MarginaliaConclusion.Ergo the doctrine and institution of the Masse boke tēdeth contrary to Gods holy commaundementes.
Item, where saint Paule in expresse wordes wylleth all thynges to bee done in an edifyinge tong, the masse is celebrate in a tong forreyne, straunge, and vnknowen to the people, so that although the matter therin conteigned wer holsome, and consonant to scripture (as muche as disagreing from thesame) yet for the strangenes of the tongue, it geueth but a sound, & worketh no edifying to the ignorant. Now both þe tonge being strange to the eares of the people, and the matter also in the Masse conteined being repugnaunt to Gods woorde, what defence can the masse haue, but vtterly it is to be reiected?[Back to Top]
And forsomuch therfore, as the masse so long vsed in a forreyn lāguage hath not hitherto com to the vnderstanding of the simple and vulgare sort, to thentent they may themselues perceyue the matter, and be their owne iudges, I haue here set foorth the chefest part therof (whiche is the Canon) in English, so as I found it in a certain written copy, by maister Couerdale translated, adioyning withall the Rubricke and circūstaunce of the same in euerye pointe, as is in the Masse booke conteyned.[Back to Top]
Foxe mounts attacks on the catholic eucharistic rite from the margin here. His attacks combine his belief that the mass at one level was nothing more than absurd playacting (and therefore to be mocked) with the recognition that as such it constituted a terrible insult to God (and was therefore to be condemned and scorned). One way in which the marginal glosses insinuate the emptiness of the mass is by comments which emphasise the contingency of various ritual actions. Thus, Foxe asks why so many as five crosses are used at this stage, the implication being that there is no good reason why fewer or more might not be used: comments such as this help to establish Foxe's view of the mass as a free-floating tradition, ungrounded in scripture and subject to the willful alterations of men. Elsewhere Foxe notes that no good reason is given for a particular ritual action. Actions divorced from their professed purpose can be characterised ironically as playacting, and Foxe exploits this possiblilty, using the term 'mumming' at one point; he also mentions 'fond trickes and iuggling gestures. One gloss points to the falseness of the emotion displayed by the priest with the sarcastic comment 'Down greate harte'. Foxe comments that the priest's actions towards the host are motivated by the fact that it would soon be 'his God'. Other glosses support the case against such actions by showing how the rite deviates from scripture and constitutes a denial of the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Thus, Foxe attacks the rite for not including prayer for one's enemies and the lack of scriptural sanction for the priest taking the sacrament alone.[Back to Top]
The strongest point Foxe makes against the mass is that it takes away the sufficiency of Christ's sacrifice. Foxe describes a reference to the merits of the saints as leaving Christ 'defaced'; the word 'defaced' is used again; attacks the blessing of the host and insists on the unique nature of the sacrifice of Christ. Other types of gloss help to buttress these ideas, as with those glosses which give worldly motives for the mass, thereby confirming its base preoccupations and attacking its claims to spiritual purpose, as in the gloss 'That metall clinketh well'. Another set of glosses make clear Foxe's view that the only good religious action is one which edifies and educates Christians (called at one point 'scholers of his [God's] heauenly schoole', where God is called a 'scholemaister'), hence his comment at the point in the rite where the priest speaks inaudibly, 'Least the people be edified'.[Back to Top]
Much of the second half of Foxe's demolition of the mass is concerned with stressing the contingency of the various bits of the mass by describing the long historical process through which different elements were added. The margins are filled with patristic, liturgical, historical, conciliar and canonical references. These indicate that Foxe has done his research on this crucial matter and also help to convey the impression that the mass is an untidy melange of different traditions and snippets. It is doubtless for polemical effect that the very last reference refers to transubstantiation, emphasising the doctrine's relative novelty. As with the previous section, only 1563 and 1583 include this material, and it would seem that 1583 has followed 1563 closely in the glosses.[Back to Top]
Therefore moste gratious father, thorow Iesus Christ thy sonne our Lord, we humbly besech thee,
Let hym bowe downe his body, while he sayth:
And we desire
Here the priest standyng vpryght. muste kysse the altar ( Marginaliaa And why not on the left hand aswel? or why any such kissing at all?a) on the ryght hand of the sacrifice saying:
that thou accept and blesse,
Here let the priest make thre crosses vpon the chalice and the bread, saying:
these † giftes these † ( Marginaliab Precious no doubt & principall: or els art thou to presūptuous, that hast alredy offered it vp for thy sinnes & for the saluation of others.b) presentes: these † holye and vnspotted sacrifices.
When the sygnes are made vpon the chalice, let him lift vp his handes, saying thus:
Which first of al ( Marginaliac Who gaue you that commission? will you offer bred and wine for the church of christ, who of very loue hath offred vp himself for it alredy? Ephes. 5.c) we offer vnto the for thy holy Catholike church: that thou vouchsafe to pacify, kepe, vnite, and gouerne it, through out the whole world: with thy seruant our Pope. N. & our Bishop. N.[Back to Top]
That is ( Marginaliad Charitie wold pray for others also.d) his owne Bishop onely.
and our kyng. N.
