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Giles Harrison

Beer brewer to the king; of St Botolph's without Aldgate and the Red Lion in St Katherine's; presented in 1541 because he had performed mass for his friends in the pub [Fines]

Giles Harrison was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1205.

Harrison was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

 
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John Porter

Tailor of Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire and St Sepulchre's; arrested in 1540 for reading the bible aloud in St Paul's; rearrested 1542; starved to death [Fines]

Porter could read well and had an audible voice, and so was in demand for reading the bible in St Paul's. Bonner accused him of interpreting scripture in his reading and had him imprisoned. He was cast in irons and died in prison. 1563, p. 621; 1570, p. 1381; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

 
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John Taylor

(1503? - 1554) [ODNB]

DTh Cambridge 1538; rector of St Peter's Cornhill 1536; master of St John's (1538 - 47); royal chaplain by 1543; dean of Lincoln 1539

Bishop of Lincoln (1552 - 54); deprived

John Lambert attended a sermon preached by John Taylor at St Peter's in London in 1538. Lambert put ten articles to him questioning transubstantiation. Taylor conferred with Robert Barnes, who persuaded Taylor to put the matter to Archbishop Cranmer. Cranmer called Lambert into open court, where he was made to defend his cause. 1563, pp. 532-33; 1570, pp. 1280-81; 1576, p. 1095; 1583, p. 1121.

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John Taylor was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. He was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

Taylor was one of the accusers of Thomas Dobbe at St John's. 1563, p. 685; 1570, p. 1486; 1576, p. 1260; 1583, p. 1297.

 
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Nicholas South

Priest of All Hallows, Lombard Street; charged in 1541 and sent to the Fleet [Fines]

Nicholas South was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

 
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Sir Thomas Audley

(1487/8 - 1544) [ODNB]

Attorney of the duchy of Lancaster; speaker of the House of Commons; lord chancellor (1533 - 44); baron Audley of Walden (1538 - 44)

Thomas Audley was elected speaker of the House of Commons in 1530. He was sent, with 30 other members of the House, to the king to complain of slurs cast upon them by the clergy when the Commons proposed a bill relating to probate. 1570, pp. 1130-31; 1576, p. 968; 1583, pp. 994-95.

Thomas Temys asked parliament to urge the king to take Queen Catherine back as his wife. The king replied via the speaker, Sir Thomas Audley. The king also had the speaker read in the Commons the two oaths taken by clergy, one to the pope and one to the king, to demonstrate that they were irreconcilable. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1197; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1053.

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After the deprivation of Sir Thomas More, Audley was made lord chancellor. 1563, p. 509; 1570, p. 1198; 1576, p. 1025; 1583, p. 1054.

John Chapman was imprisoned for five weeks, three of them in the stocks, but was released after an appeal to the lord chancellor, Lord Audley. 1563, p. 506; 1570, pp. 1179-80; 1576, pp. 1008-09; 1583, p. 1036.

Many were imprisoned in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. They were released after Lord Audley had obtained pardons from the king. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

Thomas Audeley discharged the men of Calais imprisoned in the Fleet and brought them the king's pardon, although they were deprived of their livings. 1563, p. 668; 1570, p. 1406; 1576, p. 1198; 1583, p. 1228.

 
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Thomas Lancaster

Priest; BTh Oxford by 1536; rector of Offekerque in the Pale of Calais (1536 - 40), where he was introduced to Adam Damplip; imprisoned for bringing books over to England; bishop of Kildare (1550 - 54); chaplain to Elizabeth I; treasurer of Salisbury (1559 - 83); archbishop of Armagh (1567 - 83) [Fines; ODNB]

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As Adam Damplip was returning to England from Rome, he passed through Calais and met William Stevens and Thomas Lancaster, who urged him to stay for a while to preach to the people there. 1563, p. 656; 1570, p. 1400; 1576, p. 1194; 1583, p. 1223.

