(d. 284) [W. Leadbetter www.roman-emperors.org, sub Numerian]
Praetorian prefect; father-in-law of Emperor Numerian
Diocletian accused him of causing Numerian's death; killed by Diocletian
Aper was said to have killed Numerian in hopes of becoming emperor himself. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.
He was killed by Diocletian with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
(d. 283) [W. Leadbetter www.roman-emperors.org]
Roman emperor (282 - 83); conducted a successful war against the Persians. Died suddenly, probably of illness.
Foxe says Carus was killed by lightning. 1570, pp. 39, 108; 1576, pp. 31, 77; 1583, pp. 31, 76.
Legendary king of Colchester [ODNB sub Helena]
According to Henry of Huntingdon, the father of St Helena
Coel was said to have founded Colchester and to have been the father of Lucius, the legendary king of Britain during the Roman occupation. 1570, p. 146; 1576, p. 108; 1583, p. 107.
(c. 250 - 306) [ODNB; M. DiMaio www.roman-emperors.org]
Caesar of Maximian in the West (293 - 305); Roman emperor in the West (305 - 06); died in York
Father of Constantine I
Constantius was sent to Britain to collect tribute. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
Constantius behaved favourably towards Christians. 1570, p. 114; 1576, p. 82; 1583, p. 81.
Concubine of Diocletian
Druas told Diocletian he would have to kill a wild boar before he could become emperor. 1570, p. 109; 1576, pp. 77-78; 1583, p. 77.
(236/7 - 316) [R. W. Mathisen www.roman-emperors.org]
Roman emperor (284 - 305), succeeding Carus's son, Numerian, in the east; controlled the whole empire after the death of Carinus, Carus's younger son, in 285. Introduced tetrarchy; enforced imperial cult; abdicated.
Declined an offer to take the throne in 308; died at Split.
Diocletian came to the throne with the support of the troops. 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 77; 1583, p. 76.
Having accused Aper of killing Numerian, Diocletian killed him with his sword in front of the troops. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
Diocletian commanded that he be worshipped as a god. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
Diocletian introduced the most severe persecution of the Christians. The persecution began with the destruction of churches and books of scripture. 1570, pp. 39, 109-111; 1576, pp. 31, 78-79; 1583, pp. 31, 77-79.
He went on use threats and imprisonment, and eventually he devised a great variety of tortures and methods of execution. 1570, pp. 112-14; 1576, pp. 80-81; 1583, pp. 79-81.
Diocletian abdicated and, having heard of the edict of Constantine and Licinius granting freedom of worship to Christians, died. 1570, p. 121; 1576, p. 87; 1583, p. 86.
(d. 311) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]
Served as Diocletian's caesar in the East (293 - 305)
Roman emperor in the East (305 - 11)
Galerius was made ceasar in the eastern empire to deal with the Persian threat. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
He was the chief persecutor of the Christians, and developed an unpleasant illness. He issued a proclamation ending the persecution, but a few months later restrictions, banishment and persecutions began again. 1570, pp. 39, 115; 1576, pp. 31, 82-83; 1583, pp. 82-83.
(c. 248 - 328/9) [ODNB; J. W. Drijvers www.roman-emperors.org]
Concubine of Constantius Chlorus c. 270 - 89; mother of Constantine I; prominent at Constantine's court; journeyed to Palestine 327-28
Foxe records the legend, according to Henry of Huntingdon, that Helena was British and the daughter of King Cole. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
(d. 310) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]
Soldier; Roman emperor (286 - 305); elevated by Diocletian to rule in the West; made to abdicate with Diocletian
Attempted to depose his son Maxentius in 308; proclaimed himself emperor in 310; imprisoned by his son-in-law Constantine and pardoned. Maximian plotted to have Constantine killed; Maximian died soon after, either by suicide or on the orders of Constantine.
Maximian was made emperor in the west because uprisings and unrest made it impossible for Diocletian to rule the entire empire alone. 1570, p. 109; 1576, p. 78; 1583, p. 77.
