showing how the rite deviates from scripture and constitutes a denial of the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Thus, Foxe attacks the rite for not including prayer for one's enemies and the lack of scriptural sanction for the priest taking the sacrament alone.

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The strongest point Foxe makes against the mass is that it takes away the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Foxe describes a reference to the merits of the saints as leaving Christ 'defaced'; the word 'defaced' is used again; attacks the blessing of the host and insists on the unique nature of the sacrifice of Christ. Other types of gloss help to buttress these ideas, as with those glosses which give worldly motives for the mass, thereby confirming its base preoccupations and attacking its claims to spiritual purpose, as in the gloss 'That metall clinketh well'. Another set of glosses make clear Foxe's view that the only good religious action is one which edifies and educates Christians (called at one point 'scholers of his [God's] heauenly schoole', where God is called a 'scholemaister'), hence his comment at the point in the rite where the priest speaks inaudibly, 'Least the people be edified'.

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Much of the second half of Foxe's demolition of the mass is concerned with stressing the contingency of the various bits of the mass by describing the long historical process through which different elements were added. The margins are filled with patristic, liturgical, historical, conciliar and canonical references. These indicate that Foxe has done his research on this crucial matter and also help to convey the impression that the mass is an untidy melange of different traditions and snippets. It is doubtless for polemical effect that the very last reference refers to transubstantiation, emphasising the doctrine's relative novelty. As with the previous section, only 1563 and 1583 include this material, and it would seem that 1583 has followed 1563 closely in the glosses.

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MarginaliaThe Rubrick.AFter the Sanctus, the priest immediately ioyning his handes together, and liftyng vp his eyes, beginneth these wordes: Te igitur clementissime &c. that is to say.

Therefore moste gratious father, thorow Iesus Christ thy sonne our Lord, we humbly besech thee,

Let hym bowe downe his body, while he sayth:

And we desire

Here the priest standyng vpryght. muste kysse the altar ( Marginaliaa And why not on the left hand aswel? or why any such kissing at all?a) on the ryght hand of the sacrifice saying:

that thou accept and blesse,

Here let the priest make thre crosses vpon the chalice and the bread, saying:

these † giftes these † ( Marginaliab Precious no doubt & principall: or els art thou to presūptuous, that hast alredy offered it vp for thy sinnes & for the saluation of others.b) presentes: these † holye and vnspotted sacrifices.

When the sygnes are made vpon the chalice, let him lift vp his handes, saying thus:

Which first of al ( Marginaliac Who gaue you that commission? will you offer bred and wine for the church of christ, who of very loue hath offred vp himself for it alredy? Ephes. 5.c) we offer vnto the for thy holy Catholike church: that thou vouchsafe to pacify, kepe, vnite, and gouerne it, through out the whole world: with thy seruant our Pope. N. & our Bishop. N.

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That is ( Marginaliad Charitie wold pray for others also.d) his owne Bishop onely.

and our kyng. N.

And they are expressed by name.

Then let there folowe.

and all true beleuers, and suche as haue the catholike and apostolike faith in due estimation.

Here let him pray for the liuyng.

Remember Lorde thy seruauntes and handemaydes. N. and. N.

In the whiche prayer, a rule must be obserued, for the order of charitye. Fyue tymes let the priestes praye. ( Marginaliaa So dyd not the lord teach his disciples to pray. Mat. 6 Luc. 11a) Fyrst for hymself. Secondly for father and mother, carnall and spirituall, and for other parentes. Thirdly, for speciall frendes, parishioners and others: Fourthlye, for all that stande by. Fifthlye, for all Christen people. And here may the priest cōmende all ( Marginaliab and why not his enemies also? Math. 5b) his frēds to god.