Thomas Lancaster was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. He was charged in 1541. 1570, p. 1379; 1576, p. 1176; 1583, p. 1205.

Thomas Lancaster was imprisoned in the Counter for importing illicit books. 1563, p. 420; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

 
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Thomas Some (Solme)

Augustinian canon of St Osyth's, Essex; published a treatise in 1540; imprisoned; in July 1547 Bonner burned the treatise; Marian exile [Fines]

Thomas Solme was one of those charged in London in the inquisition following the setting up of the commission to enforce the Six Articles. He was imprisoned. 1570, p. 1380; 1576, p. 1178; 1583, p. 1206.

1230 [1206]

K. Henry. 8. Alex. Seton, Taylor, South, Somes, Gyles. Iohn Porter Martyr.

is will) God worketh without vs, and besides vs. The other two he worketh in vs, and wyth vs. Marginalia1. Will. 2. Consent. 3. Deede. And here he alledged S. Augustine, to proue that we can will nothing þt is good. MarginaliaNo will in man of himselfe to do good. Moreouer he said, thou hast not one iot, no not one title to do any good.

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There is nothing in heauen, nor earth, creature nor other, that can be any meane towardes our iustification nor can or may satisfy God the father for our sinne, saue onely Christ, and the shedding of his bloud.

MarginaliaOur workes merite nothing to saluation.He that preacheth that workes doe merite, or be any meane to our saluation, or any part of our iustificatiō preacheth a doctrine of the deuill.

If any thing els saue onely Christ, be any meane towards our iustificatiō, then did not Christ only iustify vs.

I say that thy good woorkes, nor any thing that thou canst do, can be one iot or title towards thy iustificatiō. For if they be, then is not Christ a full iustifier, and that I will proue hy a familier example. Be it in case that I haue. 2. seruantes, the one is called Iohn, and the other Robert, & I promise to send you such a day xx. l. by Iohn my seruant and at my day I send you by Iohn my seruant xix. l. xix. s. xi. d. ob. q. and there lacketh but one farthing, which Robert doth bring thee, and so thou hast thy xx. l. euery penye and farthing. Yet will I aske if I be true of my promise, or no, and thou mayst say nay. And why? because I promised to send thee that whole, xx. pound by Iohn and did not, for there lacked a farthing, which Robert brought. Wherefore I say, if thy workes do merite or bring one litle iot or title toward thy iustification, then is Christ false of his promise, which sayd that he would do altogether.

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One Scripture I will bring you (which they can not writhe) to proue that Christ was onely promised to be our onely Iustifier, our onely meane, and that is in the xxij. of Genesis 

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Genesis 22:18.

, where it is written: In thy seede shall all people bee blessed, meaning therby onely Christ: and he said not in thy seedes, nor in the workes of thy seedes. Wherfore all they that preach, that workes be any part or meane toward our iustification, do make God false of his promise.

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They that preach that works do merit, do make works the tree, which are but the fruits of iustice, wrought by him that is already a iust man, which can not chuse but brynge forth good fruit.

I would aske a question, whether he that worketh be a good mā, or bad, for he must be one of them. MarginaliaGood fruites make not a good man, but a good man cannot chuse but to make good fruites.If he be a good man, he can not chuse but bring forth good fruites: if he be an ill mā, he can bring forth no fruit, but ill fruit, for a good tree cannot bring forth ill fruit.

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He that sayth that works do merit any thing towards our saluation, doth make workes checke mate with Christ MarginaliaMans workes made checkmate with christ & plucketh from Christ that is his, & geueth it to workes. Some will aske, wherfore then should I do good workes? I aunswere, good workes are to be done for no cause els, but onely for the glory of God, and not that they do merite any thing at all. And he that sayth that workes are to bee done for any other cause, thē for the glory of God only and will haue thē to merite, or be any meane towardes our iustification, I say he lyeth, and beleue him not.

