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Edward Altham

Sheriff of London and Middlesex 1531-32 with Sir Richard Gresham. [PRO: List of Sheriffs]

Edward Altham attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. The mayor and sheriffs of London were required to be present by the bishop's letter and by statute. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

John Tewkesbury was sentenced as a relapsed heretic and handed over to the sheriffs, Edward Altham and Richard Gresham, to be burnt. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1025.

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Henry Bourchier

(1472 - 1540) [ODNB]

2nd earl of Essex (1483 - 1540); constable of Windsor Castle 1511; captain of the king's spears

The earl of Essex brought the basin of water for Cardinal Wolsey when Henry VIII attended mass after receiving the papal bull granting him the title of defender of the faith. 1563, p. 441; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Henry Bourchier was present at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

The earl of Essex carried covered gilt basins at Princess Elizabeth's christening. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1199; 1576, p. 1026; 1583, p. 1054.

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John Islip

(1464 - 1532) [ODNB]

of Islip. Benedictine monk; treasurer, monk-bailiff and warden of the abbey's churches; warden of the royal manors for Westminster Abbey 1492; cellarer 1496; prior 1498

Abbot of Westminster (1500 - 32)

Robert Barnes was called to appear before Cardinal Wolsey, the bishops and John Islip. 1563, p. 602; 1570, p. 1365; 1576, p. 1164; 1583, p. 1193.

John Tewkesbury was examined before Cuthbert Tunstall, Henry Standish and John Islip. 1563, p. 490; 1570, p. 1165; 1576, p. 996; 1583, p. 1024.

John Islip assisted at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Leo X (Giovanni de Medici)

(1475 - 1521) [Kelly]

b. Florence, second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent; abbot of Font Douce, Passignano and Monte Cassino; cardinal 1489 (aged 13); studied theology and law at Pisa (1489 - 91)

Pope (1513 - 21)

Thomas Cromwell presented Leo X with English delicacies, and Leo immediately granted the pardons for Boston that Cromwell had requested. 1570, p. 1346; 1576, p. 1149; 1583, p. 1178.

Leo X sent legates to France, Germany and England in 1518 when he was preparing to fight the Turks. 1563, p. 418; 1570, p. 1120; 1576, p. 959; 1583, p. 986.

Leo X condemned writings and translations of Martin Luther. 1563, p. 462; 1570, p. 1135; 1576, p. 972; 1583, p. 999.

Leo issued a bull against Martin Luther, in which his teachings and his works were condemned. 1570, pp. 1459-65; 1576, pp. 1244-47; 1583, pp. 1280-84.

Luther produced an answer to the papal bull and sent an appeal to the pope. 1570, pp. 1465-76; 1576, pp. 1247-52; 1583, pp. 1284-89.

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Matthew Grafton


Matthew Grafton was present at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Grafton was present at the James Bainham's examination as a relapse and his condemnation. 1563, pp. 498-500; 1570, pp. 1169-71; 1576, pp. 1000-02; 1583, pp. 1028-29.

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Nicholas Hancoke

Prior of Christ Church (Holy Trinity) Priory, Aldgate (1524 - 31); given leave by Bishop Tunstall to leave the priory in 1526 for three years in order to relieve the house of its debts; failed; surrendered the house to the king [VCH: London, vol. 1 (1909) pp. 465-75]

Nicholas Hancoke assisted at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Nicholas Lambarde

Mayor of London (1531 - 32)

Nicholas Lambarde attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. He and the sheriffs of London were required to be present by the bishop's letter and by statute. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

[NB: Foxe names him as John]

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Richard Gresham

(c. 1485 - 1549) [ODNB]

Mercer; merchant adventurer; mayor of London (1537 - 38); sheriff of London (1531 - 32)

Richard Gresham attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. The mayor and sheriffs of London were required to be present by the bishop's letter and by statute. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

John Tewkesbury was sentenced as a relapsed heretic and handed over to the sheriffs, Edward Altham and Richard Gresham, to be burnt. 1563, p. 492; 1570, p. 1167; 1576, p. 998; 1583, p. 1025.

Gresham was present at the condemnation of James Bainham in 1532, after which Bainham was delivered to him. 1563, p. 499; 1570, p. 1171; 1576, p. 1002; 1583, p. 1029.