Maximian was a persecutor of Christians. He decimated the troops of Maurice twice when they refused to sacrifice to his gods and finally commanded they all be killed. 1570, pp. 113-14; 1576, p. 81; 1583, pp. 80-81.
Having abdicated with Diocletian, he attempted to regain power when his son Maxentius was set up as emperor. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.
Maximian plotted to have Constantine, his son-in-law, killed; the plot was detected by Fausta, Constantine's wife. Maximian was killed on the return journey from Gaul. 1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.
(d. 1159) [E. V. Maltese, Lexikon des Mittelalters]
Byzantine chronicler and theologian; secretary to Emperor Alexius I Comnenus; wrote Compendium of History
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, pp. 88, 109, 119; 1576, pp. 61, 78, 85; 1583, pp. 61, 77, 85.
(c. 278 - 312) [M. Di Maio www.roman-emperors.org]
Son of Maximian; married the daughter of Galerius
Roman emperor (306 - 12); entered into civil war with his father Maximian and with Galerius; died at the battle of Milvian Bridge
Maxentius was set up as emperor by the praetorian guard, but was opposed by his father. 1570, p. 118; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 84.
He initially feigned favouring the Christians in order to ingratiate himself with the people of Rome. He then instituted persecutions. 1570, p. 119; 1576, p. 85; 1583, p. 85.
The citizens and senators of Rome appealed to Constantine to rid them of Maxentius. Constantine responded and, having received a vision and taking the cross as his standard, defeated Maxentius at Milvian Bridge.1570, pp. 118-19; 1576, pp. 85-86; 1583, pp. 84-85.
While in retreat, Maxentius fell into the Tiber and, weighted down by his armour, drowned. 1570, pp. 39, 119; 1576, pp. 31, 86; 1583, pp. 31, 85.
(d. 828) [Gams]
Greek Orthodox theologian and historian; patriarch of Constantinople (806 - 15)
He is cited extensively by Foxe as a source in Book 1.
(d. 284) [W. Leadbetter www.roman-emperors.org]
Roman emperor (283 - 84) with his father Carus, who died in 283, and his older brother Carinus
He is mentioned by Foxe: 1570, p. 108; 1576, p. 76; 1583, p. 76.
ned in their old houses, had large and great churches, new builded from the foundation, for them to frequent togither. In such increasement (saith Eusebius) by processe of tyme did the church of christ grow and shout vp daily more and more, profiting and spreading through all quarters, which neithtr euuie of men could infringe, nor any deuill could inchaunte, neither the craftie policie of mans wit coulde supplant, so long as the protection of God his Heauenlye arme went with his people, keeping them in good order, according to the rule of christian life.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaCorruption through much peace and prosperitie crept into the Church. But as commonly the nature of al men being of it selfe vnruly and vntowarde, alwaies secketh & desireth prosperity, and yet can neuer wel vse prosperitie, alwaies would haue peace, and yet hauing peace, alwaies abuseth þe same: so here likewise it happened with these mē, which through this so great libertie & prosperitie of life began to degenerate & languishe vnto idlenes & delycacy, & one to worke spite and cōtumely against an other, striuing and contending among thēselues for euery occasiō, with railing wordes after most despitefull maner: MarginaliaHatred and disdayne among the Churche men. bishops against bishops, and people against people, mouing hatred and seditiō one against an other, besides also cursed hipocrisie and simulation with all extremity encreasing more and more, by reason wherof the iudgemēt of god after his wonted maner, (whilist yet the congregatiō began to multiply) began by a litle and litle to visite our men with persecution, fallyng first vpon our brethrē which were abroad in warfare, but whē þe toucht þe other nothing or very litle, neither did they seeke to appease gods wrath, & call for his mercy, but wickedly thinking with our selues, that god neither regarded nor would visit our transgressions, we heaped our iniquities daily more and more one vpon an other, & they which semed to be our pastors refusing the rule of piety, were inflamed with mutual contentions on against an other. and thus whilest they were giuen onely to the studye