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863 [839]

K. Henry. 8. The free townes or Pages of Suitzerland.

for reformation of maners, shalbe obserued: That in the Sacramentes, in the Masse, and all other thynges, there shalbe no innouation, but all thynges to stand, as in foretyme they dyd: That all they whiche approche to the Lordes Supper without confessiō and absolution, or do eate flesh on dayes forbidden, or which do runne out of their order: also Priests, Deacons, and Subdeacons that be maried, shall be punished: That nothyng shall be printed without consent of the Magistrate: That no booke of Luther, or any Lutherian shall be printed or sold: That they of their iurisdiction which study in the Vniuersitie of Wyttenberge, shall euery one repayre home within. 3. monethes after the publishyng hereof, or els turne to some other place free from the infectiō of Luther, vnder payne of confiscatyng all their goodes, and loosing their inheritaunce: That no benefice, nor other office of teachyng, be geuen to any studēt of that Vniuersitie. Item, that certain Inquisitours fitte for the same, be appointed to inquire and examine the premisses: Item, least it may be sayd that this faction of Luther taketh his origine of the corrupt lyfe of Priestes, the sayd Campeius, with other his assisters in the sayd conuocation of Ratisbone, chargeth and commaundeth, that Priestes liue honestly, go in decent apparell, play not the marchaunts, haunt not the tauerns, be not couetous, nor take money for their ministration: Such as keepe concubines to be remoued: The number also of holy dayes to be diminished. &c. MarginaliaCampeius missed of his purpose in Germanie. These thynges would Campeius haue had enacted in a full Councell and with the cōsentes of all the Empire: but when he could not bryng that to passe, by reason that the myndes of diuers were gone from the Pope, he was fayne therfore to get the same ratified in this particular conuenticle, with the assentes of these Byshops aboue rehearsed.

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These thynges thus hetherto discoursed, whiche fully may be sene in the Cōmmentaries of Iohn Sledan, it remaineth next after the story of Martin Luther, somewhat to adioyne likewise touchyng the hystory of Zuinglius and of the Heluetians. But before I come to the explicatiō of this story, it shall not be incōuenient, first to geue some litle touch of the townes called pages, of these Heluetians, and of their league and confederation first begon amongest them.

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¶ The history of the Heluetians or Suitzers, how first they recouered their libertie, and after were ioyned in league together. 
Commentary  *  Close
Swiss Reformation

Foxe begins his account of the Swiss Reformation with a brief history of the Swiss Confederation, emphasising how 'first they recouered their libertie, and after were ioyned in league together'. His principal source here was Sebastian Münster's Cosmographia universalis, book 3 (in the 1552 Basel edition, pp. 360 et seq). The cantons or 'pagi' ('pagus' in Latin = village) are enumerated. Foxe mentions the first confederation (Urani=Uri; Vntervaldij=Unterwalden; Suicenses=Schwyz), its subsequent enlargement ( including Lucernates=Lucerne; Tigurini=Zurich; Bernatus=Berne; Glareanti=Glarus; Apencellenses=Appenzell; Basilienses=Basel; Solodurij=Solothurn) and then those who joined later (Sangalli=St-Gall; Mullusiani=Mulhouse, etc). From this same source also came Foxe's passage on William Tell (p. 361), a myth which had already acquired iconic status through the verse drama, the Urner Tellspiel (c.1512; published 1530s) and Aegidius Tschudi's Chronicon Helveticum, which Foxe mentions in the margin. He may have become acquainted with its existence, or even have read it, whilst he was in Basel (for it was not published in the sixteenth century). For the myth, see R. C. Head, 'William Tell and his Comrades: Association and Fraternity in the Propaganda of Fifteenth- and Sixteenth-Century Switzerland' The Journal of Modern History 67, no. 3 (1995), 527-77. It was equally from the Cosmographia that Foxe recounts the history of the war between Frederick, duke of Austria and Ludovic, duke of Bavaria and the counsel of the fool, Kune de Stocken (p. 363).