Sir Richard Gresham was named in a commission from Henry VIII to Edmund Bonner as one who was required to execute the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1375; 1576, p. 1173; 1583, p. 1202.

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Richard Grey

Brother of Thomas, marquess of Dorset

Richard Grey was present at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Robert Fuller

Abbot of Waltham (1526 - 23 March 1540); last abbot of the last abbey to be surrendered; officiated at the funeral of Queen Jane Seymour in 1537 [VCH: Essex, vol. 2 (1907), pp. 166-72]

Abbot of Westminster (1500 - 32)

Robert Fuller assisted at the condemnation of Richard Bayfield. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

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Robert Tunnes

Public notary

The copy of the bull of Leo X condemning Martin Luther was presented to Richard Bayfield at his condemnation in 1531. It was sealed with Cardinal Wolsey's seal and signed by Robert Tunnes. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

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Thomas Turner

Apparator; jailer of Richard Bayfield

Thomas Turner brought Richard Bayfield out to his condemnation. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
Thomas Wolsey

(1470/71 - 1530) [ODNB]

BA Oxford 1486; MA 1497; dean of divinity 1500

Dean of York 1513; bishop of Lincoln 1514

Lord chancellor (1515 - 29); archbishop of York (1514 - 30); cardinal (1515 - 30); arrested and died on his way to the Tower

Thomas Wolsey sent delegates to greet Cardinal Campeggi, the newly appointed legate to England, in Calais, hoping to get himself appointed fellow legate. Campeggi complied, and within 30 days a papal bull had arrived in Calais with Wolsey's commission. Wolsey set up a special legate's court in England, richly furnished. 1563, p. 418; 1570, pp. 1120-21; 1576, pp. 959-60; 1583, pp. 986-87.

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Wolsey was sent as ambassador to the emperor at Brussels, taking with him the great seal of England, and behaved like a prince. He enriched himself at the expense of the religious houses and commons. 1570, p. 1121; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

In England, Wolsey lived in great luxury. He leased Hampton Court, and then gave the lease to the king. He lodged at times at the king's manor at Richmond. 1570, pp. 1121-22; 1576, p. 960; 1583, p. 987.

Wolsey suspected that his failure to be selected pope after the death of Adrian VI was due to Richard Pace's lack of effort on his behalf. He turned the king against Pace, causing Pace to go mad. Pace recovered, but Wolsey brought charges against him and he was imprisoned in the Tower for nearly two years, leaving him in a worse mental state than before. 1570, pp. 1124-25; 1576, p. 963; 1583, pp. 989-90.

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Wolsey founded Cardinal College at Oxford, and began to build in sumptuous style. He invited the best scholars to join, many of them from Cambridge. He did not live long enough to see it completed. 1563, p. 497; 1570, p. 1174; 1576, p. 1004; 1583, p. 1032.

Thomas Wolsey, William Warham, Cuthbert Tunstall, John Fisher, Nicholas West, John Veysey, John Longland, John Clerk and Henry Standish took part in the examination of Thomas Bilney and Thomas Arthur in 1527-28. 1563, pp. 461-78; 1570, pp. 1134-46; 1576, pp. 971-81; 1583, pp. 998-1008.

Wolsey opposed the emperor because the emperor refused to support his desire to be made pope. 1563, p. 440; 1570, p. 1124; 1576, p. 962; 1583, p. 989.

Having fallen out with the emperor, Wolsey encouraged Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. 1570, p. 1192; 1576, p. 1021; 1583, p. 1049.

Wolsey attempted to confiscate all copies of Supplication for the Beggars and discovered that the king had a copy. He was determined to forbid the reading of English books, specifically this book and Tyndale's translation of scripture. 1563, p. 449; 1570, p. 1157; 1576, p. 990; 1583, p. 1017.

After Clement VII had been taken prisoner by imperial forces, Wolsey urged Henry VIII to go to the pope's assistance. The king refused to send troops, but allowed Wolsey to take money out of the treasury to help. Wolsey then went to the French court to contribute to the ransom of Clement VII, hiring soldiers and furnishing the French army.1563, p. 439; 1570, pp. 1123; 1576, pp. 961-62; 1583, p. 988.