of contentions, threatnings, emulations, mutual hatred, & dyscord, euery man seeking his owne ambition, and persecuting one another after the maner of tirany: MarginaliaChristians persecuting one an other. Then, then, I say, the Lord according to the voice of Ieremy tooke awaye the beauty of the daughter of Sion. & the glory of Israell, fell downe from heauen, neither did he remember the footstoole of his feete in the day of his wrath. And the Lorde ouerturned all þe comely ornaments of Israell, & destroyed all her gorgeous buildings, and according to the saying of the Psalme, subuerted and extinguished the Testament of his sernaunt, and prophaned his sanctuary in destruction of his churches, and in laying wast the buildinges thereof so that all passingers spoiling the multitude of the people, they were made an obloquie to al the dwellers about. For he hath exalted the strength of his enimies, and turned away the helpe of his sword from her, nor ayded her in the battayle, but ceased from the purging of her and her seate. MarginaliaThe wrath of God toward hys people. He stroke downe to the ground and deminished her daies and ouer all this poured vppon her confusion. All these things were fulfilled vpon vs, when we saw the temples rased from the top to the ground, and the sacred scriptures to be burnt in the open market place, and the Pastours of the church to hide themselues, some here, some there, some other taken prisoners with great shame, were mocked of their enimies, whē also according to the saying of the prophet in an other place: Contempt was poured out vpon the Princes, and they caused to go eout of the waye, and not to keepe the straite pathe.[Back to Top]
The Foxe Project was not able to complete the commentary on this section of text by the date by which this online edition was compiled (23 September 2008).
MarginaliaThe tenth persecution. BY reason whereof (the wrath of God being kindled against his church) ensued the tenth and last persecucion against the christians, so horrible and greeuous, that maketh the pen almost to tremble to writ vpon it, so tedious that neuer was any persecution before or since comparable to it for the time it continued, lasting the space of tenne yeares together. This persecution although it passed thorow the handes of diuers tyrantes and workers moe then one or two, yet principally it beareth the name of Dioclesiā who was Emperour as is aboue noted, next after Carus & Numerianus. MarginaliaDioclesian Emperour. Thys Dioclesian euer hauyng an ambitious minde, aspired greatly to be Emperour. To whom Druas his Concubine sayd, that first he should kill a wilde Boore before he should be Emperour. MarginaliaEup. vopis. Hee taking effect at these wordes, vsed much with handes to kill wylde Boores: but seeing no successe to come thereof, vsed this prouerbe: Ego Apros occido, alius pulpamento fruitur, that is, I kill the Boores, but other doe eate the fleshe. MarginaliaAper slayne which slew Numerianus. At length the sayde Dioclesian beyng nominate to be Emperour, and seeyng Aper (who had killed Numerianus the Emperour) standing thereby sware, to the souldiers that Numerianus, waswrongfully killed, and forthwith runing vpon Aper with his sworde, slew him. Vopisc. After this he being stablished in the Empire, MarginaliaAnno 290. and seeing on euery side diuers and sundrie cōmotions rising vp against him, which he was not well able himselfe to sustaine, in the first beginning of his raign he chuseth for his Colleage Maximianus surnamed Herculius, Father of Maxentius. MarginaliaMaximianus, Herculius fellow Emperour with Dioclesian. Which two Emperours, because of diuers warres that rose in manye prouinces, choose to thē two other noble men, Galerius, & Constantinus, whome they called Cæsars. MarginaliaGalerius, Constantius, Cæsars vner Dioclesian and Maximinian. Of whome Galerius was sent into the East partes against the Persians. Constantinus was sent ouer to Britannie to this our country of England, to recouer the tribute. Where he toke to wife Helena the daughter of king Coil, MarginaliaHelena daughter of Coil, marryed to Constantius. which was a maiden excelling in beautye, and no lesse famously brought vp in the study of learning of whome was borne Constantinus the great.[Back to Top]