And they are expressed by name.
Then let there folowe.
and all true beleuers, and suche as haue the catholike and apostolike faith in due estimation.
Here let him pray for the liuyng.
Remember Lorde thy seruauntes and handemaydes. N. and. N.
In the whiche prayer, a rule must be obserued, for the order of charitye. Fyue tymes let the priestes praye. ( Marginaliaa So dyd not the lord teach his disciples to pray. Mat. 6 Luc. 11a) Fyrst for hymself. Secondly for father and mother, carnall and spirituall, and for other parentes. Thirdly, for speciall frendes, parishioners and others: Fourthlye, for all that stande by. Fifthlye, for all Christen people. And here may the priest cōmende all ( Marginaliab and why not his enemies also? Math. 5b) his frēds to god.[Back to Top]
But my counsayll is, that none make ouer longe tarieng there partly for distractiō of mind: partly because of immissions which maye chaunce thorow euil aungelles: And all that stand here by round about, whose fayth and deuocion, vnto the is knowen and manyfest: for whom we offre vnto the, or which them selues offre vnto the, this sacrifice ( Marginaliac Why make ye then a satisfactory sacrifice of it?c) of prayse, for them and theirs: for the redemption of theyr soules, for the hope of theyr saluacion, and health. and rendre theyr vowes vnto thee the eternall lyuing and true god.[Back to Top]
Communicating and worshypping the memoriall, fyrst ( Marginaliad If ye hadde the Lordes matter in hād ye would do it in remembrāce of him.d) of the glorious and euer virgyn
Bowing downe a little, let hym saye.
Mary the mother of our god and lorde Iesu Christ, and also of thy blessed Apostles and martyres, Peter, Paul, Andrew, Iames, Ihon, Thomas, Phillipe, Bartilmewe, Mathew, Symon and Tadeus, Timis, Cletus, Clemens, Sextus, Cornelius, Ciprianus, Laurence, Chrisogonus, Ihon & Paule, Cosme and Damian: and of all thy saynts: By whose ( Marginaliae Thus the merites and praiers of Christ are defaced.e) merytes and prayers, graunt thou, that in all thynges we maye be defended with the help of thy protection thorow the same christ our Lord Amen.[Back to Top]
Here let the prest behold the hoste ( Marginaliaa And why? for within a litle whyle, he loketh to haue it his God.a) with great veneracion, sayeng.
Therfore lorde we besech the, that thou being pacified, wilt receaue this oblacion of our bond seruice and of all thy houshold: and order our dayes in thy peace, and commaund vs to be delyuered from eternall damnacion, and to be nombred in the flocke of thyne elect, thorow Christ our Lord, amen.
Here agayne, let him ( Marginaliab That muste he do with a sower and frouning coūtenance, if he folow the cautels of the masse.b) beholde the hoost, sainge
Which oblacion we besech o allmighty god in all thinges to make
Here let hym make ( Marginaliac Yea thre at the least: for this geer must be cōiured as wel as other thinges: least whan they thinke Christ to be naturally present, the deuill be ther, & take vp the lodging aforec) thre crosses vpon both, whan he sayth:
† Blessed: † appoynted: † ratified: reasonable and acceptable: that vnto vs it may be
Here let him make a crosse vpon the bread, saying:
† The body.
Here vppon the chalice.
And † bloud.
Here with handes ioyned to gether, let him saye.
Of thy most dearly beloued sonne our Lorde Iesu Christ.
Here let the priest lifte vp hys handes, and ioyne them together, and afterwarde wype hys fyngers, and lyfte vp the host, saying.
Who ( Marginaliad The scripture saith: Ea nocte the same nyghte.d) the next day afore he suffred, toke bread into his holy and reuerent handes: and hys eyes beyng lift vp into heauen
Here let hym lift vp his eyes.
Vnto the God almighty his father.
Here let hym bowe downe, and after warde erect hym selfe vp a little sayeng.
Rendring thankes vnto the, he † blessed, he brake
Here let hym touch the hoost, sayng:
And gaue vnto hys disciples saying: ( Marginaliae He saith not let one of you take and eate it himself alone.e) take ye, & ( Marginaliaf He saith not hang it vp, kepe it, worship it &c.f) eate of thys ye al ( Marginaliag Enim, haue they put in of theyr own and lefte out quod pro vobis daturg) for thys is my body.
And these wordes must be pronounced with one breth, and vnder one prolacion, without making of any pause betwene. After these wordes, let hym bow hym selfe to the hoost, and afterward lyfte it vp aboue hys forehead that it maye be ( Marginaliah Yf it were the true sacramentall bred of the body of the Lorde it should be taken and eaten, and not lift vp to be gased vpon.h) sene of the people: and let him reuerently laye it agayne before the chalice, in maner of a crosse made with the same, and then let hym vncouer the chalyce, and hold it betwene hys handes, not putting hys thomme and forefynger asunder, saue onelye whan he blesseth, sayng thus.[Back to Top]