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This was scene-setting, however, for the important section to follow on 'The actes and life of Zwinglius'. Foxe accords almost ten pages to the Zwinglian reformation - a clear sign of how much significance he attached to it. The details of his early life were abstracted mainly from the biography, compiled by Oswald Myconius in 'De D. Hvldrichi Zwinglii […] vita et obitv', and composed the year after Zwingli's death in 1532. It had been published as a preface to the edition of Johann Oecolampadius' letters, Epistolarum libri quatuor (Basel [Basileae]: Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius, 1536), which provided Foxe with a considerable insight into the networks of scholarly communication that linked the Rhineland Biblicists in the upper Rhineland quadrant (Basel, Constance, Berne, Zurich, etc). For the evolution of the reformation in these cities, however, Foxe turned to the Commentaries of Johann Sleidan, the protestant historian whose work Foxe helped to promote in England through the martyrology (De Statv religionis et reipvblicae carolo qvinto Caesare Commentarii. Photographic reproduction of the edition of 1785-6, edited by J. Gottlieb ed 3 vols (Osnabrück: Otto Zeller, 1968). The material on the first Zurich Disputations of January 1523, the Constitutions of the Council of Lucerne in 1524, and the energetic defence of the progress of the reformation in Zurich by its magistrates in 1524 and early 1525 all came from Sleidan, books 3 and 4. Equally, for the early events surrounding the reformation in Berne, including the Disputations of December 1527 and January 1528, Foxe also drew on Sleidan, book 6. The same source served for his history of the reformations in Strasbourg and Basel. Towards the end of the account, Foxe indicated how he had supplemented his use of Sleidan with Oecolampadius' letters. For the background to the Second Kappel War, and Zwingli's reasons for personal engagement in it, Foxe felt he had to go beyond the impersonal history of Sleidan, returning to Zwingli's letter to the ministers at Ulm, Martinus Freschius and Cunhardus Somius, which he had found in the preface to J. Oecolampadius, Epistolarum libri quatuor (Basel [Basileae]: Thomas Platter and Balthasar Lasius, 1536), fol 211v-212, dated 8 November 1530, in which Zwingli vigorously defended himself against his critics, both inside the canton of Zurich and from without. On the fate of Zwingli's body after his death, Foxe cited a further letter from Oecolampadius, this time to Wolfgang Capiton of 22 October 1531 (fols 172v-173). We should note Foxe's lavish praise for Oecolampadius' Commentaries on the Prophets (J. Oecolampadius, In Iesaiam Prophetam hypomnematôn, hoc est commentariorum, Iannis Oecolampadii libri sex [...] ([Geneva]: Jean Crespin, 1568 [1567?]) which, 'with other worth workes, which he left behinde him, liue still, and shall never die'. They carried a laudatory preface from Heinrich Bullinger, and were remarkable as setting a new standard in the methodology and organization of Biblical commentaries. Towards the end of the section, Foxe translated a letter from Zwingli in which the reformer represented views on Christ's descent into Hell which he had already expounded in the mid 1520s in response to the interpretation of the 'catabaptists' concerning Christ's resurrection in the light of their arguments about the sleep of the soul and the final resurrection - see Huldrych Zwinglis Brief edited Oskar Farner. 2 vols (Zurich, 1918-20), 2, pp. 000-000.

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Mark Greengrass
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaHow the Heluetians came free, and ioyned together in league. THe Heluetians, whom otherwise we call Suitzers, are deuided principally into xiij. pages. The names of whom are, Tigurini, Bernates, Lucernates, Vrani, Suicenses, Vnterualdij, Tugiani, Glareani, Basilienses, Solodurij, Friburgij, Scafusiani, Apecellenses. Furthermore, to these be added vij. other Pages, albeit not with such a full bond, as the other, be together cōioyned: which be these, Rheti, Lepontij, Seduni, Veragri, Sangalli, Mullusiani, Rotuilenses. MarginaliaEx Chronic. Heluetie.
Ex Sebasti. Munster. Cosmog. Lib. 3.
Ex comment. Ioan. Sled. lib. 3.
Of these xiij. confederate Pages aboue recited, these iij. were the first, to witte, Vrania, Suicenses, and Siluanij (or as some call them Vnterualdij) which ioyned themselues together.

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If credite should be geuen to old narrations, these iij. pages Marginalia* Note that the Pages in Suitzerland are for the most parte situate in valleyes. * or valleyes first suffered great seruitude & thraldome vnder cruell rulers or gouernours: In so much that the gouernour of Siluania Marginalia* Extortion in rulers. * required of one of the inhabitanes, a yoke of hys Oxen: which when the townes man denyed to geue hym, the ruler sent his seruaunt by force to take his Oxen from hym. This whē the seruaunt was about to do, cōmeth the poore mās sonne, and cutteth of one of his fingers, and vpon the same auoyded. The gouernour hearing thys, taketh the poore man, and putteth out his eyes.

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MarginaliaExample of true chastitie in a matrone An other tyme in the sayd Syluania, as the good man of the house was absent abroad, the gouernour which had then the rule of the towne, entring into the house, commaūdeth the wyfe to prepare for him a bath, and to let him haue his pleasure of her. Wherunto she beyng vnwillyng, differred the bathe as long as she myght, till the returne of her husband. MarginaliaAdultery iustly punished. To whom then shee makyng her complaynt, so moued hys mynde, that he with his axe or hatched which he had in his hand, flew vpon the adulterous ruler & slue him.

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MarginaliaExample of singular tyrannye. An other example of lyke violence is reported of the ruler of Suicia, and Syuania, who surprised with like pride and disdayne agaynst the poore vnderlynges, caused hys cappe to be hanged vp vppon a pole, charging and commaūdyng by his seruaunt, all that passed by, to doe obeysance to the capp. MarginaliaW. Tell. Which when one, named William Tell, refused to do, the tyraunt caused hys sonne to be tyed, with an apple set vpon his head, and the father wyth a crosse bow or a lyke instrument, to shoote at the apple. After long refusing, when the wofull father coulde not otherwyse chuse, by force constrayned, but must leauill at the apple, as God would, he miste the childe and stroke þe marke. This Tell, beyng thus compelled by the tyraunt to shoote at his sonne, had brought wyth hym ij. shaftes, thynking that if he had stroke þe childe with þe one, þe other he would haue let driue at the tyraunt. Which beyng vnderstand, he was apprehēded and led to the rulers house: MarginaliaPride and tiranny wel rewarded but by þe way escapyng out of the boate, betwene Vrania and Brun, and passing through the mountaynes wyth as much speede as he might, he lay in the way secretly as the ruler shoulde passe where he discharged his arow at the tyraunt, and slue hym.