All this while hitherto no persecution was yet stirred of these 4. princes against the church of Christ, but quietlye and moderatly they gouerned the common wealth, wherfore accordingly God prospered their doings and affaires, and gaue them great victories, Dioclesian in Egipt, Maximinian in Aphricke and in Fraunce, Galerius in Persia, Constantinus in England and in Fraunce also. By reason of which victories Dioclesian and Maximian pufte vppe in pride, ordeyned a solemne triumph at Rome, after which triumph Dioclesian gaue commaundement that he woulde be worshipped as God, saying, that he was brother to the Sunne and Moone, and adourning his shooes with golde and precious stones commaunded the people to kysse hys feete. MarginaliaPryde in Dioclesian.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaCruelty followeth pride. Anno. 308. Persecution agaynst the christians. And not long after by the iudgement of God, for certaine enormities vsed in the church, aboue touched, began the great and greuous persecution of the Christians, moued by the ragious cruelty of Dioclesian, which was about the nyneteenth yeare of his rayne, who in the Moneth of Marche when the feast of Easter was nye at hande, commaunded all the churches of the Christians to bee spoyled and cast to the earth, and the bookes of holy scripture to be burned.[Back to Top]
MarginaliaChristian temples destroyed. Euseb. Lib. 8. cap. 2. Thus most violent edictes and proclamations were set foorth, for the ouerthrowing as is saide, of the Christians temples throughout all the Romane Empire. Neyther did there want in the officers any cruell execution of the same proclamations. For their temples were defaced euen when they celebrated the feast of Easter. Euseb. lib. 8. cap. 2. And this was the first edicte giuen out by Dioclesian, the next proclamation that came forth, MarginaliaBookes of the scriptures burned. was for the burniug of the bookes of the holy scripture, which thyng was done in the open market place as before: then next vnto that were edictes giuen forth for the displacing of such as were Magistrats, MarginaliaChristian Magistrates displased. and that with a great ignominie, & al other whatsoeuer bare anye office. Imprisoning suche as were of the common sorte, if they would not abiure Christianitie, and subscribe to the heathen religion. Euseb. lib. 8. cap 3. & Nicephorus lib. 7. cap 4. Zonoras also in his seconde tome. MarginaliaChristian subiectes imprisoned. Euseb. lib. 8. c. 3. Nicepho. lib. 7. cap. 4. Zonoras tom. 2. And these were the beginning of the Christians euils.[Back to Top]
It was not long after but that new edictes were sent forth, nothing for their cruelty inferiour to the first: for the casting of the elders and bishops into prisō, and then constraining them with sundry kindes of punishments to offer vnto their Idoles. MarginaliaByshops and Elders constrayned with tormentes to sacrifice. By reason whereof ensued a great persecutiō amongst the gouernors of the church, amongst whom many stood manfully, passing through many exceeding bitter torments, neyther were ouercome therwyth, being tormented and examined diuers of them diuerslye, some scourged, all their bodies ouer with whips & scourges, some with racks, rasinges of þe flesh intolerable were cruciated: some one way, some another way put to death. Some againe violently were drawen to the vnpure sacrifice, and as though they had sacrificed, when indeede they did not, were let go. Other some neither comming at al to their aultars, nor touching anye peece of their sacrifices, yet were borne in hand of thē that stoode by, that they had sacrificed, & so suffering that false infamation of their enymies, quietly went away. Other as dead men were caried and cast away, being but halfe dead. Some they cast down vpon the pauement, and trailing them a great space by the legs, made the people beleue that they had sacrificed. Furthermore other there were which stoutly withstood them, affirming with a loud voice that they had done no such sacrifice. Of whom some saide they were Christians, & gloried in the profession of that name: some cryed saying, that neither they had, nor would euer be pertakers of that idolatry. And those being buffeted on the face & mouth wyth the handes of the soldiers, were made to hold their peace, and so thrust out with violence. And if the Saintes did seeme neuer so little to doe. what the enimies would haue[Back to Top]