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K. Henry. 5. The trouble and persecution of the Lord Cobham.

ding further. First hauing faithful report made vnto vs, that he could not be apprehended by personall citatiō, we decreed to cite hym by an edict to be openly set vp in the porches of the cathedrall churche of Rochester next vnto hym, litle more then iij. Englishe miles distant from the said castell of Cowling. As we had thus caused him to be cited, and our edict aforesayd to be publikely and openly set vpon the porches of the sayd churche, that he shoulde personally appeare before vs the xi. day of Septēber last past to aunswere vnto the premisses, and certayne other thinges concerning heresie: The whiche day being come, wee sitting in our tribunall seat in our greater chappell within the castell of Leedis of our dioces, the whiche we then inhabited, and where as we then kept residēce with our court, and hauing taken an othe which is requisite in the premisses, and the information by vs hard and receiued, as the common report goeth: MarginaliaThe keyes of the church falsly wrasted.In the partes wheras the sayd sir Iohn dwelleth (fortifying him selfe in his said Castell, defending his opinions manifoldly, contemning the keyes of the church, and the archbishops power.) MarginaliaThe Lord Cobham excommunicated.We therfore caused the sayd sir Iohn cited, as is aforesayd, to be openly with a loud voice called by the crier: & so being called, long looked for, and by no meanes appearyng, we iudged him (as he was no les worthy) obstinate, and for punishment of his sayd obstinacy, we did then and there excommunicate hym. And for so much as by the order of the premisses, and other euident tokens of his doynges, we vnderstād that the said sir Iohn for the defence of his errour, doth fortifie him selfe, as is aforesayd agaynst the keyes of the churche, by pretence wherof a vehement suspicion of heresie and schisme riseth against him: We haue decreed if he may be apprehēded, again personally to cite hym, or els as before by an edict that hee should appeare before vs the Saterday next after the feast of S. Mathew the Apostle and Euangelist next comming, to shew some reasonable cause if he can, why we should not procede against him, or more greuous punishment, as an open hereticke, schismatike & opē enemy of the vniuersal church. And personally to declare why he should not be pronounced such a one, or þt the aide of þe secular power should not be solēnly required against him. And further to answere, do, and receiue as touching the premisses, what soeuer iustice shall require. The whiche tyme beyng come, that is to say þe Saterday next after the feast of s. Mathew being the xxiij. day of September, syr Robert Morley knight, Lieuetenaunt of the tower of Lōdon appeared personally before vs, sitting in the chapter house of the church of S. Paul at London, with our reuerent felow brethren & Lordes, Richard by the grace of God bishop of London, and Henry byshop of Winchester: and brought with him sir Iohn Oldcastell knight & set him before vs MarginaliaThe L. Cobhā cast into the Tower.(for a litle before he was taken by the kynges seruaunts and cast in to the tower) vnto which sir Ihon Oldcastle so personally present, wee rehearsed all the order of the proces, as it is cōtayned in þe actes of the day before passed with good and modest wordes & gentle meanes. MarginaliaThe teres of the Crocodile.That is to say, how he the sayd sir Ihon was detected and accused, in the conuocation of the prelates and clergy of our sayd prouince, as is aforesayd vpon the articles before rehearsed, & how he was cited, and for his cōtumacy excommunicate. MarginaliaPopishe absolution neglected.And when we were come to that point we offered our selues ready to absolue him. Notwithstāding the said sir Ihon, not regardyng our offer sayd, that hee would willyngly rehearse before vs, and my sayd felow brethren, the fayth whiche he held and affirmed. So he hauing desire and obtained licence, he tooke out of his bosome a certeine Scedule indented, and there openly read the contentes of the same, and deliuered the same Scedule vnto vs, and the Scedule of the articles, whereupon he was examined, whiche was as in forme folowyng

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The catholike fayth and confession of the Lord Cobham

I Iohn Oldcastle knight, Lord of Cobham, desire to make manifest vnto all christians, and God to be taken to witnes, that I neuer thought otherwise or would thinke otherwise (by Gods helpe) then with a stedfast & vndoubted fayth to embrace all those his sacraments which he hath instituted for the vse of his churche.

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Furthermore that I may the more playnly declare my mind in these. iiii. points of my fayth: MarginaliaThe sacrament of the aultar.First of all I beleue the sacrament of thaltare to be the body of Christ vnder the forme of bread the very same body whiche was borne of his mother Marye, Crucefied for vs, dead and buried, rose agayne the third day, sitteth on the righthand of his immortall father, now beinge a triumphant partaker with him of his eternall glory. MarginaliaOf penaunce.Then as touching the sacrament of penance this is my beliefe, that I do thinke the correction of a sinfull life to be most necessary for all such as desire to be saued, and that they ought to take vpon them such repentance of their formerlife by true confession, vnfained contrition, and lawfull satisfaction, as the word of God doth prescribe vnto vs. Otherwyse there will be no hope of saluation.