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And thus were these cruell gouernours vtterly expelled out of these iij. valleyes or pages aforesayd, and after that such order was taken by the Emperour Henricus 7. and also by the Emperours Ludouicus duke of Bauaria, that henceforth no iudge should be set ouer them, but onely of their owne company, and towne dwellers. Ex Seb. Munst. Cosmog. lib. 3. MarginaliaEx Sebast. Munst. Cosmogr. lib. 3.

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It folowed after this, in the yeare of our Lord. 1315. þt great contention and warre fell betwene Fridericke Duke of Austria, and Ludouicke Duke of Bauaria, stryuyng & fyghtyng the space of viij. yeares, together about þe Empire. With Ludouicus held the iij. pages aforesayd: Who had diuers conflictes with Lupoldus, brother to the forenamed Fridericke Duke of Austria, fightyng in his brothers quarell. As Lupoldus had reared a mighty army of xx. thousād footemen and horsemen, and was come to Egree, so to passe ouer the mountaines to subdue the pages: he began to take aduise of his coūsaile, by what way or passage best he might direct hys iourney toward the Suitzers. MarginaliaA fooles bolte sometimes hits the marke Wherupō as they were busy in consultyng, there stoode a foole by (named Kune de Stocken) which hearing their aduise, thought also to shote hys bolt with all, and told them that their counsaile did not lyke him. For all you (quoth he) counsult how we should enter into yonder coōtrey: but none of you geueth any counsaile how to come out agayne, after we bee entred. And in conclusion, as the foole sayd, so they found it true. For when Lupoldus, with hys hoste had entred into thee straites and valleyes betwene the rockes and moōtaines, þe Suitzers with their neighbours of Vrania, and Syluania lying in pryuye wayte, had thē at such aduantage, and with tumblyng downe stones from the rockes, and sodeine commyng vpō their backes in blynd laynes, did so encomber thē þt neither they had conuenient standyng to fight, nor roume almost to flye away. By reason wherof, a great part of Lupoldus army there being enclosed about þe place called Morgarten, lost their lyues, and many in the flight were slayne. Lupoldus, with them that remayned, retired and escaped to Thurgoia. This battaile was fought. an. 1315. Nouember 16.

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MarginaliaThe first league betwene the iij. Pages. After this, the burgers of these iij. villages, beyng continually vexed by Fridericke Duke of Austria, for that they would not knowledge hym for Emperour, assembled them selues in the towne of Vrania. an. 1316. and there entred a mutuall league and bond of perpetuall societie and coniunction, ioyning and swearing them selues, as in one body of a common wealth, and publike administration, together. After that came to them Lucernates, then Tugiani, after thē the Tigurines, next to them folowed Bernates, the last almost of all, were the Basilians, then folowed after, the other vij. pages aboue recited.

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And thus haue ye the names, the freedome, and confederation of these Suitzers, or Cantons or pages of Heluetia, with the occasiōs and circumstances therof briefly expressed Now to the purpose of our story intended, whiche is to declare the successe of Christes Gospell and true Religion receaued among these Heluetians: also touching the lyfe and doctrine of Zuinglius, & order of his death, as here insueth.

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¶ The actes and lyfe of Zuinglius and of receauyng the Gospell in Suitzerland.

MarginaliaVldrichus Zuinglius. IN the tractation of Luthers story, mention was made before of Vldricus Zuinglius: Who first abyding at Glarona, in a place called then our Lordes Ermitage, from thence remoued to Zuricke, aboute the yeare of our Lord. 1519. and there began to teach, dwellyng in the Minster amōg the Canons or Priestes of that close, vsing with them, the same rites and ceremonies duryng the space of ij. or iij. yeares, MarginaliaZuinglius reading the Scriptures at Zurike. where he continued readyng and explaynyng the Scriptures vnto the people with great trauaile, and no lesse dexteritie. And because Pope Leo, the same yeare, had renued his pardons agayne through all countreys (as is aboue declared) MarginaliaZuinglius against the popes pardons. Zuinglius zelously withstode the same, detecting the abuses therof by the Scriptures, and of other corruptions reignyng then in the Church, and so continued by the space of ij. yeares and more, MarginaliaAn. 1521
The bishop of Constance complayneth agaynst Zuinglius.
till at length Hugo Byshop of Constance (to whose iurisdiction Zuricke then also dyd belong) hearyng therof, wrote his letters to the Senate of the sayd Citie of Zuricke, complainyng greuously of Zuinglius, who also wrote an other letter to the colledge of Ca-

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nons,
FFf.iiij.
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