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He that cā shew me in any scripture, that works do me rite, or by any meane to our iustification: for the first scripture I will (without any further iudgemēt) lose both mine eares, for the second, my toung, and for the third my necke. For I dare say he cannot prooue in all the whole scripture one title: wherfore beleue them not.

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MarginaliaThe Papistes belye the protestantes, as though they denyed good workes.Men say that we deny good workes, and fasting, and prayer. They lye on vs, we deny nothing but popish workes, and popish fasting, and popish prayer, & he that preacheth that works do merite, or fasting doth merite, or prayer doth merite, doth preach a popish doctrine.

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If you aske when we will leaue preaching of workes, euen when they do leaue to preach that works do merite, & suffer Christ to be a whole satisfier, & only mean to our iustification, & till thē, we will not cease in Gods cause to set forth onely Christ to be a ful & perfect, & onely satisfaction.

MarginaliaGood workes how they be rewarded.If you aske, if good works shalbe rewarded, I say yea, and with no lesse then eternall glory, but for no merit that they deserue, for they deserue nothing: but only because god hath promised, not for the merite of the worke, but for hys promise sake, and he will not breake his promise.

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Other articles gathered out of Setons Sermons.

MarginaliaOther articles out of Setons sermons.TOuching reconciliation spoken of by D. Smith, preaching in the forenoone at Paules crosse, Alexander Seton preaching at afternoone, at S. Anthonies, & recityng his sayings & scriptures, reproued him for alledging thys saying, Recōciliamini deo, 

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2 Corinthians 5:20.

& englishing the same thus, Marginalia2. Cor. 5.recōcile your selues to God: because it is there spoken passiuely, & not actiuely, so that there should be nothing in man perteining to reconciliation, but all in God.

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Also reprouing the sayd D. Smith, for that the said D. said, that man by his good works might merite. Which saying of D. Smith, the sayd Alexander Setō reproued in the pulpit at S. Anthonies, the 13. day of Nouember, the yere of our Lord 1541. as noughtely spoken.

Moreouer the sayd Alexander Seton sayd in the same place, that it was shame that any such preacher shoulde be suffered so openly to preach such erroneous doctrine, as to say that workes should merite, adducing: non sunt condignæ passiones, &c. Et postquam feceritis omnia. &c.

Finally Seton said, peraduēture ye will say the church hath determined this matter touching workes. And I say (quoth he) that it is Ecclesia malignantium, 

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Vulgate Psalm 26:2: a term used by John Wyclif, and following him many others, to describe the 'false church' which existed in opposition to the true Church. Richard Bauckham, Tudor Apocalypse: sixteenth century apocalypticism, millenarianism and the English Reformation (Oxford, 1978), esp. pp. 32, 57-8.

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so determining any thing agaynst scripture.

To these pretēsed obiectiōs of his aduersaryes, he made his answere again by writing, first denying many thinges there presented, taking vpon his conscience, that he neuer spake diuers of those words: and again many things, that he neuer ment to such end nor purpose, as in þe said register may appeare. But all this notwithstanding, for all that he could say for himself, the ordinary proceded in his cōsistory iudgement, ministring to him certain Interogatories (after the popish course) to þe number of x. articles The greatest matter laid against him was for preaching free iustificatiō by fayth in Christ Iesu, agaynst false cōfidēce in good works, & mans fre wil. Also it was layd vnto him, for affirming þt priuate masses & diriges, & other prayers profited not þe soules departed: MarginaliaSeton bearing a fagot at Paules crosse.so that in the end, he with Tolwing aforesaid was caused to recant at paules crosse. an. 1541.

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Adde to these aforesayd, D. Taylor Parson of S. Peters in
Cornehill.
South, 
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This is a mysterious case which does not appear in this form in any of the subsequent lists of Six Articles victims. 1570 and subsequent editions do list 'South, Parishe Priest of All halovves in Lumbardstreete' as one of those who was imprisoned for the Six Articles (1570, p. 1380), but this Nicholas South was plainly a layman.