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Stephen Gardiner was sent as ambassador to Rome by Henry VIII during the time of Clement VII to deal with the matter of the king's divorce and to promote Thomas Wolsey as pope. Both the king and Wolsey wrote letters to him. 1570, pp. 1125-29; 1576, pp. 963-67; 1583, pp. 990-93.

Wolsey and Cardinal Campeggi had a legatine commission to consider the matter of the king's divorce. Henry began to suspect that Wolsey was not fully supportive. 1570, p. 1129; 1576, p. 967; 1583, p. 994.

When Queen Catherine learned from the legates that they had been deputed to determine the matter of a divorce between the king and her, she composed an answer to them. She blamed Wolsey as the cause of the proposed divorce. 1563, pp. 456-57; 1570, pp. 1193-94; 1576, p. 1022; 1583, p. 1050.

Wolsey became aware that King Henry favoured Anne Boleyn. 1570, p. 1195; 1576, p. 1023; 1583, p. 1051.

Articles against Wolsey were introduced to the House of Commons from the Lords. He confessed to the charges. He departed for Southwell in his diocese of York, but many of his household left him to enter the king's service. 1570, p. 1132; 1576, p. 969; 1583, p. 996.

Wolsey planned a grand enthronement at York without informing the king. The earl of Northumberland was given a commission by the king to arrest Thomas Wolsey at Cawood Castle and turn him over to the earl of Shrewsbury. Although Wolsey protested, he submitted to the arrest. He was taken to Sheffield Castle and placed in the keeping of Shrewsbury. 1570, pp. 1132-33; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

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Sir William Kingston was sent to Sheffield Castle to take Wolsey to the Tower. Wolsey was ill, and Sir William treated him gently and made the journey in easy stages. Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey. 1570, p. 1133; 1576, p. 970; 1583, p. 996.

Person and Place Index  *  Close
William Clyffe

(d. 1558) [ODNB]

Civil lawyer; LLB 1514, LLD 1523 (Cambridge); archdeacon of London (1529 - 33)

William Clyffe attended the condemnation of Richard Bayfield in 1531. 1563, p. 488; 1570, p. 1164; 1576, p. 995; 1583, p. 1023.

Clyffe was one of the subscribers to the Bishops' Book. 1570, p. 1212; 1576, p. 1037; 1583, p. 1064.

1047 [1023]