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MarginaliaOf images.Thirdlye, as touching images, this is my opinion, that I doe iudge them no poynt of fayth, but brought into the world after the faith of Christ by the sufferaunce of the churche, and so growen in vse that they might serue for a kalender for the lay people and ignoraunt. By the beholding whereof they might the better call to remembraunce the godly examples and martirdome of Christ, and other holy men: but if any man do otherwyse abuse thys representation, and geue the reuerence vnto those Images, whych is due vnto the holy men whom they represent, or rather to hym vnto whō the holy men themselues owe al theyr honour, setting all their trust and hope in them which ought to be referred vnto God: or if they be so affected toward these dombe Images, that they be in any behalfe addict vnto them, eyther be more addict vnto one Saint then vnto another, in my minde they doe lytle differ from idolatry, greuously offending agaynst God thautor of all honor.

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MarginaliaOf pilgrimages.Last of all I am thus perswaded, that there bee no inhabitantes here in earth but that we shall passe strayght eyther to lyfe or punishment: for whosoeuer doth so order hys lyfe that hee stumble at the commaundementes of God which eyther he knoweth not or he wyll not be taught them it is but in vayne for hym to looke for saluation, although he ranne ouer all the corners of the world. Cōtrarywyse he whych obserueth hys commaundements, can not perish, although in all his lyfe tyme he walked no pilgrimage neither to Rome, Canterbury, or Compostella or to any other place, whether as the common people are accustomed to walke.

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This Scedule with the articles therin cōteined being read (as is aforsaid) by the said sir Iohn: We with our felow brethren aforesayd, and many other doctors and learned men had conference vpon the same. And at the last by the councell and consent of them, we spake these wordes folowyng vnto the sayd sir Ihon there present. Beholde sir Ihon, there are many good & catholicke things cōteined in this Scedule. But you haue this time to aunswer vnto other matters which sauor of errours and heresies. Wherunto by the contentes of this scedule, it is not fully aunswered, and therfore you must aunswere therunto, & more plainly expresse and declare your faith and opiniōs as touchyng those pointes in the same Byll. MarginaliaSee whether these men pycke quarells, where they nede not.That is to say, whether you hold, beleue, and affirme, that in the Sacrament of the altare, after the consecration rightly done, there remaineth materiall bread or not.

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Item, whether you holde, beleue, and affirme, that it is necessary in the Sacrament of penaunce for a man to confes his sinnes vnto a priest appointed by the churche.

The which articles in this maner deliuered vnto him, amongst many other things he answered plainly, that he would make no other declaration or aunswere therunto then was contained in the sayd scedule. Wherupon we fauoring the said sir Ihon, with benigne and gētle meanes we spake vnto him in this manner. Sir Ihon take hede, for if you do not plainly answer vnto these things, which are obiected against you within a lawfull time now graūted you by the iudges, we may declare you to be an hereticke, but the said syr Ihon perseuered as before & would make no other answere. Consequently notwithstādyng, we together with our sayd felow brethren and others of our counsayl toke aduise, & by their counsayl declared vnto the sayd sir Ihon Oldcastel, that the sayd holy churche of Rome in this matter folowing the saying of blessed s. Augustine, Ierome, Ambrose and other holy men, hath determined, the whiche determinations euery catholicque ought to obserue. MarginaliaHere is no mention made of the worde of God.Wherunto the sayd sir Ihon answered, that he would beleue and obserue what soeuer the holye churche determined, & whatsoeuer God would he should obserue & beleue. But þt he would in no case affirme that our Lord the Pope, the cardinals, Archbishops, and Bishops, or other prelates of the church haue any power to determine any such matters. Wherupon, we yet fauoring hym, vnder hope of better aduisement promised the sayd syr Ihon: that we would geue him in writing certain determinations vpon the matter aforesayd. MarginaliaWolues clothed in sheepes skynnes.Whereunto he should more plainly aunswere, written in Latin, and for his better vnderstandyng translated into English: Wherupon, we commaūded & hartely desired hym that against Monday next folowyng, he should geue a plaine and full aunswere, the which determinations we caused to be trāslated the same day and to be deliuered vnto him the sonday next folowyng. The tenor of whiche determinations here folow in this maner.

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MarginaliaThe sūme of the popyshe beliefeThe fayth and determination of the holy church vpon the holy Sacrament of the aultar is this. That after the consecration done in the masse by the priest, the materiall bread shalbe chaūged into the materiall body of Christ, & the materiall wyne into the materiall bloud of Christe. Therfore after the cōsecration there remayneth no more any substaunce of bread and wyne, whiche was there be-

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