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But my counsayll is, that none make ouer longe tarieng there partly for distractiō of mind: partly because of immissions which maye chaunce thorow euil aungelles: And all that stand here by round about, whose fayth and deuocion, vnto the is knowen and manyfest: for whom we offre vnto the, or which them selues offre vnto the, this sacrifice ( Marginaliac Why make ye then a satisfactory sacrifice of it?c) of prayse, for them and theirs: for the redemption of theyr soules, for the hope of theyr saluacion, and health. and rendre theyr vowes vnto thee the eternall lyuing and true god.

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Communicating and worshypping the memoriall, fyrst ( Marginaliad If ye hadde the Lordes matter in hād ye would do it in remembrāce of him.d) of the glorious and euer virgyn

Bowing downe a little, let hym saye.

Mary the mother of our god and lorde Iesu Christ, and also of thy blessed Apostles and martyres, Peter, Paul, Andrew, Iames, Ihon, Thomas, Phillipe, Bartilmewe, Mathew, Symon and Tadeus, Timis, Cletus, Clemens, Sextus, Cornelius, Ciprianus, Laurence, Chrisogonus, Ihon & Paule, Cosme and Damian: and of all thy saynts: By whose ( Marginaliae Thus the merites and praiers of Christ are defaced.e) merytes and prayers, graunt thou, that in all thynges we maye be defended with the help of thy protection thorow the same christ our Lord Amen.

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Here let the prest behold the hoste ( Marginaliaa And why? for within a litle whyle, he loketh to haue it his God.a) with great veneracion, sayeng.

Therfore lorde we besech the, that thou being pacified, wilt receaue this oblacion of our bond seruice and of all thy houshold: and order our dayes in thy peace, and commaund vs to be delyuered from eternall damnacion, and to be nombred in the flocke of thyne elect, thorow Christ our Lord, amen.

Here agayne, let him ( Marginaliab That muste he do with a sower and frouning coūtenance, if he folow the cautels of the masse.b) beholde the hoost, sainge

Which oblacion we besech o allmighty god in all thinges to make

Here let hym make ( Marginaliac Yea thre at the least: for this geer must be cōiured as wel as other thinges: least whan they thinke Christ to be naturally present, the deuill be ther, & take vp the lodging aforec) thre crosses vpon both, whan he sayth:

† Blessed: † appoynted: † ratified: reasonable and acceptable: that vnto vs it may be

Here let him make a crosse vpon the bread, saying:

† The body.

Here vppon the chalice.

And † bloud.

Here with handes ioyned to gether, let him saye.

Of thy most dearly beloued sonne our Lorde Iesu Christ.

Here let the priest lifte vp hys handes, and ioyne them together, and afterwarde wype hys fyngers, and lyfte vp the host, saying.

Who ( Marginaliad The scripture saith: Ea nocte the same nyghte.d) the next day afore he suffred, toke bread into his holy and reuerent handes: and hys eyes beyng lift vp into heauen

Here let hym lift vp his eyes.

Vnto the God almighty his father.

Here let hym bowe downe, and after warde erect hym selfe vp a little sayeng.

Rendring thankes vnto the, he † blessed, he brake

Here let hym touch the hoost, sayng:

And gaue vnto hys disciples saying: ( Marginaliae He saith not let one of you take and eate it himself alone.e) take ye, & ( Marginaliaf He saith not hang it vp, kepe it, worship it &c.f) eate of thys ye al ( Marginaliag Enim, haue they put in of theyr own and lefte out quod pro vobis daturg) for thys is my body.

And these wordes must be pronounced with one breth, and vnder one prolacion, without making of any pause betwene. After these wordes, let hym bow hym selfe to the hoost, and afterward lyfte it vp aboue hys forehead that it maye be ( Marginaliah Yf it were the true sacramentall bred of the body of the Lorde it should be taken and eaten, and not lift vp to be gased vpon.h) sene of the people: and let him reuerently laye it agayne before the chalice, in maner of a crosse made with the same, and then let hym vncouer the chalyce, and hold it betwene hys handes, not putting hys thomme and forefynger asunder, saue onelye whan he blesseth, sayng thus.

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Likewise
LLl.ii.