K. Henry. 8. Godly bookes forbidden. The condemnation of Richard Bayfield Martyr.

cus Zwinglius. The Commentaries of Pomeran vppon foure chapters of the i. Epistle to the Corinth. Annotations of Pomeran vpon Deut. and Samuell. Pomeran vpon the Psalmes. The Commentaries of Frances Lambert of Auinion, vpon the Gospell of S. Luke. A Congest of all matters of Diuinitie by Fraunces Lambert. The Commentaries of Fraunces Lambert vpon the Prophet Ioel. The Commentaries of Fraunces Lambert vpō the Prophetes, Micheas, Naum, Abacue, Sophonias, Aggeus, Zacharias, Amos, Abdias, Ionas, and Osee. A new Glose of Philip Melancton vpon the Prouerbes of Salomon. The Cōmentaries of Philip Melancton, vpon the Epistle of S. Paule to the Colos. The Annotations of Philip Melancton, vpon the Epistle of S. Paule to the Romans, and vpō þe Epistle to the Colo. Salomons sentences translated according to the Hebrew by Philip Melancton. Most wholesome Annotations vpon the Gospel of S. Marke, by Christopher Hegendorphinus. The Cōmentaries of Iohn Brentius vpon Iob. The Commentary of Iohn Brentius vpō Ecclesiastes of Salomon. Homilies of Brentius vpō the Gospel of S. Iohn. The Annotations of Andrew Althomarus, & Brentius vpon the Epistle of S. Iames. The Commentaries of Bucer vpon Sophonias. Bucer vpon the 4. Euangelistes. The proces Cōsistorial of the Martyrdome of Iohn Husse. A briefe commendatory of M. Luther vnto Otho Brunfelsius, as touching the life, doctrine and Martirdome of Iohn Hus. Felinus vpon the psalter, his exposition vpon Esay, his expositions vpon Ieremie. Capito vpon Oseas. Capito vpon Abacuc. Vnio dissidentium The Pandect of Otho. The Cataloge of famous men. An aunswere of Tyndall vnto Syr Thomas More. A disputation of Purgatory made by Ioh. Frith in English. A prologue to the v. book of Moyses called Deuteronomy. The first booke of Moyses called Genesis. A prologue to the iij. booke of Moyses called Leuiticus. A prologue to the iiij. booke of Moyses Num. A prologue to the ij. booke of Moyses called Exod. The practise of Prelates. The new Testament in English, with an introductiō to the Romaines. The parable of the wicked Mammon. The obedience of a Christian man. A. B. C. of Thorpes. The Summe of Scripture. The primer in English. The Psalter in English. MarginaliaThe Primer and Psalter in Englishe forbidden. A Dialogue betwixt the Gentleman and the Plowman: Of all which kynde of books both in Latin and English, translated, set forth and imprinted, containing not only Lutherian heresies, but also the damnable heresies of other heretiks condemned, for as much as thou hast brought ouer from the parties beyōd the Sea a great nomber into this Realme of England, & specially to our Citie and Dioces of London, and hast procured them to be brought and conueied ouer, also hast kept by thee and studied those books, and hast published & read them vnto diuers men, and many of those bookes also hast dispersed and giuen vnto diuers persons dwelling within our Citie and Dioces of London, & hast confessed and affirmed before our Officiall, that those books of M. Luther and other heretikes his complices and adherentes, and all the contentes in them are good & agreable to the true faith, saying thus, that they are good and of the true faith, and by this meanes and pretence, hast commēded and praised M. Luther, his adherents and complices, and hast fauoured & beleued their errors, heresies and opinions: Therfore we Iohn the Bishop aforesaid, first calling vpon the name of Christ, and setting God only before our eyes, MarginaliaIf Christ were before your eyes, ye would not condemne this good man for these good bookks. by the counsell and consent of the Diuines, and Lawiers, with whom in this behalf we haue conferred, do declare and decree thee the foresaide Richard Bayfild, otherwise called Somersam, for the contempt of thy abiuration, as a fauorer of the foresaid M. Luther, his adherentes, complices, fauourers, and other condemned hereticks, and for commending and studying, reading, hauing, retaining, publishing, selling, giuing, and dispersing the bookes and writinges, as well of the sayd M. Luther, his adherentes and disciples, as of other heretikes before named, and also for crediting, and maintayning the errours and heresies, and damnable opinions contained in the said books and writings, worthely to be and haue bene an hereticke, and that thou by the pretence of the premisses art fallen again most damnably into heresie, and we pronounce that thou art and hast bene a relapsed hereticke, and hast incurred and oughtest to incurre the payne and punishment of a relapse, and we so decree & declare, and also condemne thee thereunto, and that by the preence of the premisses, thou hast euen by the law, incurred the sentence of greater excommunication, and thereby we pronounce and declare thee to haue bene and to be excommunicate, and clearely discharge, exonerate and disgrade thee from all priuiledge and prerogatiue of the Ecclesiasticall orders, and also depriue thee of all Ecclesiasticall office and benefice: also we pronounce and declarethee by this our sentence or decree, the which wee here promulgate and declare in these writinges, that thou art actually to be disgraded, deposed, and depriued as followeth.

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MarginaliaThe sentence of degradation against blessed Bayfilde. 

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As a former monk, Bayfield was in clerical orders and had to be formally degraded from them before he could be executed.

IN the name of God. Amen. We Iohn by the permission of God, Byshop of London, rightly and lawfully proceeding in this behalfe, doe dismisse thee Richard Bayfild, aliâs Somersam, being pronounced by vs a relapsed hereticke, MarginaliaAnd they shall cast you out of their Synagogue for my names sake.and disgraded by vs frō all Ecclesiastical priuiledge, out of the Ecclesiasticall Court, pronouncing that the secular power here present should receiue thee vnder their iurisdiction, earnestly requiring and desiring in the bowels of Iesu Christ, that the execution of this worthy punishment, to be done vpon thee, and against thee in this behalfe, may be so moderated, that there be neither ouermuch crueltie, neither to much fauorable gentlenes, but þt it may be to the health and saluation of thy soule, and to the extirpation, feare, terrour, and conuersion of al other heretickes vnto the vnitie of the Catholike faith. This our finall decree by this our sentence definitiue, we haue caused to be published in forme aforesaid.