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Parish priest of Allhallowes in Lombardstreet.
Some, Priest.
Giles, 
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Listed above.

the kinges Beerebrewer at the redde Lion, in S. Ka-
therines.
Tho. Lancaster, 
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Also listed above.

Priest.
All which were imprisoned like-
wise for the 6. Articles.

MarginaliaAll prisons in London to little to hold them that were taken for the vi. articles.To be short, such a number out of all parishes in Lōdō & out of Calice: and diuers other quarters, were thē apprehended through the sayd Inquisitiō, that al prisons in Lōdon were to litle to hold thē, in so much that they were fain to lay thē in the Halles. At the last by the meanes of good L. Audley, such pardō was obteined of the king, that þe said MarginaliaThe Lord Audly Lord Chauncellour of England.L. Audley, thē L. Chancellor, being contēt that one should be bound for another, they were all discharged, being boūd onely to appere in the starre chamber the next day after Al soules, there to answer if they were called: but neither was there any person called, neither did there any appeare.

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¶ The story of Iohn Porter, cruelly Martyred for reading the Bible in Paules. 
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Foxe's sources for this narrative are unclear, although it appears he had more than one. A much briefer account of Porter was given in 1563. The statement here that Porter is 'in the number of these aforenamed' suggests that this case, too, draws on London diocesan records which are now lost. However, Foxe also had some information from a kinsman of Porter's, also named Porter, living without Newgate in 1570: this is possibly Porter's brother, also John Porter, who attempted to secure his brother's release in 1542 (Trinity College, Cambridge, MS R3.33 fo. 134r). This kinsman may or may not also be the source for Foxe's account of Porter's torment and death, which he claims was 'signified unto us by credible information'. He could have gathered dark conspiracy theories about Porter's death, if not this level of gruesome detail, from Bale, Yet a course at the romyshe foxe, fos. 41r-v, 66r.

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MarginaliaA story of Iohn Porter Martyr.IN the number of these aforenamed, commeth the remēbraunce of Iohn Porter, who in the same yeare 1541. 

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1542.

for reading the Bible in Paules Church, was cruelly handled and that vnto death, as you shall heare. It was declared in this history aboue, pag. 1162. how Edm. Boner Bishop of London (in the dayes of the L. Cromwell) beyng then Ambassador at Paris, was a great Doer in setting forward the Printing of the Bible in the great volume: promising moreouer, that he would for his part haue 6. of those Bibles set vp in the Church of S. Paule in London. Which also at his comming home, he no lesse performed, according to MarginaliaThe bible commaunded by the king to be set vp in Churches. Read before pag. 1069.the kinges proclamation set foorth for the same, whereof read before, pag. 1069.

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The bibles thus standing in Paules by the commaūdement of the king, and the appointment of Boner the bishop, many well disposed people vsed much to resort to the hearing therof, especially whē they could get any that had an audible voyce to read vnto thē, misdoubting therin no daunger toward them: and no more there was, so long as the dayes of Cromwell lasted. After he was gone, it happened amongest diuers and sondry godly disposed personnūs, which frequented there the reading of the foresayd Bible. that one Iohn Porter vsed sometimes to be occupyed in that godly exercise, to the edefying as well of himselfe, as of other. This Porter was a freshe young man, and of a bigge stature. MarginaliaAnn. 1541. Who by diligent reading of the Scripture, and by hearing of such Sermons as then were preached by them that were the setters forth of Gods truth, became very expert. The Bible then being set vppe by Boners commaundement vpon diuers pillers in Paules Church fixed vnto the same with cheines for all men to read in thē þt would, MarginaliaI. Porter a great reader in the Bible at Paules.great multitudes woulde resort thither to heare this Porter, because he could read well and had an audible voyce. Boner & his chappeleines being greued withall (& the world beginning then to frowne vppon the Gospel-

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lers