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MarginaliaAnno. 1531.Monday the xx. of Nouember. 1531. In the Queere of the Cathedrall Church of S. Paul before the saide Iohn Byshop of London iudicially sitting, being assisted with Iohn Abbot of Westminster, and Robert Abbot of Waltham, Nicholas Prior of Christes Church in London, these honorable Lordes being also present, Henry Earle of Essex, Richard Gray, brother of the Marques of Somerset, Iohn Lambert Maior of London, Richard Gresham and Edward Altam Shrieffes (the which Maior and Shriues were required to be there present by the Byshop of Londons letters hereafter written, and by vertue of a statute MarginaliaOf this statute read before. of king Henry the fourth of Englande) 

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The statute referred to is 'De haeretico comburendo', which mandated the punishment for heresy and the process for trying and punishing heretics. It wasenacted under Henry IV in 1401.

also in the presence of diuers Chanons, the Chauncellour, Officiall, and Archdeacon of London, with the Byshops Chaplaines, and a great number both of the Clergie and Laitie, Mathew Grefton the Register beyng also there present: MarginaliaM. Rich. Bayfild agayne brought before the Byshop.M. Rich. Bayfild aliâs Somersam, was brought forth by Thomas Turnor the Aparator hys keeper, in whose presence the transumpt of the Apostolicke Bull of Pope Leo the x. vpon the condemnation of Martine Luther and his adherentes, was brought foorth and shewed, sealed with the seale of Thomas Wolsey late Legate de Latere, and subscribed with the signe and name of M. Robert Tunnes, publike Notary, and also the decree vpon the condemnation of certain bookes brought in by him, sealed with the seale of the Archbyshop of Canterbury, and subscribed by three Notaries.

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Then the Byshop of London repeated in effecte before him, his abiuration which he had before made, and other hys demerites committed and done, beside his abiuration: and the sayde Baifield saide, that he was not culpable in the articles that were obiected against hym, and desired that the heresies contained in the bookes whiche he brought ouer, might be declared in open audience. Then the Byshop, after certeine talke had with the saide Bayfield as touching the desert of his cause, asked hym whether he could shewe any cause why he should not be deliuered ouer vnto the seculer power, and be pronounced as a relaps, and suffer punishment as a relaps. The sayd Baifield declared or propoūded no cause, but said, þt he brought ouer those bookes for lacke of money, and not to sowe any heresies. And incontinent the sayd Bayfield with a vehement spirite (as it appeared) sayde vnto the Byshop of Lond. MarginaliaThe saying of Rich. Bayfilde to the Byshop of London.the life of you of the spiritulatie is so euill, that yee be heretickes, and ye doe not onely liue euill, but doe maintaine euill liuing, and also do let, that what true lyuing is, may not be knowen, & saide that their liuing is agaynst Christes Gospell, and that their beliefe was neuer taken of Christes Church. Then the sayde Byshop, after long deliberation had, for so much as the sayd Rich. Bayfield (he sayd) could shew no cause why he should not be declared as relaps, he read the decree and sentence against him: MarginaliaSentence against Rich. Bayfilde. by the which amongest other thinges, he condemned him as an heretike, and pronounced him to be punished with the punishment due vnto such as fall againe into heresie, and by his wordes did disgrade him, and also declared that hee shoulde be actually disgraded, as is more at large conteined in the long sentence.

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The foresayd sentence being so read by the Byshop of London, he proceeded immediatly to the actual & solemne disgradyng of the sayd Richard Bayfild, aliâs Somersam, and there solemnely and actually disgraded him before the people, the which thing being done, he dismissed him by the sentence aforesayd, from the Ecclesiasticall Court. Wherupon the secular power being there present, receiued him vnto their iurisdiction, without any writte in that behalfe obtained, but only by vertue of the Byshops letters by the

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